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668 Cards in this Set

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Which of the following symptoms would indicate a vitamin D deficiency?
Bowed legs
How many micrograms of dietary beta-carotene are equivalent to 1 retinol activity equivalent?
12
How is vitamin E thought to play a role in reducing the risk of heart disease?
It slows oxidation of low-density lipoproteins
Which of the following food substances can be converted to vitamin A in the body?
Beta-carotene
The plant version of vitamin D is known as
ergocalciferol
Which of the following vitamins is synthesized by intestinal bacteria?
K
What is the role of vitamin E in the metabolism of free radicals?
Eliminator
The first detectable sign of vitamin A deficiency is usually
night blindness
In what chief capacity does vitamin K function?
Blood clotting
Which of the following conditions is known to lead to formation of mineral deposits in the blood vessels and kidney?
Excessive intake of vitamin D
Which of the following types of drinking water contains the lowest amount of minerals?
Distilled water
: Which of the following is a risk of consuming calcium supplements above the UL?
Kidney stone formation
What is the minimum amount of water (mL) that must be excreted each day as urine in order to carry away the body's waste products:
500
What term designates foods that contain nonnutrient substances which may provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition?
Functional foods
Which of the following is the richest source of iodine?
Seafood
Which of the following is a property of selenium in nutrition?
Severe deficiency is associated with heart disease in China
Which of the following is a feature of phosphorus?
Involved in energy exchange
All of the following are chief storage sites for surplus iron except the
muscle
All of the following are known to result from excessive zinc intake except
galvanized liver and kidneys
Conditions associated with zinc deficiency include all of the following except
kidney failure
During physical performance, what is the role of creatine phosphate?
Transfer of energy to make ATP
For optimal performance of endurance athletes, sports nutritionists recommend approximately how much dietary fat energy?
20-35%
In training to run in your state marathon this summer, you want to determine how much fluid to drink during training sessions. Your weight at the beginning of every training session is 150 pounds. At the end of every training session you weigh 146 pounds. How many cups of fluid are necessary replenish these losses?
8
When a marathon runner experiences the phenomenon known as “hitting the wall,” what nutrient is most likely depleted?
Glucose
Which of the following should be a component of a healthy diet for athletes?
Nutrient-dense foods
What is the predominant fuel used by muscle cells during low- or moderate-intensity activity?
Fat
For female endurance athletes, about how much more protein above the RDA is recommended by recognized health organizations?
50-75%
Sports drinks begin to provide an advantage over plain water for athletes when their exercise periods first exceed
60 minutes
A person’s “VO2 max” is the maximum
rate of oxygen consumption
What is the recommended composition of the postgame meal of the athlete?
High-carbohydrate
Physical performance is noticeably affected when body water loss first reaches
2%
Which of the following describes a characteristic of fat use during physical activity?
Athletes who consume a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet for even one day are at risk for depleting their glycogen
Which of the following is a characteristic of human growth hormone use in athletes?
Excessive use shortens life span
Which of the following is an effect of exercise on protein metabolism?
Protein synthesis is inhibited during exercise
A muscle that increases in size in response to use is an example of
hypertrophy
Which of the following activities depletes glycogen most quickly?
Quarter-mile run
What is the chief adverse effect from drinking a carbonated beverage before engaging in athletic activity?
The bubbles induce feelings of fullness quickly and so limit fluid intake
What dietary nutrients are most effective at raising muscle glycogen concentrations?
Carbohydrates
The effect of regular exercise on heart and lung function is known as
cardiorespiratory conditioning
What is the percentage increase in the folate RDA during pregnancy?
50
The neural tube forms the early parts of the
brain and spinal cord
The process by which maternal nutrient intake affects the child’s development of diseases later in life is known as
fetal programming
In what period of pregnancy would most damage from alcohol consumption occur?
2nd trimester
Of the following nutrient needs, which is considered the most difficult to meet during pregnancy, often because of low body stores?
Iron
With few exceptions, all of the following substances or practices should be totally eliminated during pregnancy except
artificial sweeteners
What is gestational diabetes?
Abnormal blood glucose maintenance during pregnancy
Which of the following is a characteristic of vegetarian diets during pregnancy or lactation?
It is possible that a vegetarian diet can support a healthy pregnancy and normal lactation
What is the most reliable indicator of an infant’s future health status?
Infant’s birthweight
During pregnancy, which of the following nutrients show a dramatic increase in absorption?
Calcium and iron
An infant born with incomplete closure of the spinal cord has
spina bifida
How many weeks is the usual duration of a full-term pregnancy?
38-42
A newly fertilized egg is known as a(n)
zygote
All of the following are characteristics of nutrition and pregnancy except
underweight has little, if any, effect on fertility.
All of the following are features of older pregnant women in comparison with younger pregnant women except
maternal mortality rates are lower
Which of the following describes a relationship between body weight and pregnancy?
Underweight women who gain 30 lbs during pregnancy tend to birth smaller babies than heavier women who gain 30 lbs
Which of the following is not a characteristic of caffeine and lactation?
The A.M.A. recommends no caffeine intake during lactation
What is the recommended range of weight gain, in lbs, during pregnancy for a normal-weight woman?
25-35
Which of the following describes an infant born during the 36th week of pregnancy?
Preterm
What is the recommended range of weight gain, in lbs, during pregnancy for an underweight woman?
28-40
Chromium deficiency is characterized by
hyperglycemia.
Which of the following conditions is known to lead to copper deficiency?
Excess zinc
Which of the following conditions may improve with vitamin E therapy?
Intermittent claudication
One of the chief functions of chromium is participation in the metabolism of
carbohydrates
Over the course of the entire pregnancy, approximately how much extra energy, in kcal, does the average pregnant woman need to consume?
72,000
A person’s “VO2 max” is the maximum
rate of oxygen consumption.
Which of the following is a characteristic of alcohol intake and lactation?
Alcohol easily enters breast milk
Which of the following is an effect of exercise on protein metabolism?
Protein synthesis is inhibited during exercise
What is the most reliable indicator of an infant’s future health status?
Infant’s birthweight
In general, what are the chief consequences of nutritional deprivation in the lactating mother?
Reduced quality of her milk
What is the major cause of iron deficiency?
Poor nutrition
What is the predominant fuel used by muscle cells during low- or moderate-intensity activity?
Fat
What is the major intracellular anion?
Phosphate
Which of the following foods are known to contain goitrogens?
Cauliflower and broccoli
What mineral is critical to the synthesis of thyroxine?
Iodine
What is the recommended composition of the postgame meal of the athlete?
High-carbohydrate
An enzyme in which zinc or copper is an integral part of its structure is classified as a(n)
metalloenzyme
The effect of regular exercise on heart and lung function is known as
cardiorespiratory conditioning
Of the following nutrient needs, which is considered the most difficult to meet during pregnancy, often because of low body stores?
Iron
Which of the following is a feature of vitamin D synthesis?
Dark-skinned people require longer sunlight exposure than light-skinned people to synthesize equivalent
Signs of iron toxicity include all of the following except
hypochromic anemia
In weight training, muscle endurance can best be emphasized by combining a
high number of repetitions with lighter weight
Which of the following does not have an RDA?
