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119 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Transmission of polio
fecal oral
polioreplication site
oropharynx and small intestine
polio pathology
destructionof anterior horn of spinal cord, lmn destruction
symptoms of polio
nonspecific flu like
LMN lesion signs
muscle weakness
muscle atrophy
fasciculation
fibrillation
hyporeflexia
hypotony

UMN or LMN?
LMN
lab findings in polio
CSF with lymphatosis, elev prot

virus recovered from stool or throat
1 MS
2 Progressive multifocal leukoencephalaopathy (PML)--aids
3 acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (postinfectious)
4 Metachromatic leukodystrophy (lysosomal storage
5 Guillan-Barre

common pathology?
Demyelinating and dysmyelinating diseases
classic triad of MS
SIN:
Scanning speech
Intention tremor
Nystagmus
white chicks in 20's--30's
Treatment of MS
beta interferon or immusuppression
lab findings in Guillain barre
elevated CSF protein
normal cell count

*"albuminocytologic dissociation"

elevated protein -> papilledema
seizure with intact consciousnes
motor, sensory, autonomic, psychic sx
simple partial
seizure with impaired consciousness; 1 area of brain
complex partial
Blank stare seizure
petite mal--generalized
seizure with quick repetitive jerks
myoclonic--generalized
seizure with alternating stiffening and movement
tonic clonic--generalized
seizure with stiffening
tonic--generalized
"drop" seizure
atonic--generalized
hematoma type from rupture of middle meningeal artery
epidural hematoma
bleeding type from rupture of bridging veins
--shaken baby, trauma in elderly
subdural hematoma
bleeding type from rupture of aneurysm
subarachnoid
"worst headache of my life"

--bloody spinal tap
HTN
amyloid angiopathy
diabetes mellitus
tumor

causes of type hematoma?
parenchymal
genetic conditions associated with berry aneurysm
APKD
Ehlers Danlos
Marfans
most common primary brain tumor
glioblastoma multiforme
prognosis of glioblastoma multiforme
grave, under 1 year
staining method for glioblastoma
GFAP, it is grade IV astrocytoma
appearance of glioblastoma
pseudopalisading tumor cells--border central areas of necrosis and hemorrhage
2nd most common primary brain tumor
meningioma
tumor which most often occurs in convexivities of hemispheres and parasagittal region
meningioma
prognosis of meningioma
resectable
what cell type in meningioma
arachnoid
brain tumor with spindle cells concentrically arranged in a whorled pattern; psammoma bodies
meningioma
3rd most common primary brain tumor
schwannoma
bilateral schwannoma associated with what condition
neurofibromatosis type 2
brain tumor with "fried egg" cells
round nuclei with cytoplasm
often calcified
oligodendroma
brain tumor characterized by rosenthal fibers--eosinophilic corkscrew fibers
pilocytic astrocytoma
brain tumor with rosettes, or perivascular pseudorosette pattern of cells
medulloblastoma
highly malignant cerebellar tumor, form of primitive neuroctodermal tumor (PNET)
medulloblastoma
brain tumor with rod shaped blepharoplasts (basal ciliary bodies) found near nucleus
Ependymoma
Brain tumor with foamy cells and high vascularity
hemangioblastoma
tumor most often cerebellar
associated with von Hippel-Lindau syndrome
****when found with retinal angiomas
hemangioblastoma
brain tumor which can cause 2ndary polycythemia
hemangioblastoma

