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79 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
2 major subdivisions of the respiratory system:
-Conducting portion
-Respiratory portion
What is the function of the conducting passages?
To condition the air and transport it to more distal respiratory passages.
What is the characteristic feature of the Respiratory passages?
They have alveoli where gas exchange occurs.
What is the dividing line between the upper and lower resp tracts in clinical use?
The oropharynx
How is air conditioned as it passes thru the conducting passages?
-Foreign substances get removed
-Air is humidified
-Air is warmed
What are 3 additional physiologic functions of the lungs other than gas exchange?
-Production of chemical messengers i.e. ACE
-Speech sounds
-Regulation of acid-base balance
What terms denote conducting passages outside or within the lungs?
Extrapulmonary vs Intrapulmonary passages.
What lines the air conducting passages?
A mucosa
What is the mucosa lining the conducting passages associated with?
Lymphatic tissue and other defense related cells.
What is the mucosa attached to?
Supporting tissues like bone and cartilage.
6 steps in the Extrapulmonary Passages:
1. Nasal cavities
2. Paranasal sinuses
3. Nasopharynx
4. Oropharynx
5. Larynx
6. Trachea
What happens to air in the nasal cavities?
It is warmed, moistened and filtered
What important sense is in the nasal cavities?
Smell - olfaction
What type of epithelium lines the nasal vestibule?
Stratified squamous keratinized epithelium
What are Vibrissae?
Stiff hairs within the stratified squamous keratinized epithelium lining the nasal vestibule.
What lines most of the nasal CAVITY? (beyond the vestibule)
Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar Epithelium
What important cells are in the Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium of the nasal cavities?
What is the goblet cell-containing epithelium called?
Respiratory Epithelium
Where is Respiratory Epithelium found?
Lining MOST of the conducting passages
What covers the Respiratory Epithelium?
A bilayer of mucus and serous fluid.
Which layer is most external?
What happens when particles get trapped in mucus?
It is transported to the pharynx by the underlying serous fluid.
What happens to serous fluid?
It is moved by the beating cilia under it in the epithelial cells to be swallowed or spit.
What is the ciliary driven mucous air cleaner called?
What is underneath the respiratory epithelium?
A lamina propria
What 3 important structures are in the lamina propria?
-Seromucous glands
-Vascular plexus
-Collagen fibers
What is the function of the vascular plexus?
To warm inspired air
What is the function of the collagen fibers?
To firmly attach the nasal cavity mucosa to the underlying periosteum.
What happens to the nasal mucosa during inflammatory and allergic reactions?
It swells and restricts airflow
5 cell types in the Respiratory Epithelium:
1. Ciliated columnar
2. Goblet
3. Basal stem cells
4. Brush cells
5. Small granule cells
How is the mucosa in the superior portion of the nasal cavity different from the rest of the respiratory epithelium?
It is olfactory mucosa
What special cells are in the olfactory mucosa?
Olfactory cells
What are olfactory cells?
Bipolar neurons
-Axon at their base
-Knob at apex w/ cilia
What does the lamina propria of olfactory cells contain?
Oderant Binding Protein secreted from serous glands.
What happens when an oderant binds to an oderant binding protein?
They together bind to specific oderant receptors on the cilia of olfactory cells.
What happens when an Oderant/OBP bind their receptor?
Gated Na Channels open and stimulate the nervous system.
What color is the olfactory mucosa in the living state?
Yellow brown
What lines the paranasal sinuses?
A thinner version of the respiratory mucosa.
What type of mucosa lines the Nasopharynx?
More respiratory mucosa
What is abundant in the lamina propria underlying the respiratory mucosa in the nasopharynx?
Lymphatic tissue
What structures are at the back of the nasopharynx?
The pharyngeal tonsils - ADENOIDS
What happens to the respiratory epithelium at the junction of the naso- / oropharynx?
It becomes stratified squamous nonkeratinized
Why are the epiglottis and vocal folds covered by stratified squamous epithelium?
To protect them against abrasion during speaking.
What lines the internal larynx?
Normal pseudostratified columnar respiratory epithelium.
What is Reinke's Space?
The superficial layer of the lamina propria in the vocal folds
Why does Reinke's Space lack vessels and elastic fibers?
Because it facilitates vocal cord vibration.
What happens when fluid fills Reinke's Space?
What type of cells are unusually abundant in the lamina propria of the larynx?
Mast cells
What do we call inflammation of the laryngeal mucosa?
What do we call inflammation of the mucosa in the larynx/trachea and bronchi of children?
What are the 4 layers of the walls in the trachea?
1. Mucosa (respiratory)
2. Submucosa
3. Cartilage
4. Adventitia
Why is the basement membrane of the trachea mucosa thick?
Because it has an expanded reticular layer.
What is in the trachea submucosa?
Loose CT
What separates the trachea's submucosa from the mucosa?
An elastic membrane
Where are the seromucous glands in the trachea?
In the submucosa
What supports the tracheal airway?
Several C-shaped hyaline cartilages
What bridges the free ends of the C-shaped cartilages?
-Smooth muscle
-Fibroelastic tissue
What is metaplastic respiratory epithelium?
The result of transformation of the resp epithelium into stratified squamous instead of pseudostratified cuboidal.
What causes metaplasia of the respiratory epithelium?
Alteration of the airflow pattern due to chronic coughing associated w/ bronchitis or smoking.
What are the INTRAPULMONARY conducting passages?
Bronchi and Bronchioles
What are the layers of the walls of the Bronchi?
1. Mucosa
2. Muscularis
3. Submucosa
4. Cartilage
5. Adventitia
What type of mucosa is in the bronchi?
Respiratory epithelium
What happens to the resp epithelium in lower bronchi?
Its cuboidal cells become lower.
What distinguishes Bronchi from Bronchioles?
Bronchioles don't have cartilage plates (intrapulmonary bronchi) or rings (extrapulm bronchi)
What is the mucosa of bronchioles like?
Epithelial cells range from ciliated simple columnar to cuboidal; occasional goblets.
What are Clara cells?
Columnar cells with a dome-shaped apex and short microvilli
What is the product secreted by Clara cells?
Clara Cell Protein CC16
What is the function of CC16?
To protect the bronchiolar epithelium.
What do Clara cells contain?
Abundant RER with Cytochrome P450 that degrades toxins.
Where does the conducting portion of the lungs end?
At the most distal TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES.
What are 4 clinical conditions that affect the intrapulmonary conducting airways?
1. Chronic bronchitis
2. Asthma
3. Cystic fibrosis
4. Bronchial carcinoma
What causes chronic bronchitis?
Repeated damage to the mucosa
What results from chronic bronchitis?
-Airway wall thickening
-Mucous gland and smooth muscle hypertrophy or hypoplasia.
What is Asthma?
Hyperresponsiveness of the airways
What triggers asthma?
Repeated antigen exposure or abnormal autonomic regulation.
What is Cystic Fibrosis?
A recessive genetic disorder that results in COPD
Why does cystic fibrosis cause COPD?
Because a thick mucus is produced that blocks airways and traps bacteria causing infections.
What is the pathologic cause of the mucus production in CF?
Alteration of the CFTR chloride ion channel protein so that Cl and Na transport are abnormal and mucus is thicker.
What causes bronchial carcinoma?
Metaplasia due to chronic irritation or cancerous granule cells