Fluoride
On average, one retinol activity equivalent is equal to about how many international units?
3
What is/are the main function(s) of vitamin D?
Promotes calcium and phosphorus absorption and promotes calcium mobilization from bone
Sports drinks begin to provide an advantage over plain water for athletes when their exercise periods first exceed
60 minutes
The rare genetic disorders Menkes disease and Wilson’s disease result from abnormal utilization of
copper
Which of the following individuals would most likely not need an iron supplement?
Elderly female
All of the following play important roles in acid-base balance except
the liver
All of the following are chief storage sites for surplus iron except the
muscle.
The components of fitness include all of the following except
bone fragility
Which of the following meats would be the best source of copper?
Shellfish
Which of the following describes a characteristic of fat use during physical activity?
Athletes who consume a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet for even one day are at risk for depleting their glycogen
Which of the following describes an infant born during the 36th week of pregnancy?
Question 39 answers
Preterm
What dietary nutrients are most effective at raising muscle glycogen concentrations?
Question 41 answers
Carbohydrates
How much time spent in vigorous activity is usually needed to deplete glycogen reserves?
2 hours
What is the greatest single source of sodium in the diet?
Processed foods
What is the major source of dietary sulfur?
Protein
Which of the following disorders may result from vitamin E deficiency in people?
Erythrocyte hemolysis
Which of the following is not among the features of the fat-soluble vitamins?
Transported permanently to the liver and adipose tissue
The most common tests to diagnose iron deficiency include all of the following measures except
DNA content of red blood cells.
The neural tube forms the early parts of the
brain and spinal cord.
Which of the following contributes most to the weight of the human body?
Water
What dietary nutrients are most effective at raising muscle glycogen concentrations?
Carbohydrates
Which of the following conditions is known to lead to formation of mineral deposits in the blood vessels and kidney?
Excessive intake of vitamin D
Which of the following foods should be especially limited in the diet of individuals with hemochromatosis?
Iron-fortified cereals
Which of the following minerals functions primarily in reactions that consume oxygen?
Copper
A child diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia would most likely benefit from increasing the consumption of
red meat.
Which of the following features do vitamins C and E share?
Both function as antioxidants
What is the major extracellular anion?
Chloride
Which of the following symptoms would ordinarily not be found in individuals with iron-deficiency anemia?
Diminished sense of smell
All of the following are features of older pregnant women in comparison with younger pregnant women except
maternal mortality rates are lower.
What mineral is part of vitamin B12?
Cobalt
Which of the following is known to require vitamin K for its synthesis?
Prothrombin
Which of the following conditions is known to lead to copper deficiency?
Excess zinc
What mineral is critical to the synthesis of thyroxine?
Iodine
Which of the following represents the most reliable dietary source of zinc?
Meats and whole-grain cereals
Which of the following represents current knowledge of the role of vitamin and mineral supplements in physical performance?
Except perhaps for iron and vitamin E, supplements are not recommended because there is no difference in the RDA of physically active people compared with sedentary people
What population group is most vulnerable to vitamin A toxicity?
Children
What is the body’s most indispensable nutrient?
Water
All of the following are properties of electrolytes except
they include fat-soluble as well as water-soluble particles.
Which of the following is an important function of selenium?
Inhibits the formation of free radicals
Which of the following is known to enhance iron absorption?
Foods containing vitamin C
Which of the following is a protein that carries iron through the circulation to the tissues?
Transferrin
Where is the majority of the body’s magnesium found?
Bones
The DASH diet plan was devised to prevent
hypertension.
A tissue deprived of an oxygen supply during exercise would develop an accumulation of
lactate.
Among the following ethnic groups, which has the highest bone density?
African-American
Which of the following contributes most to the weight of the human body?
Water
For maximum benefits, cardiorespiratory endurance episodes should be sustained for at least
20 minutes
What is the adult AI for vitamin K?
90-120 µg
To minimize the risk of calcium toxicity, total daily intakes should be held to a maximum of
2,500 mg
What is the minimum amount of water (mL) that must be excreted each day as urine in order to carry away the body's waste products:
500
Physical performance is noticeably affected when body water loss first reaches
2%.
The rare genetic disorders Menkes disease and Wilson’s disease result from abnormal utilization of
copper.
Under normal circumstances, what is the average percentage of dietary iron that is absorbed?
18
Which of the following is one of the recommendations to treat pregnancy-associated heartburn?
Eat many small meals
Approximately what percent of the body’s vitamin A stores are found in the liver?
90
What is the adult AI for vitamin K?
90-120 µg
Which of the following is a feature of vitamin K?
Bacteria in the intestines synthesize bioavailable vitamin K
The normal blood pH range is approximately
7.35-7.45
If a normal, healthy adult were to begin consuming a vitamin A-poor diet, approximately how much time would pass before the first deficiency symptoms would appear?
1 to 2 years
You have just been hired by the World Health Organization to promote nutrition education and policies in a small country in Asia, whose population has a high prevalence of goiter. Which of the following policies would be the best to implement with respect to iodine status, cost, and efficiency?
Fortify the salt with iodine
All of the following are chief storage sites for surplus iron except the
muscle.
What is the adult RDA for iodine?
150 µg
All of the following statements are specific to the critical periods of cell division except
high-nutrient-density food fed after the critical period can remedy a growth deficit.
Sports drinks begin to provide an advantage over plain water for athletes when their exercise periods first exceed
60 minutes.
Which of the following is a feature of vitamin D synthesis?
Dark-skinned people require longer sunlight exposure than light-skinned people to synthesize equivalent
What is the major intracellular cation?
Potassium
Which of the following represents the most reliable dietary source of zinc?
Meats and whole-grain cereals
Where is the majority of the body’s magnesium found?
Bones
Which of the following is not among the common food sources of potassium?
Cheeses
Which of the following may result from excessive intakes of vitamin D by adults?
Mineral deposits in soft tissues such as the kidney
What is the percentage increase in the folate RDA during pregnancy?
50
How much calcium (mg) would typically be absorbed by a normal adult with a calcium intake of 1,000 mg?
300
Which of the following disorders may be linked with the presence of high blood iron?
Heart disease
What is the most reliable source of dietary fluoride?
Public water
Which of the following types of drinking water contains the lowest amount of minerals?
Distilled water
What is the minimum amount of water (mL) that must be excreted each day as urine in order to carry away the body's waste products:
500
How is vitamin E thought to play a role in reducing the risk of heart disease?
It slows oxidation of low-density lipoproteins
Which of the following food substances can be converted to vitamin A in the body?
Beta-carotene
The plant version of vitamin D is known as
ergocalciferol.
Which of the following vitamins is synthesized by intestinal bacteria?
K
In what chief capacity does vitamin K function?
Blood clotting
Which of the following conditions is known to lead to formation of mineral deposits in the blood vessels and kidney?
Excessive intake of vitamin D
Which of the following is a risk of consuming calcium supplements above the UL?
Kidney stone formation
What term designates foods that contain nonnutrient substances which may provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition?