can produce EPO
Origin of craniopharyngioma
remnants of Rathke's pouch
glioblastoma multiforme
peak incidence in kids or adults?
adults
meningioma
peak incidence in kids or adults?
adults
schwannoma
peak incidence in kids or adults?
adults
oligodendroglioma
peak incidence in kids or adults?
adults
pituitary adenoma
peak incidence in kids or adults?
adults
pilocytic astrocytoma
peak incidence in kids or adults?
kids
medulloblastoma
peak incidence in kids or adults?
kids
ependymoma
peak incidence in kids or adults?
kids
hemangioblastoma
peak incidence in kids or adults?
kids
craniopharyngioma
peak incidence in kids or adults?
kids
UMN lesion
weakness?
yup
UMN lesion
Atrophy?
no
UMN lesion
fasciculations?
no
UMN lesion
Reflexes up or down?
up
UMN lesion
tone up or down?
up
UMN lesion
Babinski?
yes
LMN lesion
weakness?
yes
LMN lesion
atrophy?
yes
LMN lesion
fasciculation?
yes
LMN lesion
reflexes up or down?
down
LMN lesion
tone up or down?
down
LMN lesion
babinski?
no
diseases with lower motor neuron lesions only
due to destruction of anterior horns
flaccid paralysis
poliomyelitis and werdnig-Hoffman disease
disease with:
lesions of white matter mostly in cervical region
assymetric lesions
scanning speech
intention tremor
nystagmus
multiple sclerosis
disease with:
combined upper and lower motor neuron deficits with no sensory deficit
ALS
dx?
everything in spinal cord deficient but dorsal columns and tract of Lissauer
complete occlusion of ventral spinal artery
dx?
degeneration of dorsal roots and dorsal columns
impaired proprioception
locomotor ataxia
tabes dorsalis aka 3ary syphilis
dx?
bilateral loss of pain and temperature sensation
syringomyelia--crossing fibers of corticospinal tract damaged
ddx?
ataxic gait
hyperreflexia
impaired position and vibration sense
vitamin b12 neuropathy
Friedreich's ataxia
ddx?
demyelination of:
dorsal columns
lateral corticospinal tracts
spinocerebellar tracts
vitamin b12 neuropathy
friedreich's ataxia
syringomyelia most common region
C8-T1
syringomyelia associated condition
arnold chiari malformation
dx?
degeneration of dorsal columns and roots
shooting pain
argyll robertson pupils
tabes dorsalis aka tertiary syphilis
what is argyll robertson pupil
accomodates but does not react to light
dx?
below lesion:
ipsilateral umn signs
ipsilateral loss of tactile, vibration, proprioception
contralateral pain and temp loss
LMN signs at level of lesion
brown-sequard, hemisection of spinal cord
signs of horner's, 3
ptosis
anhidrosis and flushing
miosis
1st synapse of pathway affected in horners
synapse at T1 in IML
injury at shaft of humerus
expected deficit in motion?
wrist drop
**extensor carpi radialis longus
sensory deficit:
posterior brachial cutaneous
posterior antebrachial cutaneous

likely injury site?
shaft of humerus
nerve which passes thru supinator
radial
injury at supracondyle of humerus
nerve injury?
median--medial supracondyle
fracture at supracondyle of humerus
vascular injury>?
brachial artery
deficient forearm pronation

likely fracture site?
supracondyle of humerous
loss of sensation over
lateral palm and thumb.
radial 2 1/2 fingers

likely fracture site?
supracondyle of humerus
what nerve passes thru pronator teres?
median
median nerve passes thru what muscle
pronator teres
radial nerve passes thru what muscle?
supinator
hand of benediction
impaired wrist flexion and adduction
impaired adduction of thumb and ulnar 2 fingers

likely fracture site?
medial epicondyle of humerous
injury to medial epicondyle of humerus
what nerve damaged?
ulnar
loss of sensation over medial palm and 1/2 fingers
what nerve injury?
ulnar
ulnar nerve passes thru what muscle
flexor carpi ulnaris
what nerve passes thru flexor carpi ulnaris
ulnar
muscles innervated by musculocutaneous
coracobrachialis
biceps
brachialis
what nerve passes thru coracobrachialis
musculocutaneous
musculocutaneous passes thru what muscle
coracobrachialis
erb duchenne palsy
what injured?
upper trunk of brachial plexus
C5 C6

"waiter's tip"
findings of erb duchenne palsy
"waiters tip"

*hands by side (abductors)
*medially rotated (lateral rotators)
*pronated forearm (biceps)
Consequences of injury to common peroneal nerve
Loss of dorsiflexion and eversion

PED=Peroneal Everts and Dorsiflexion

foot dropPED
Nerve roots of common peroneal nerve
L4 S2
deep peroneal innervates what compartment?
anterior
superficial peroneal innervates what compartment
lateral
lateral compartment of leg innervated by what
superficial peroneal
anterior compartment of leg innervated by what
deep peroneal
consequence of loss of tibial nerve
loss of plantar flexion

TIP=Tibial Inverts and Plantarflexes

if injured can't stand on TIP toes
tibial nerve what roots?
L4-S3
tibial nerve innervates what compartment
posterior
posterior compartment of leg innervated by what nerve
tibial
medial longitudinal fasciculus
lesion what consequence?
on attempted lateral gaze:
nystagmus in abducting eye
--medial rectus palsy

*normal convergence
internuclear ophthalmoplegia
associated with what condition
MS

Mlf=Ms
Anxiety
neurotransmitter changes
NE up
GABA down
serotonin down
Depression
neurotransmitter changes
NE down
serotonin down
Schizophrenia
transmitter changes
dopamine up
Parkinson's disease
neurotransmitter changes
dopamine down
NE up
GABA down
serotonin down

what condition?
Anxiety
NE down
serotonin down

what condition?
Depression
dopamine up

what disease?
Schizophrenia
dopamine down

what disease?
Parkinson's disease