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34 Cards in this Set

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Type II hyperlipoproteinemia:
increase LDL due to decrease in LDL receptors
Type III hyperlipoproteinemia:
deficiency apoE; increase remnants
Type IV hyperlipoproteinemia:
increase VLDL; most common lipid disorder
C-reactive protein:
excellent marker of disrupted fibrous plaques
Abdominal aorta:
most common site for atherosclerosis
Aortic arch aneurysm:
tertiary syphilis; vasculitis of vasa vasorum
Angiomyolipoma:
Kidney hamartoma composed of blood vessels, muscle, and mature adipose tissue. Association with tuberous sclerosis
Angiosarcoma:
Liver angiosarcoma associated with exposure to polyvinyl chloride, arsenic, thorium dioxide
Bacillary angiomatosis:
Benign capillary proliferation involving skin and visceral organs in AIDS patients. Stimulates Kaposi sarcoma in AIDS. Caused by Bartonella henselae, a gram-negative bacillus
Capillary hemangioma:
Facial lesion in newborns that regresses with age
Cavernous hemangioma:
Most common benign tumor of liver and spleen. May rupture if large
Cystic hygroma:
Lymphangioma in the neck associated with Turner's syndrome
Glomus tumor:
Derive from arteriovenous shunts in glomus bodies. Painful red subungual nodule in a digit
Hereditary telangiectasia (AD):
Dilated vessels on skin and mucous membranes in mouth and gastrointestinal tract. Chronic iron deficiency anemia
Kaposi sarcoma:
Malignant tumor arising from endothelial cells or primitive mesenchymal cells. Associated with human herpesvirus type 8. Raised, red-purple discoloration that progresses from a flat lesion to a plaque to a nodule that ulcerates. Common site include skin, mouth, and gastrointestinal tract
Lymphangiosarcoma:
Malignancy of lymphatic vessels. Arises out of longstanding chronic lymphedema after modified radical mastectomy
Pyogenic granuloma:
Vascular, red pedunculated mass that ulcerates and bleeds easily. Post-traumatic or associated with pregnancy (relation to estrogen); usually regress postpartum
Spider telangiectasia:
Arteriovenous fistula (disappears when compressed). Associated with hyperestrinism (e.g. cirrhosis, pregnancy physiologic)
Sturge-Weber syndrome:
Nevus flammeus ("birthmark") on face in distribution of ophthalmic branch of cranial nerve V (trigeminal). Ipsilateral malformation of pia mater vessels overlying occipital and parietal lobes
Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome (AD):
Cavernous hemangiomas in cerebellum and retina. Increased indicence of pheochromacytoma and bilateral renal cell carcinomas
Takayasu's arteritis ("pulseless disease"):
Granulomatous large vessel vasculitis involving aortic arch vessels (blocks). Absent upper extremity pulse, visual defects, stroke
Giant cell (temporal) arteritis:
Granulomatous large vessel vasculitis involving superficial temporal and ophthalmic arteries. Temporal headache, jaw claudication, Blindness, Polymyalgia rheumatica (muscle and joint pain)
Polyarteritis nodosa:
Necrotizing medium-sized vessel vasculitis. HBsAg (30%) Chronic Hep B. Focal vasculitis produces aneurysms; Organ infarction in kidneys (hematuma), heart, bowels, skin.
Kawasaki disease:
Necotizing medium-sized vessel vasculitis involving coronary arteries. Desquamating rash, swelling of hands and feet, cervical adenopathy, oral erythema; Cortocosteroids contraindicated
Thromboangiitis obliterans (Buerger's disease):
Medium sized vessel vasculitis with digital vessel thrombosis (fingers/toes). Food claudation, Raynaud's phenomenon, ulceration, gangrene
Raynaud's disease:
Medium-sized vessel vasculitis involving digital vessels in fingers and toes. Paroxysmal digital color changes; Ulceration and gangrene in chronic cases
Raynaud's phenomenon:
Medium sized vessel vasculitis involving digital vessels in fingers and toes. Systemic sclerosis and CREST syndrome: digital vasculitis with vessel fibrosis, dystrophic calcification, ulceration, gangrene
Wegener's granulomatosis:
Necrotizing medium-sized and small vessel vasculitis. Necrotizing vasculitis in upper respiratory tract (saddle nose deform), lower respiratory tract, kidneys; Necrotizing granulomas in upper respiratory tract (saddle nose deformity), lungs c-ANCA
Microscopic polyangiitis:
small vessel vasculitis involving skin, lung, brain, GI tract, and postcapillary venules and glomerular capillaries. Same stage of inflammation; Palpable purpura, glomerulonephritis p-ANCA
Churg-Strauss syndrome:
small vessel vasculitis involving skin, lung, heart vessels. Allergic rhinitis, asthma; p-ANCA antibodies, eosinophilia
Henoch-Schonlein purpura:
Small vessel vasculitis involving skin, GI tract, renal, join vessels. IgA immunocomplexes. Palpable purpura of buttocks and lower extremeties; Polyarthritis, glomerulonephritis, GI bleeding
Cryoglobulinemia:
small vessel vasculitis involving skin, GI tract, renal vessels. Association with HCV, type I MPGN. Cryoglobulins: immunoglobulins; palpable purpura, acral cyanosis of nose and ears
Serum Sickness:
Small vessel vasculitis involving immunocomplex deposition in skin vessels. Fever, urticaria with vasculitis, arthralgia, GI pain with melena
Infectious vasculitis:
small vessel vasculitis involving skin vessels. Rocky Mountain spotted fever: tick Rickettsia rickettsiae; petechiae on palms spread to trunk; Disseminated meningococcemia; Capillary thrombosis