Functional foods
Which of the following is the richest source of iodine?
Seafood
Which of the following is a feature of phosphorus?
Involved in energy exchange
All of the following are known to result from excessive zinc intake except
galvanized liver and kidneys.
Conditions associated with zinc deficiency include all of the following except
kidney failure.
For optimal performance of endurance athletes, sports nutritionists recommend approximately how much dietary fat energy?
20-35%
In training to run in your state marathon this summer, you want to determine how much fluid to drink during training sessions. Your weight at the beginning of every training session is 150 pounds. At the end of every training session you weigh 146 pounds. How many cups of fluid are necessary replenish these losses?
8
For female endurance athletes, about how much more protein above the RDA is recommended by recognized health organizations?
50-75%
For optimal performance, the athlete’s precompetition meal may include all of the following except
beans.
The known health risks for being underweight include all of the following except
diabetes
There is a high risk of obesity-related health problems when a man's waist circumference begins to exceed
40 inches
Which of the following is a characteristic of excess intra-abdominal fat
it is found in smokers more often than nonsmokers even thouhg smokers have a lower BMI
When an adult gains an extra 10 pounds of body weight, approximately how much of this weight is fat
7.5 lbs
If a normal 30-year-old woman has a daily energy expenditure of 2200 kcalories, what would be her expected output when she reaches 60 years of age
1885 kcal
External cues that may cause an obese person to respond to food typically include all of the following except
outdoor exercises
What is the range of body fat content for normal-weight men
13-21%
The major cause of insulin resistance is related to
excess body weight
In an adult who gains 20 pounds of excess body weight, about how much of this is lean tissue
5 lbs
Which of the following identifies a specific food intake behavior
a desire to eat without feelings of hunger is called appetite
Approximately how many people in the United States are believed to have eating disorders
5 million
What would be the approximate weight gain of a person who consumes an excess of 500 kcalories daily for one month
4 lbs
Which of the following is a feature of the body mass index
it correlates with disease risks
After consuming a very large meal, the desire to eat a slice of chocolate cake is an example of behavior known as
appetite
Which of the following does no decrease the metabolic rate
fever
All of the following are an association between type 2 diabetes and body fat except
overweight people with the disease who lose weight show no improvement in glucose tolerance and insulin resistance
Which of the following is a characteristic of the eating pattern of people with bulimia nervosa
binge eating typically occurs after a period of strict dieting
Which of the following factors has the most influence on the body's metabolic rate
amount of lean body tissue
You are planning a diet for a hospitalized patient who cannot participate in physical activity because both of his legs are broken and he will be bedridden for 6 weeks. Which of the following would best assess the patient's energy expenditure
basal metabolic rate
Which of the following is a feature of the basal metabolic rate (BMR)
pregnancy increases the BMR
Approximately what percentage of weight loss during starvation is lean body mass
50
Which of the following is a significant factor associated with interpretation of body composition values
it is possible that muscular people may be classified as overweight
What instrument is used to measure the energy content of foods
bomb calorimeter
Which of the following is a property of specific methods used to assess body fat content?
bombardment of the body with x-rays can differentiate between fat mass and lean body mass
Which of the following is a characteristic of chronic inflammation
it promotes the development of metabolic syndrome
All of the following are characteristics related to the fat content in food except
eating high-fat foods typically leads to underconsumption of kcalories
Which of the following describes an association between body weight and mortality
overweight men who are physically fit have a lower mortality risk than normal-weight, unfit men
What is the approximate value for the thermic effect of a 2500-kcalorie diet
250 kcal
Among the following, which has the greatest power to suppress hunger
apples
Research in obese people seems to show that there is no increas in the risks for strokes and hypertension provided that the excess body fat is distributed around the
hips and thighs
What is the primary reason for not including the value for adaptive thermogenesis when calculating energy requirements
it is too variable to measure
All of the following are common behaviors of people afflicted with muscle dysmorphia except
use of cathartics and emetics
What term describes the increase in energy expenditure that occurs in a person who fractures a leg
adaptive thermogenesis
Which of the following defines central obesity
storage of excess fat around the central part of the body
Which of the following can be used to gauge the amount of a person's abdominal fat
waist circumference
A cathartic is a
strong laxative
What is the weight classification assigned both to young women with 30% body fat and young men with 20% body fat
normal
What is an emetic
a substance that induces vomiting
An emotionally insecure person might eat for all of the following reasons except
to satisfy energy needs only
Which of the following may best explain the relationship between excess body fat and higher risk for cancers of the female reproductive system
excess body fat produces more estrogen, which may promote tumor development
The presciption drug sibutramine acts by regulating the utilization of
serotonin
As a new assistant in a weight loss research laboratory, you are given a tour of the mouse laboratory. Why is the leptin-deficient mouse much larger than its leptin-sufficient counterpart
leptin deficiency enhances appetite and decreases energy expenditure
Because obesity apparently has many causes, even in an individual, the best approach seems to be
genetic counseling
Which of the following would be most effective at lowering energy intake in a person on a weight reduction program
select less energy-dense foods
Hyperplastic obesity is related to a(n)
increase in the number of fat cells
Which of the following defines the body's set point
point above which the body tends to lose weight and below which it tends to gain weight
Which of the following would not be part of a successful program of weight gain in an underweight individual
eat a large number of small meals
According to body mass index values, what fraction of the U.S. adult population is considered overweight or obese
2/3
Approximately what percentage of U.S. adults are classified as underweight
5
Which of the following is the most likely explanation that environment must play a role in obesity
the rate of obesity has been rising while the gene pool has remained relatively constant
To help prevent body fat gain, the DRI suggests daily, moderately intense, physical activities totaling
60 minutes
Which of the following is characteristic of dieting and ketosis
body fat losses on a ketogenic diet are not higher than on other diets of equivalent kcalories
Which of the following describes a connection between physical activity and energy expenditure
walking a mile uses about the same energy as running a mile
When consumed in high doses, which of the following is associated with modest weight loss in people
pyruvate
Which of the following describes the research results of obese women in weight-loss programs
they initially expected to lose unrealistic amounts of weight
All of the following are features of fat cell metabolism in men and women except
the rate of fat breakdown is higher in women than in men
Which of the following is a feature of energy metabolism in formerly obese people who have lost weight
energy requirements are lower than expected for their current body weight
A popular eating plan that promises quick weight loss is known as a(n)
fad diet
The classification of underweight is defined when the BMI first drops below
18.5
What are the observed effects of sleep deprivation of leptin and ghrelin
leptin decreases while ghrelin increases
Compared with the past two decades, current dietary trends in fat and/or energy intake for U.S. adults include all of the following except
our higher prevalence of obesity is due primarily to excess carbohydrate intake
Kirima is a Native Eskimo who lives in one of the coldest regions in the world. What type of adipose tissue is most effective at helping her to maintain warm body temperatures during the coldest parts of the year
brown
What is the principal reason that appetite is turned off immediately after a person finishes an intense workout
glucose and fatty acids are still abundant in the blood
A person who weighs 150 lbs. and walks at a pace of 3 miles/hr expends about how many kcalories in that hour
270
Over-the-counter products labeled as "dieter's tea" are reported to lead to
nausea and diarrhea
Approximately how many kcalories per week should be expended in physical activity in order to maintain a weight loss
2000
All of the following are behavior modifications for losing weight except
taking smaller portions of food but always eating everything on the plate quickly
If you suspect that you are suffering from a foodborne illness, appropriate actions to take include all of the following except
find a portion of the remaining suspected food and ask someone else to taste it to detect any off flavors.
