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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the 4 components of the respiratory passages?
1. Respiratory bronchioles
2. Alveolar Ducts
3. Alveolar Sacs
4. Alveoli
What do Respiratory bronchioles branch from?
Terminal bronchioles
What lines the respiratory bronchioles?
Simple cuboidal epithelium that becomes nonciliated
Are there Clara cells in the epithelium of the respiratory bronchioles?
Yes - they become more predominant in the more distal portions of the respiratory bronchioles.
What are the bronchiole walls interrupted by occasionally?
What is a Pulmonary Lobule?
A terminal bronchiole and the lung tissue it supplies
What is a Pulmonary Acinus?
A portion of the lung that is supplied by a respiratory bronchiole
How are Pulmonary Lobules and Acini related?
One lobule contains several acini.
What do the terminal branches of respiratory bronchioles open into?
Alveolar ducts
What lines Alveolar ducts?
What is present between adjacent alveoli?
A small septum containing
-smooth muscle
-Reticular fibers
-Elastic tissue
What do alveolar ducts terminate as?
Alveolar sacs
Do alveolar sacs contain smooth muscle?
What type of fibers do alveolar sacs contain?
Type III collagen and Elastin
How many alveoli are in each lung?
150-300 million
What is the wall of an alveolus called?
The alveolar septum
What is the alveolar septum lined with?
Alveolar epithelium
What type of cells make up the alveolar epithelium?
Simple Squamous Type I and Type II Alveolar cells
What is another name for the simple squamous alveolar cells?
Which is the predominant type of pneumocyte lining the alveolar surfaces?
type I - 95% of the surface area is made up of them.
What joins adjacent Type I pneumocytes?
Occluding junctions
What is the function of Type II pneumocytes?
Production reabsorption and recycling of Pulmonary Surfactant
What is in the cytoplasm of Type II pneumocytes?
Lamellar bodies - apical secretory granules.
Are there fewer Type II pneumocytes in number?
No they just line less of the alveolar surface area - <5%
What is a very important function of Type II pneumocytes other than making surfactant?
They serve as the stem cells for both Type I and Type II pneumocytes.
What are Alveolar pores?
Occasional holes in the alveolar septum (walls)
What important system is found in the alveolar septum?
What cells are important for eating dust?
What are the 4 components of the blood-gas exchange barrier?
1. Pulmonary surfactant
2. Type I pneumocyte
3. Fused basement membranes
4. Capillary endothelial cells
What is pulmonary surfactant composed of?
-Proteins ABC and D
How do the phospholipids and proteins interact as surfactant?
The lipids float on a layer of proteins.
What happens to the alveolar cells following heart failure and pulmonary congestion?
RBCs extravasate into alveoli, get eaten by macrophages, and stain positively for iron.
What are the macrophages that eat RBCs after heart failure called?
Heart failure cells
What are 3 clinical conditions that affect the respiratory passages?
1. Emphesyma
2. Interstitial Fibrosis
3. Infections
What is Emphesyma characterised by?
Destruction of the alveolar septa leading to enlarged airways but decreased SA for gas exchange.
What causes the reduced elastic tissue in emphesyma?
Inhibition of alpha-antitrypsin which normally protects the elastic fibers from degradation.
Is emphesyma only caused by smoking?
No it can be caused by liver disease or genetic deficiency of a-antitrypsin.
What is Interstitial Fibrosis?
The progressive increase in collagen and elastin production by fibroblasts in the interalveolar septa.
What results from interstitial fibrosis?
Gas Exchange is impeded and hypoxia
What's the common lung infection that reduces the amount of gas exchange due to fluid accumulation within alveoli?