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68 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
a Dutch fort and fur trading outpost built near present-day Albany, New York.
Fort Orange (2)
a new corporation formed by Dutch merchants in 1621 to start a colony in New Netherlands.
Dutch West India Company (2)
the name of the territory that Henry Hudson claimed for the Dutch merchants who sponsored his voyage.
New Netherlands (2)
an English sailor who in 1609 tried to find the Northwest Passage for the Dutch merchants and claimed the territory he found as New Netherlands.
Henry Hudson (2)
an English widower and Jamestown settler who befriended Pocahontas when she was held hostage and later became her husband.
John Rolfe (2)
the name given to the period when the Jamestown settlers experienced the worst winter in 1610 and only 60 of the 500 people Smith had left in the fall remained alive.
"Starving Time" (2)
Chief Powhatan's favorite daughter, she helped Smith save Jamestown by bringing food and keeping peace with her people.
Pocahontas (2)
the powerful chief of the Native Americans who captured John Smith.
Powhatan (2)
the leader of the Jamestown settlement who was captured by the Powhatans.
John Smith (2)
the name given to the settlement in Virginia where 144 settlers from the London Company established their colony.
Jamestown (2)
the name of a group of merchants who formed a corporation to start a money-making colony in Virginia.
London Company (2)
the word the second settlers of Roanoke Island carved on the doorpost whose meaning remain a mystery.
Croatoan (2)
the leader of the second group of English colonists of Roanoke who sailed back to England for more supplies because they arrived too late in the season to plant crops.
John White (2)
an island off the present-day North Carolina where Sir Walter Raleigh tried to start a colony for England.
Roanoke (2)
an English noble who tried to start a colony on Roanoke Island off the coast of present-day North Carolina.
Sir Walter Raleigh (2)
an island off the coast of Canada where John Cabot, an Italian exploring for England discovered.
Newfoundland (2)
an Italian exploring for England who sailed to Newfoundland and Nova Scotia, off the coast of present-day Canada.
John Cabot (2)
the name Robert de LaSalle gave the vast area west of the Mississippi River for the French monarch, Louis XIV.
Louisiana (2)
a Frenchman who in 1682 explored the entire length of the Mississippi River claiming everything west of the river for France.
Robert de LaSalle (2)
one of two French explorers who in 1673 explored the great Mississippi River hoping that this waterway would be the long-sought Northwest Passage.
Louis Joliet (2)
one of two French explorers who in 1673 explored the great Mississippi River hoping that this waterway would be the long-sought Northwest Passage.
Father Marquette (2)
Native Americans who made friends with Samuel de Champlain and defeated the Iroquois with the help of the French.
Hurons (2)
"wood rangers" in French, they were fur trappers who pushed west of Canada in search of beavers.
Coureurs de Bois (2)
adventurers who capture and kill animals such as beavers, for their fur.
trappers (2)
the first settlement in New France founded by Samuel de Champlain to serve as a trading post and a base for French explorers, soldiers, missionaries, traders, and fur trappers.
Quebec (2)
a French explorer who in 1608 sailed up the St. Lawrence River and built a trading post he called Quebec.
Samuel de Champlain (2)
the name French explorer Jacques Cartier gave to the land we know today as Canada for France.
New France (2)
an all-water route through the North American continent to the Pacific Ocean which, when found would provide a shortcut for ships sailing west to Africa.
Northwest Passage (2)
an explorer sent in 1534 by the French to explore the Atlantic coastline of North America to find an all-water route through the North American continent to the Pacific Ocean.
Jacques Cartier (2)
Spanish settler who had made a fortune mining silver in Mexico, led the settlement of New Mexico in 1598.
Juan de Onate (2)
settlements built by Spanish missionary priests where they taught local Indians new skills and the Christian faith.
missions (2)
people who travel to a territory or community in order to make converts to their religion.
missionaries (2)
the oldest permanent settlement founded by Europeans in the United States built by a Spanish naval officer Pedro Menendez de Aviles as a Spanish fort.
Saint Augustine (2)
a Spanish naval officer who in 1565 was sent to Florida to protect the area from French explorers and was successful in driving them out of their Florida base and built a fort on the peninsula's Atlantic coast.