What nutrients in foods are most vulnerable to losses during food handling and preparation?
Water-soluble vitamins
What is the most common source of bottled water?
Springs and wells
Which of the following is a characteristic of meat contamination?
Consumers are not able to detect the presence of harmful bacteria by odor or taste
Of the following, which is used most widely as an antimicrobial agent?
NOT - Sodium nitrite
To determine quickly if a particular glass or ceramic vessel is safe for use in a microwave oven, place the empty container in the microwave and “cook” it for one minute; the container should feel
cool
The seal “Graded by USDA” that appears on packaged meat and poultry means that the product is
assessed for tenderness.
Which of the following toxic substances are formed from production of paper products used in food packaging?
Dioxins
According to the FDA, what is the leading food safety concern?
NOT - Pesticide residues
Which of the following properties are shared by vitamins C and E, BHA and BHT, and sulfites?
Antioxidant activities
Which of the following is not among the features of nitrites?
NOT - Present naturally in foods
Which of the following substances in the diet would typically have the lowest margin of safety?
Table salt
Which of the following is the most common pathogenic microorganism in U.S. foods?
NOT - Staphylococcus aureus
Among the following organisms, which is primarily responsible for causing “traveler’s” diarrhea?
Escherichia coli
What sweetener should be avoided by people with PKU?
Aspartame
What is the leading cause of food contamination in the United States?
Food poisoning from microbes
A common term to describe the process of irradiation is
cold pasteurization
What happens when beverages containing aspartame are stored at warm temperatures for prolonged periods?
Methanol is produced
What organism is responsible for producing the most common food toxin?
Staphylococcus aureus
Which of the following is a feature of bottled waters that are sold to consumers?
Bottled water is classified as a food and is regulated by the FDA
What defines the FDA’s de minimis rule?
The amount of a food additive that causes no more than a one-in-a-million risk of cancer to human beings
Minerals most associated with unpleasant characteristics of potable water include all of the following except
phosphorus
Which of the following foods is best known to transmit hepatitis?
Seafood
Which of the following foods are associated with illness from Salmonella?
Raw meats, poultry, and eggs
The most common causes of death today in the United States include all of the following except
tuberculosis
What is the AMDR for fat?
20-35%
An essential nutrient is one that cannot be
made in sufficient quantities by the body.
Features of a chronic disease include all of the following except
it produces sharp pains
Which of the following is an anthropometric measure?
Body weight
Recommended Dietary Allowances are based on the
Estimated Average Requirement.
The smallest amount of a nutrient that is consumed over a prolonged period that maintains a specific function is called the nutrient
requirement.
All of the following describe features for application of the recommended nutrient intakes except
the recommendations also apply to sick people.
All of the following are recognized, credible sources of nutrition information except
Who’s Who in Nutrition
All of the following are minimum requirements for becoming a registered dietitian except
completing up to a three-week clinical internship or the equivalent
How many minerals are known to be required in the diet of human beings?
16
What is the kcalorie value of a meal supplying 110 g of carbohydrates, 25 g of protein, 20 g of fat, and 5 g of alcohol?
755
Which of the following is used to determine the presence of abnormal functions inside the body due to a nutrient deficiency?
Laboratory tests
A person who eats a bowl of oatmeal for breakfast every day would be displaying a food choice most likely based on
habit.
The percentage of kcalorie intakes for protein, fat, and carbohydrate that are thought to reduce the risk of chronic diseases are termed the
Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges
What is the function of bile?
Emulsifies fats
Which of the following are allowed in the diet of a lactovegetarian?
Milk products and plant foods only
Which of the following is among the recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans?
Engage in regular physical activities
Which of the following is an enrichment nutrient for grains?
Folate
What is the primary cause for belching?
Swallowing air
For the most part, all of the following are advantages of vegetarian diets except
vitamin B12 intake is higher
Absorption of nutrients by intestinal cells occurs by all of the following mechanisms except
transmigration.
All of the following are documented benefits for people following a vegetarian diet except
lower rates of anemia
What is the principle carbohydrate of milk?
Lactose
Which of the following contains the least amount of fiber?
White rice
Which of the following is a drawback of olestra consumption?
It inhibits absorption of vitamin E
What is the sweetest-tasting simple carbohydrate in the diet?
Fructose
Which of the following is a characteristic of dietary fibers
They are classified according to solubility in water
Which of the following characteristics are shared by cholesterol and lecithin?
Both are synthesized in the body
According to the Dietary Guidelines, what should be the maximum total fat intake as a percentage of energy intake?
35
What compound is composed of 3 fatty acids and glycerol?
Triglyceride
Microorganisms in food that are viable when consumed and that are beneficial to health are known as
?
All of the following are rich sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids except
palm oil
What is the highest blood triglyceride concentration (mg/dL) that falls within the desirable range?
149
Lipids that are solid at room temperature are known as
fats
A person eating lots of white bread, white rice, and ready-to-eat cereals would have a diet with a glycemic index that is
high
What type of nutrient is starch?
Complex carbohydrate
What is the principle carbohydrate of milk?
Lactose
What is the first organ to respond to an increase in blood glucose concentration?
Pancreas
If you were to exercise continuously, about how long would glycogen stores last?
A few hours
Which of the following is not a feature of high-fiber foods?
Provide more energy per gram than processed foods
Which of the following is not a rich source of dietary starch?
Fruits
Which of the following is a feature of diabetes?
Dietary management should focus on total carbohydrate intake rather than the type of carbohydrate consumed
What type of compound is lecithin?
Phospholipid
Which of the following describes a fatty acid that has one double bond?
Monounsaturated
Which of the following has the highest percentage of its fat in saturated form?
Coconut oil
What protein is intimately involved in the formation of scar tissue in wound healing?
Collagen
What primary factor governs the quality of a food protein?
Essential amino acid content
What is the most likely reason for having an abnormally high blood urea level?
Kidney dysfunction
Which of the following processes is regulated primarily by the buffering action of proteins?
?
Jim, a college baseball player, tells you that he has started to take glutamine supplements. How would you advise him?
Since single amino acids do not occur naturally in foods, they offer no benefit to the body and may even be harmful
When nitrogen taken into the body exceeds nitrogen losses, we say the person is in
positive nitrogen balance
Which of the following statements is not characteristic of enzymes?
They are involved in synthesis reactions only
What element is found in proteins but not in carbohydrates and fats?
Nitrogen
What ratio (mg:g) of calcium to protein intake is believed to promote optimal bone health?
20:1
If the diet is lacking an essential amino acid, what will be the course of action?
