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96 Cards in this Set

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What was the Magna Carta?
Signed in 1215; included written rights of citizens (peasants were not included) and limited the autority and power of the monarch - nobles were given grants of land in exchange for service to the king
What was the Glorious Revolution?
Parliment's power is now greater than the throne
What was the Boston Tea Party?
In 1773, a group of colonists dressed as Native Americans and dumped 342 chests of British tea into Boston Harbor to protest the taxes on tea
What is Thomas Jefferson known for?
Main writer for the Declaration of Independence
What legislative body drew up the English Bill of Rights in 1689?
Parliment
What marked the beginning of self-government in colonial America?
House of Burgesses
What was mercantilism?
The theory that a country should sell more goods to other countries than it buys.
What was the House of Burgesses? Why is it important?
Formed 1st representative democracy in America. It was the beginning of self-government in colonial America
What was the Stamp Act?
Great Britain required colonists to attach expensive tax stamps to all newspapers and legal documents
What was the Declaratory Act?
Parliament had the right to tax and make decisions for the American colonies "in all cases"
What were the Townshend Acts?
levied new taxes on goods imported to the colonies. (basic items)
Who wrote Common Sense?
Thomas Paine
Who was Daniel Shays? What did he do?
Daniel Shays was a former war hero who led 1200 farmers to rebel. Massachusetts had to use its own state militia to stop the rebellion (no help from Congress)
What were the Intolerable Acts? What was another name for these acts?
Parliament passed this act in responce to the Boston Tea Party which restricted the colonists' rights, including the right to trial by jury. AKA the Coercive Acts
What is common law?
a system of law based on precedent and customs
What was the Mayflower Compact?
A written plan for government signed by the colonists on the Mayflower.
What was the 1st Continental Congress?
They met in Philly sent a document to King George to demand the rights of the colonists be restored and made plans to extend the boycott of British goods. They vowed to hold a meeting if their needs were not met by the following year.
What was the 2nd Continental Congress?
May 1775, in Philly, they made the declaration of independence.
What was the 1st constitution of the United States?
The Articles of Confederation
Who was the oldest delegate to attend the Constitutional Convention?
Benjamin Franklin
Who was chosen to preside over the Constitutional Convention?
George Washington
Which state (colony) chose not to attend the Constitutional Convention?
Rhode Island
Where was the convention held?
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Who opposed the new Constitution? Who was in favor of the Constitution?
Anti-Federalists, Federalists
Who was Patrick Henry? Did he attend the convention?
He was a prominent Virginian who was elected as a delegate but he was against the convention so he did not attend.
Describe the Virginia Plan.
President, courts, and bicameral legislature; represnetation based on population. Favored by the larger states.
Describe the New Jersey Plan.
Federal executive (more than one person); courts; unicameral lagislature with equal representation (similar to the Articles). Favored by the smaller states.
What did a committee headed by Roger Sherman of Connecticut propose at the convention?
The great compromise/ the Connecticut compromise which became the basis for the Constitution.
What was the Three Fifths Compromise?
It said that each enslaved person counted as three fifths of a person. It was favored by the southern states and was included in representation.
What are implied powers?
powers that Congress has that are not stated ecplicitly in the Constitution
What are reserved powers?
powers that the Constitution does not give to the national government that are kept by the states.
What are enumerated or expressed powers?
powers specifically granted to the national government
What power is to interpret the Constitution?
Judicial branch
What is precedent?
a ruling in an earlier case that was similar
What is the rule of law?
law applies to everyone, even those who govern
What is the Electoral College?
a group of people who would be named by each state legislature to select the president and vice president
What does Article I of the Constitution describe? Article II? Article III?
Article I- powers of the legislative branch
Article II- powers of the executive branch
Article III- powers of the judicial branch
What are the Bill of Rights?
1st 10 amendments
What is popular sovereignty?
power lies with the people
What is separation of powers?
separation of legislative, executive, and judicial branches
What are checks and balances?
each branch of government is able to check, or restrain the power of the others
What are the freedoms guaranteed to us by the 1st amendment?
religion, assembly, petition, press, speech
What does the 2nd Amendment guarantee?
The right to bare arms
What does the 3rd Amendment guarantee?
No quartering of troops
What does the 4th Amendment guarantee?
Privacy amendment (protects against unreasonable searches and seizures)
What does the 5th Amendment guarantee?
Rights of the accused (grand jury, double jeopardy, self-incrimination, due process, eminent domain)
What does the 6th Amendment guarantee?
Speedy and public trial, impartial jury, know charges against them,
What does the 7th Amendment guarantee?
Jury trial in a civil case
What does the 8th Amendment guarantee?
Excessive bail and fines; cruel and unusual punishment
What does the 9th Amendment guarantee?
Specifies rights in the Constitution are not the only rights of the people
Amendment 10
Reserved rights of the states
What are the limits to Freedom of Speech?
When someone says harmful things like yelling "bomb" in a crowded area, slander
What are the limits to Freedom of Press?
libel, false information
What is a search warrant?
a court order allowing law enforcement officers to search a suspect's home or business and take specific items as evidence.
What is double jeopardy?
people who are accused of a crime and judged not guilty may not be put on trial again for the same crime.
Which amendment guarantees a lawyer to a person charged with a crime?
Amendment 6
What was the 19th Amendment?
women's suffrage (right to vote)
What are civil liberties?
freedoms to think and act without government interfernce or fear of unfair legal treatment
What is eminent domain?
the right of the government to take private property- usually land- for public use
What is racial profiling?
singling out an individual as a suspect due to appearance of ethnicity
PREAMBLE
We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.
Amendment 13
ended slavery
Amendment 14
defined citizenship (natural born or naturalized)
Amendment 15
suffrage for black males
Amendment 17
senators elected directly by the people
Amendment 19
women's suffrage
Amendment 23
citiznes of DC could now vote in Presidential elections
Amendment 24
poll taxes illegal (could still use literacy tests)
Amendment 26
voting age for 21 to 18
1st 2 battles of Revolutionary War
Lexington and Concord
colonial government
legislature and governor
2 Houses in Great Britain Parliament
House of Commons and House of Lords
To cancel a law
repeal
2nd permanent settlement
Plymouth, Massachusetts
vote approval of
ratify
British East India company gets tea cheaper
Tea Act
1st permanent colony
Jamestown
persuade citizens to vote for ratification
Federalist Papers
12th state to ratify constitution
NC
9th state to ratify constitution
NH
Amendment 11
limits on lawsuits against the states
Amendment 12
revised procedure for election of President and Vice President
Amendment 16
gave Congress power to levy income taxes
Amendment 18
Prohibition
Amendment 20
changed the date of congressional and presidential terms
Amendment 21
repealed the 18th Amendment
limits the President to 2 terms
22nd Amendment
Amendment 25
sucession plan for the presidency
Amendment 27
delays congressional pay raises until the term following their passage
Article 1
Powers of Congress
Article 2
Powers of the President
Article 3
Powers of the Supreme Court
Article 4
relationship between national and state governments
Article 5
amending the Constitution
Article 6
general provisions about the government
Article 7
Constitution will take effect once 9 out of the 13 states approve it