Pedro Menendez de Aviles (2)
walled forts where Spanish soldiers lived to protect Spain's claims when rival European nations began to show an interest in the land.
presidios (2)
a famed Spanish conquistador who in 1540 set out from Mexico City with a large expedition to find the Seven Cities of Cibola only to find Native American pueblos instead.
Francisco Vasquez de Coronado (2)
a Spanish priest who claimed to have seen the Seven Cities of Cibola, a shimmering golden city in what is now New Mexico.
Marcos de Niza (2)
taken from an old European tale, these cities were said to be so fabulously rich that the streets and houses were decorated with gold and jewels.
"Seven Cities of Cibola" (2)
a new settlement or territory established and governed by a country in another land.
colony (2)
a lush land on a sunny peninsula of North America that Ponce de Leon sighted on Easter Sunday in April 1513.
La Florida (2)
according to Indian rumors, this made old people young again and such stories led the explorer Juan Ponce de Leon to search for this mythical place.
"Fountain of Youth" (2)
an island in the Caribbean where Ponce de Leon discovered gold.
Puerto Rico (2)
leader of one of the first Spanish expeditions into North America who had sailed with Columbus to the Caribbean and tried to find the fabled "fountain of youth" only to land in present-day Florida.
Juan Ponce de Leon (2)
the last Inca ruler who was captured by Francisco Pizarro in exchange for gold.
Atahualpa (2)
a powerful empire in present-day Peru that was conquered by Francisco Pizarro with the help of smallpox in 1532.
Inca (2)
the present-day country where the once powerful Inca empire was located.
Peru (2)
a Spanish conquistador who, with the help of smallpox, conquered an empire in South America in 1532.
Francisco Pizarro (2)
the name given to the new Spanish empire in North America with Mexico City as its capital.
New Spain (2)
the great Aztec god that Hernan Cortes and his men were mistaken for.
Quetzalcoatl (2)
the beautiful Aztec capital city seeming to rise out of a sparkling lake conquered in 1519 by Hernan Cortes.
Tenochtitlan (2)
a Spanish conquistador who in 1519 arrived in Mexico and conquered the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan.
Hernan Cortes (2)
the treatment of people as property for the purpose of forcing them to do labor.
slavery (2)
Spanish soldier-explorers especially those who conquered the native peoples of Mexico and Peru.
conquistadors (2)
the great transfer of people, plants, animals, and diseases back and forth across the Atlantic Ocean that was triggered by the voyages of Columbus.
Columbian Exchange (2)
the name that explorers after Columbus give the continents of North and South America.
"New World" (2)
the first island Christopher Columbus claimed for Spain where the people he encountered were peaceful.
San Salvador (2)
the king and queen of Spain who were convinced by Columbus to sponsor a voyage to the New World by paying for the ships and men he needed to test his idea.
Ferdinand and Isabella (2)
an Italian seaman who was inspired by Marco Polo's writings and after studying maps of the world, became convinced that the shortest route to the Indies lay to the west, across the Atlantic Ocean.
Christopher Columbus (2)
the name that people used in the late 1200s for the lands around India and East Asia.
"The Indies" (2)
a young man who with his father, a merchant and trader from Venice, Italy traveled through Asia in the late 1200s. He spent 17 years in China.
Marco Polo (2)
New Netherland's colonial governor sent by the Dutch West India Company in 1626 to trade with the native peoples on Manhattan Island.
Peter Minuit (2)
an island in New Netherlands bought from the native peoples by the Dutch governor Peter Minuit for trinkets worth about $24.
Manhattan Island (2)
an alliance of five Indian groups who lived across the northern portion of New Netherland.
Iroquois Confederacy (2)
the Dutch governor who governed New Amsterdam for 17 years and captured a nearby Swedish colony.
Peter Stuyvesant (2)
the name given by Peter Stuyvesant for the settlement in Manhattan.
New Amsterdam (2)
the English king who wanted to drive the Dutch out of North America.
Charles II (2)
the brother of Charles II who was given ownership of all Dutch lands in America if he could conquer them.
James, Duke of York(2)
the name given to New Amsterdam when the English defeated the Dutch without firing a shot.
New York (2)