Protein synthesis will be limited
A common genetic variation which causes a change in the amino acid sequence in the structure of hemoglobin leads to the disease
sickle-cell anemia
All of the following are features of protein in nutrition except
most of the body’s thousands of proteins have been studied and characterized
What is the percentage of total energy derived from protein in a diet containing 50 grams of protein and 2000 kcalories?
10
Which of the following is a feature of an essential amino acid?
It must be supplied by the diet
Which of the following do(es) not function as a transport protein?
Collagen
What is the Daily Value for protein based on a 2000-kcalorie intake?
50 g
Which of the following is a consequence of excess protein intake?
Increased production and excretion of urea
Dietary restriction of phenylalanine combined with adequate tyrosine is the usual treatment for people born with the disorder
PKU.
Excessive amounts of homocysteine in the blood are thought to increase the risk for
heart disease
What is the range of daily protein intake, in g/kg, recommended for athletes?
1.2-1.7
In addition to energy, what are the principal end products of cellular oxidation of carbohydrates?
Water and carbon dioxide
Which of the following is a feature of the metabolism of surplus dietary fat?
Excess fat is almost all stored
Which of the following accounts for the higher energy density of a fatty acid compared with the other energy-yielding nutrients?
Fatty acids have a greater percentage of hydrogen-carbon bonds
An aerobic reaction is one that requires
oxygen
After the first day or so of fasting, which of the following is most depleted in the body?
Glycogen
The amount of ethanol in a typical “drink” is
0.5 ounce
What is the percentage of ethanol in 120-proof scotch whiskey?
60
The number of ATP molecules that can be produced from a molecule of protein, fat, or carbohydrate is generally related to the number of atoms of
carbon
Which of the following outlines the overall sequence of events in the complete oxidation of glucose?
Glycolysis, TCA cycle, electron transport chain
Which of the following dietary nutrients would most rapidly reverse a state of ketosis in a starving person?
Amino acids
Adverse side effects of typical low-carbohydrate diets include all of the following except
high blood pressure.
In the adult body, food energy not stored as fat or glycogen is lost as
heat
Which of the following products is not generated via the TCA cycle or electron transport chain?
Ammonia
In the average healthy person, about how much time is required by the liver to process the alcohol in a typical drink?
1 hour
What is the major energy carrier molecule in most cells?
ATP
Which of the following defines a coenzyme?
An organic molecule required for the functioning of an enzyme
All of the following are general features of starvation in people except
a decrease in mental alertness
After digestion and absorption, an amino acid not used to build protein will first be subjected to
removal of its amino group
Which of the following describes the sum of all chemical reactions that go on in living cells?
Metabolism
What minimum concentration of alcohol in the blood is usually fatal?
not 1, 5, or 50
Which of the following defines a moderate level of alcohol intake per day for the average-sized woman?
Up to 1 drink
A feature of catabolic reactions is that they
involve release of energy
What is the primary organ that oxidizes alcohol?
Liver
Approximately how many molecules of ATP are generated from the complete oxidation of one molecule glucose?
32
A feature of ketosis is that it
occurs when fats are partially oxidized.
What is the most satiating macronutrient?
Protein
Which of the following describes the process of thermogenesis?
Generation of heat
Which of the following diets promotes the greatest loss of body heat?
High protein, low fat
What is the weight classification assigned both to young women with 30% body fat and young men with 20% body fat?
?
Among people with anorexia nervosa, approximately what percentage are males?
25
All of the following are characteristics related to the fat content in food except
eating high-fat foods typically leads to underconsumption of kcalories
To estimate the energy requirements of individuals, which of the following is used in the equations?
?
Which of the following may be used to calculate the amount of energy expended by the body?
Oxygen consumed
A person who exhibits a physiological need to eat is most likely experiencing the sensation of
hunger
All of the following are features of the health risks associated with excessive body fat except
the risks are higher in black women than in white women
To estimate the energy requirements of individuals, which of the following is used in the equations?
Weight
The feeling of satisfaction resulting from consumption of a meal is termed
satiety.
The known health risks for being underweight include all of the following except
diabetes.
If a dancer and a typist are the same height and have the exact same body build, the dancer will be heavier because she has
more muscle mass
External cues that may cause an obese person to respond to food typically include all of the following except
outdoor exercises
There is a high risk of obesity-related health problems when a man’s waist circumference begins to exceed
40 inches
What would be the approximate weight gain of a person who consumes an excess of 500 kcalories daily for one month?
4 lb
Why might vitamin C supplements be beneficial in treating the common cold?
They deactivate histamine
Which of the following is a feature of weight gain and genetics?
Identical twins are twice as likely to weigh the same compared with fraternal twins
Which of the following is a general function of vitamin C?
Antioxidant agent
All of the following are general characteristics of the fat-soluble vitamins except
excesses are eliminated from the kidneys.
What is the most likely reason for the development of a vitamin B12 deficiency?
Inadequate absorption
Research has shown that the risk for neural tube defects is lowered by taking supplements of
folate.
What vitamin forms a part of coenzyme A?
Pantothenic acid
John is looking to increase his dietary sources of vitamin C. However, he expresses a strong dislike for all citrus fruits. Which of the following shopping lists would you recommend?
Brussels sprouts, broccoli, strawberries
Which of the following is a feature of ghrelin?
It stimulates appetite and energy storage
Approximately what percentage of U.S. adults are classified as underweight?
5
Which of the following is not a feature of vitamin E in people who engage in regular high-intensity physical activity?
?
For female endurance athletes, about how much more protein above the RDA is recommended by recognized health organizations?
50-75%
Sports drinks begin to provide an advantage over plain water for athletes when their exercise periods first exceed
60 minutes
A person’s “VO2 max” is the maximum
rate of oxygen consumption
What is the recommended composition of the postgame meal of the athlete?
High-carbohydrate
Physical performance is noticeably affected when body water loss first reaches
2%
Which of the following describes a characteristic of fat use during physical activity?
Athletes who consume a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet for even one day are at risk for depleting their glycogen
Which of the following is a characteristic of human growth hormone use in athletes?
Excessive use shortens life span
Which of the following is an effect of exercise on protein metabolism?
Protein synthesis is inhibited during exercise
A muscle that increases in size in response to use is an example of
hypertrophy
Which of the following represents current knowledge of the role of vitamin and mineral supplements in physical performance?
Except perhaps for iron and vitamin E, supplements are not recommended because there is no difference in the RDA of physically active people compared with sedentary people
When a marathon runner experiences the phenomenon known as “hitting the wall,” what nutrient is most likely depleted?
Glucose
Which of the following activities depletes glycogen most quickly?
Quarter-mile run
What is the chief adverse effect from drinking a carbonated beverage before engaging in athletic activity?
The bubbles induce feelings of fullness quickly and so limit fluid intake
What dietary nutrients are most effective at raising muscle glycogen concentrations?
Carbohydrates
The effect of regular exercise on heart and lung function is known as
cardiorespiratory conditioning
Which of the following represents current knowledge of the role of vitamin and mineral supplements in physical performance?
Selected Answer:
Except perhaps for iron and vitamin E, supplements are not recommended because there is no difference in the RDA of physically active people compared with sedentary people
In training to run in your state marathon this summer, you want to determine how much fluid to drink during training sessions. Your weight at the beginning of every training session is 150 pounds. At the end of every training
8
During physical performance, what is the role of creatine phosphate?
Transfer of energy to make ATP
What is the percentage increase in the folate RDA during pregnancy?
50
The neural tube forms the early parts of the
brain and spinal cord
The process by which maternal nutrient intake affects the child’s development of diseases later in life is known as
fetal programming
In what period of pregnancy would most damage from alcohol consumption occur?
?
Of the following nutrient needs, which is considered the most difficult to meet during pregnancy, often because of low body stores?
Iron
With few exceptions, all of the following substances or practices should be totally eliminated during pregnancy except
artificial sweeteners
What is gestational diabetes?
Abnormal blood glucose maintenance during pregnancy
Which of the following is a characteristic of vegetarian diets during pregnancy or lactation?
It is possible that a vegetarian diet can support a healthy pregnancy and normal lactation
What is the most reliable indicator of an infant’s future health status?
Infant’s birthweight
What is the most likely explanation for the increased prevalence of obesity in children over the past 30 years?
They are less active physically
If a child is reluctant to try a new food, it is best to
quietly remove it and present it again at another time
What is the chief reason that breast-fed infants usually need to eat more frequently than formula-fed infants?
Breast milk is digested faster
What is the chief protein in human breast milk?
Alpha-lactalbumin
Which of the following is the most prevalent nutrient deficiency among U.S. and Canadian children?
Iron
An adverse reaction to food that does not signal the body to form antibodies is termed a
food intolerance
Why should new foods be introduced to an infant one at a time?
Any allergic reactions can be detected
Approximately how many kcal per day does an average 6 year old need to obtain?
1600
All of the following are features of breast milk banks except
they accept milk from mothers who smoke cigarettes but not marijuana.
Of the following cereals, which is most likely to result in an allergic reaction upon first feeding?
Wheat
Approximately what percentage of a person’s life expectancy is dependent upon his personal behavior?
75
All of the following are features of osteoarthritis except
nicotine intake reduces inflammation and increases flexibility.
What is the most important predictor of a person’s mobility in the later years?
?
How does aspirin reduce inflammation and pain?
It interferes with the synthesis of prostaglandins
What is a congregate meal?
A meal provided for the elderly in a place such as a community center
Vitamin B12 deficiency in the elderly is least likely to occur from
insufficient intake of vitamin B12
Which of the following is a feature of calcium nutrition in the elderly?
Calcium intakes are well below recommendations
Factors known to be related to the appearance of Alzheimer’s disease include all of the following except
a decrease in homocysteine synthesis
What is the fastest-growing age group in the United States?
Over 85 years
All of the following are characteristics of vitamin B12 nutrition in older people except
the DRI Committee recommends that older people increase their meat intake to provide adequate vitamin B12.
Which of the following statements describes one aspect of mineral nutrition of older adults?
Iron absorption is reduced due to low stomach acidity
Which of the following is a characteristic of aging and the immune system?
Antibiotics are often ineffective in treating older people who have deficient immune systems
A person with dysphagia has
difficulty swallowing
A major side effect from the regular use of some antipsychotics, antidepressants, and corticosteroids is
substantial weight gain
Glucosamine and/or chondroitin supplements are used by some people to treat symptoms of
arthritis
Approximately what percentage of a person’s life expectancy is under control of her genes?
25
All of the following are features of arthritis except
weight-bearing exercises often aggravate the pain from osteoarthritis
What was the average life expectancy of a person born in the year 1900?
47 years
What is the minimum number of glasses of water per day recommended for older adults?
6
Which of the following is a feature of energy intake and longevity?
Improvements in longevity depend on reducing energy intake but not on the amount of body fat
What is a common side effect from taking certain prescription drugs and consuming grapefruit juice?
Blood concentrations of the drugs increase
Factors known to be related to the appearance of Alzheimer’s disease include all of the following except
a decrease in homocysteine synthesis
Among the elderly, malnutrition is most common in those living
in nursing homes
What is believed to be the primary cause of type 1 diabetes?
Defect of the immune system
Diabetes is known to increase the risk for all of the following except
cancer
The process by which immune cells engulf and then destroy bacteria is known as
phagocytosis
Which of the following is not a feature of dietary fat and cancer?
Type of fat may influence cancer initiation
What happens after absorption of carcinogens that are produced on meats from grilling over a direct flame?
They are detoxified by the liver
A person with diabetes is most likely to develop
heart attacks
Among the following lifestyle changes, which has the least favorable effect on reducing blood pressure?
Limiting daily alcohol intake to 1-2 drinks
Which of the following dietary components is thought to be protective against certain types of cancer?
Fiber
Markers for inflammation as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease include high levels of all of the following except
ephedra.
The DASH diet was developed to lower the risk for
hypertension
Common cell types that make up the immune system include all of the following except
P-cells
What happens after absorption of carcinogens that are produced on meats from grilling over a direct flame
They are detoxified by the liver
Which of the following blood pressure readings first signifies a diagnosis of hypertension?
140 over 90
The immune system treats foreign substances such as bacteria and toxins as
antigens
Markers for inflammation as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease include high levels of all of the following except
ephedra
Being obese is known to increase the probabilities of contracting all of the following diseases except
kwashiorkor
The most common form of cardiovascular disease is
coronary heart disease
All of the following are features of herbs sold to the public except
they are considered appropriate for treatment of certain major health disorders such as cancer or AIDS.
If you suspect that you are suffering from a foodborne illness, appropriate actions to take include all of the following except
find a portion of the remaining suspected food and ask someone else to taste it to detect any off flavors
What nutrients in foods are most vulnerable to losses during food handling and preparation?
Water-soluble vitamins
What is the most common source of bottled water?
Springs and wells
Which of the following is a characteristic of meat contamination?
Consumers are not able to detect the presence of harmful bacteria by odor or taste
To determine quickly if a particular glass or ceramic vessel is safe for use in a microwave oven, place the empty container in the microwave and “cook” it for one minute; the container should feel
cool
How many different forms of vitamin A are active in the body?
3
Substantial health benefits may be achieved by engaging in a moderately intense level of exercise at a frequency of at least
2.5 hours/week
A craving for non-food substances is known as
pica
Which of the following is a characteristic of the trace minerals?
The amounts in foods are dependent, in part, on soil composition
All of the following organs are required for the complete synthesis of activated vitamin D except the
intestines.
What is the name given to the human organism two to eight weeks after fertilization and the stage at which the digestive system is formed?
Embryo
Magnesium is known to be involved in all of the following except
production of red blood cells
Which of the following is a feature of vitamin D synthesis?
Dark-skinned people require longer sunlight exposure than light-skinned people to synthesize equivalent
What is the name of the condition characterized by high blood pressure, edema, and protein in the urine of a pregnant woman?
Preeclampsia
Which of the following minerals functions primarily in reactions that consume oxygen?
Copper
All of the following are chief storage sites for surplus iron except the
muscle
How is vitamin E thought to play a role in reducing the risk of heart disease?
It slows oxidation of low-density lipoproteins
Which of the following is one of the recommendations to treat pregnancy-associated heartburn?
Eat many small meals
For maximum benefits, cardiorespiratory endurance episodes should be sustained for at least
20 minutes
Zinc is known to play an important role in all of the following functions except
oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids
Which of the following is not among the common food sources of potassium?
Cheeses
What nutrient deficiency during pregnancy may give rise to a child with cretinism?
Iodine
Which of the following is a characteristic of foodborne illness during pregnancy?
The risk for listeriosis is substantially higher in pregnant women than in other healthy adults
What is the most reliable source of dietary fluoride?
Public water
Which of the following would be the best choice for physically active people who need to rehydrate?
Diluted juice or cool water
Fluoride deficiency is best known to lead to
dental decay
The animal version of vitamin D is known as
cholecalciferol
All of the following play important roles in acid-base balance except
the liver
Over the course of the entire pregnancy, approximately how much extra energy, in kcal, does the average pregnant woman need to consume?
72,000
What is the major extracellular anion?
Chloride
The preferred unit of expression of vitamin A is the
retinol activity equivalent
Which of the following is an effect of exercise on protein metabolism?
Protein synthesis is inhibited during exercise
Which of the following types of drinking water contains the lowest amount of minerals?
Distilled water
Which of the following contributes most to the weight of the human body?
water
Which of the following disorders may be linked with the presence of high blood iron?
Heart disease
All of the following are features of older pregnant women in comparison with younger pregnant women except
maternal mortality rates are lower
How much calcium (mg) would typically be absorbed by a normal adult with a calcium intake of 1,000 mg?
300
Which of the following may result from excessive intakes of vitamin D by adults?
Mineral deposits in soft tissues such as the kidney
How many micrograms of dietary beta-carotene are equivalent to 1 retinol activity equivalent?
12
Where is the majority of the body’s magnesium found?
Bones
Which of the following represents the most reliable dietary source of zinc?
Meats and whole-grain cereals
What is the major intracellular cation?
Potassium
All of the following statements are specific to the critical periods of cell division except
high-nutrient-density food fed after the critical period can remedy a growth deficit.
What is the adult RDA for iodine?
150 µg
You have just been hired by the World Health Organization to promote nutrition education and policies in a small country in Asia, whose population has a high prevalence of goiter. Which of the following policies would be the best to implement with respect to iodine status, cost, and efficiency?
Fortify the salt with iodine
If a normal, healthy adult were to begin consuming a vitamin A-poor diet, approximately how much time would pass before the first deficiency symptoms would appear?
1 to 2 years
The normal blood pH range is approximately
7.35-7.45
What is the role of vitamin E in the metabolism of free radicals?
Eliminator
An enzyme in which zinc or copper is an integral part of its structure is classified as a(n)
metalloenzyme
The rare genetic disorders Menkes disease and Wilson’s disease result from abnormal utilization of
copper.
Which of the following is a feature of vitamin K?
Bacteria in the intestines synthesize bioavailable vitamin K
What mineral is part of vitamin B12?
Cobalt
A child diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia would most likely benefit from increasing the consumption of
red meat
What is the adult AI for vitamin K?
90-120 µg
Approximately what percent of the body’s vitamin A stores are found in the liver?
90
Which of the following should be a component of a healthy diet for athletes?
Nutrient-dense foods
Chromium deficiency is characterized by
enlargement of the liver
What population group is most vulnerable to vitamin A toxicity?
Children
Which of the following is not a characteristic of caffeine and lactation?
The A.M.A. recommends no caffeine intake during lactation
Under normal circumstances, what is the average percentage of dietary iron that is absorbed?
18
Which of the following is known to enhance iron absorption?
Foods containing vitamin C
Which of the following describes a relationship between body weight and pregnancy?
Underweight women who gain 30 lbs during pregnancy tend to birth smaller babies than heavier women who gain 30 lbs
To minimize the risk of calcium toxicity, total daily intakes should be held to a maximum of
2,500 mg
Among the following ethnic groups, which has the highest bone density?
African-American
Which of the following is a protein that carries iron through the circulation to the tissues?
Transferrin
All of the following are properties of electrolytes except
they include fat-soluble as well as water-soluble particles
What is the body’s most indispensable nutrient?
Water
What mineral is critical to the synthesis of thyroxine?
Iodine
Which of the following is known to require vitamin K for its synthesis?
Prothrombin
Which of the following represents the most likely cause of manganese toxicity?
?
The components of fitness include all of the following except
bone fragility
Which of the following symptoms would ordinarily not be found in individuals with iron-deficiency anemia?
Diminished sense of smell
Which of the following conditions may improve with vitamin E therapy?
Intermittent claudication
Which of the following features do vitamins C and E share?
Both function as antioxidants
During pregnancy, which of the following nutrients show a dramatic increase in absorption?
Calcium and iron
Which of the following foods should be especially limited in the diet of individuals with hemochromatosis?
Iron-fortified cereals
Which of the following conditions is known to lead to formation of mineral deposits in the blood vessels and kidney?
Excessive intake of vitamin D
The most common tests to diagnose iron deficiency include all of the following measures except
DNA content of red blood cells
Which of the following disorders may result from vitamin E deficiency in people?
Erythrocyte hemolysis
What is the major source of dietary sulfur?
Protein
What is the greatest single source of sodium in the diet?
Processed foods
How much time spent in vigorous activity is usually needed to deplete glycogen reserves?
2 hours
Which of the following meats would be the best source of copper?
Shellfish
Which of the following individuals would most likely not need an iron supplement?
Elderly female
What is/are the main function(s) of vitamin D?
Promotes calcium and phosphorus absorption and promotes calcium mobilization from bone
On average, one retinol activity equivalent is equal to about how many international units?
3
Which of the following does not have an RDA?
Fluoride
In weight training, muscle endurance can best be emphasized by combining a
high number of repetitions with lighter weight
Signs of iron toxicity include all of the following except
hypochromic anemia
Which of the following foods are known to contain goitrogens?
Cauliflower and broccoli
What is the major intracellular anion?
Phosphate
What is the predominant fuel used by muscle cells during low- or moderate-intensity activity?
Fat
What is the major cause of iron deficiency?
Poor nutrition
Which of the following is a characteristic of amenorrhea?
It induces prolonged bone loss
External cues that may cause an obese person to respond to food typically include all of the following except
outdoor exercises
What is the approximate percent efficiency of conversion of food energy to ATP energy in the body?
50
Glycolysis is the conversion of
glucose to pyruvate
What is the major energy carrier molecule in most cells?
ATP
Jenny is 34 years old and has a BMI of 28. Her body type could be described as “pear-like.” John is 55 years old with a BMI of 28, and a body type that is “apple-like.” Why is John more likely than Jenny to be at risk for degenerative diseases?
He has central obesity
What is the first product of fatty acid catabolism?
Acetyl CoA
What is the most satiating macronutrient?
Protein
Approximately what percentage of overweight people who intentionally lose weight are able to maintain the weight loss for at least one year?
50
Which of the following is an essential nutrient for human beings?
Folate
A cathartic is a
strong laxative
Which of the following food groups is a rich source of vitamin C?
Fruit group
General characteristics of the water-soluble vitamins include all of the following except
they must be consumed daily
After a hamburger is eaten, in what organ is the hydrolysis of its proteins initiated?
Stomach
A person who is starving is losing
glycogen, protein, and fat
All of the following are features of the health risks associated with excessive body fat except
the risks are higher in black women than in white women
An index of a person’s weight in relation to height is called
body mass index
What is the chief factor that determines a person’s susceptibility to obesity?
Heredity and environment
What serves as the body’s chief storage site for lipids?
White adipose tissue
Which of the following is not a characteristic of marasmus?
Affects brain development only minimally
Which of the following is a significant factor associated with interpretation of body composition values?
It is possible that muscular people may be classified as overweight
Aggressive treatment should be introduced in obese people if they have which of the following risk factors?
High LDL and low HDL
Which of the following leads to the production of urea?
Oxidation of amino acids
In the quest for achieving desirable body weight, adults have control over all of the following except
adipocyte number
The major cause of insulin resistance is related to
excess body weight
In what region of the body is the storage of excess body fat associated with the highest risks for cardiovascular disease and diabetes?
Abdomen
Approximately how many different proteins are present in the human body?
30,000
Approximately how many kcalories are expended per kilogram body weight when walking a mile at a moderate pace?
1
Which of the following statements is not characteristic of alcohol metabolism?
Alcohol is metabolized by muscle and brain cells as well as by the liver
A deficiency of which of the following vitamins results in accumulation of homocysteine in the blood?
Folate
According to body mass index values, what fraction of the U.S. adult population is considered overweight or obese?
2/3
When a person is performing intense physical exercise and begins to feel fatigue and a burning pain in the muscles, the response of the muscles is to synthesize more
lactate
The application of heat or acid to a protein that causes its shape to change is known as
denaturation
What is the approximate body mass index of a woman who is 5’5” and 125 lbs?
21
In a weight reduction regimen, the most realistic time frame for losing 10% of initial body weight is
6 months
What element is found in proteins but not in carbohydrates and fats?
Nitrogen
About how long does it take for a meal to be completely eliminated from the stomach?
4 hours
Of the total amount of carbohydrate energy consumed by the body, approximately what percentage is used by the brain and nerve cells?
50
Beriberi results from a deficiency of
thiamin
Which of the following is a feature of leptin?
It is a satiety signal
At what point is oxygen used in the electron transport chain?
At the end
Fraudulent weight reduction literature refers to visually apparent, lumpy forms of body fat as
cellulite
Which of the following metabolic reactions occurs when a cell uses energy?
ATP releases a phosphate group and becomes ADP
When energy-yielding nutrients are consumed in excess, which one(s) can lead to storage of fat?
Fat, carbohydrate, and protein
Which of the following is an overt sign of a possible B vitamin deficiency?
Smooth tongue
What is the chief factor that determines a person’s susceptibility to obesity?
Heredity and environment
The weight of the body less the fat content is known as the
lean body mass.
All of the following are meal-planning strategies for underweight people who desire to gain weight except
they should refrain from between-meal snacking, especially energy drinks
Products from the electron transport chain pathway include all of the following except
urea
Which of the following is a feature of the metabolism of surplus dietary fat?
Excess fat is almost all stored
What is the percentage of ethanol in 120-proof scotch whiskey?
60
All of the following describe the behavior of fat cells except
the number decreases when fat is lost from the body
What would be the approximate weight gain of a person who consumes an excess of 500 kcalories daily for one month?
4lb
What is the primary factor that differentiates bulimia nervosa from binge eating?
Purging is rarely practiced in binge-eating disorder
For almost all people who use the equations for calculating Estimated Energy Requirements, the actual values fall within a range of plus or minus
320-400 kcal
Which of the following defines a coenzyme?
An organic molecule required for the functioning of an enzyme
What instrument is used to measure the energy content of foods?
Bomb calorimeter
Which of the following is required for the absorption of dietary vitamin B12?
Intrinsic factor
What is meant by the bioavailability of a vitamin in food?
The amount absorbed and subsequently used by the body
What is the most common eating disorder in both males and females?
Binge-eating disorder
Which of the following is a feature of vitamins?
The quantities present in foods are measured in micrograms or milligrams
Kwashiorkor typically develops in children of ages
18-24 months
For every decade beyond the age of 30, what is the percentage decrease in the need for total kcalories?
5
Which of the following statements defines the association between a risk factor and the development of a disease?
The more risk factors for a disease, the greater the chance of developing that disease
To assist the process of digestion and absorption, it is usually best to
combine different food types to enhance the absorption process.
Overeating and gaining body weight is an example of a
positive correlation
All of the following are classified as macronutrients except
calcium
Which of the following is a feature of cholesterol?
Synthesized by the body
The percentage of kcalorie intakes for protein, fat, and carbohydrate that are thought to reduce the risk of chronic diseases are termed the
Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges
What is the name given to partially digested food in the stomach?
Chyme
Information that must be lawfully provided on food labels includes all of the following except
the amount recommended for ingestion each day
What are the principles of diet planning?
Adequacy, balance, kcalorie control, nutrient density, moderation, and variety
Which of the following represents a food choice based on negative association?
An elderly gentleman who refuses a peanut butter and jelly sandwich because he deems it a child’s food
Which of the following is an alternative choice for meats in the USDA Food Guide?
Nuts
According to most dietary guidelines, what percentage of the day’s total energy intake should be furnished by carbohydrates?
45-65
What is the normal pH of stomach juice?
1.5-1.7
Which of the following is not characteristic of the USDA Food Guide?
Its nutrients of greatest concern include iron, chromium, and vitamin B12
A low risk of cardiovascular disease correlates with high blood levels of
high-density lipoproteins
Which of the following characteristics are shared by cholesterol and lecithin?
Both are synthesized in the body
In vegetarians, the RDA is higher for
iron.
As a registered dietitian at Jones Hospital, you are instructed to write a policy statement on nutrition assessment procedures for all new patients. Which of the following are the most useful parameters for the nutrition assessment of individuals?
Historical information, anthropometric data, physical examinations, laboratory tests
According to the Dietary Guidelines, what should be the maximum daily intake of cholesterol on a 2500-kcalorie diet?
300 mg
Which of the following is an enrichment nutrient for grains?
Folate
What mineral is added to refined flours in the enrichment process?
Iron
According to the Dietary Guidelines, what should be the maximum total fat intake as a percentage of energy intake?
35
Which of the following is a drawback of olestra consumption?
It inhibits absorption of vitamin E
The most highly fortified foods on the market are
breakfast cereals.
What is the AMDR for fat?
20-35%
Which of the following is used to determine the presence of abnormal functions inside the body due to a nutrient deficiency?
Laboratory tests
Which of the following is best known to result from regular ingestion of sugar?
Dental caries
A person who regularly consumes fish such as shark, king mackerel, and swordfish is at risk for ingesting potentially toxic amounts of
mercury
When blood glucose concentration falls, what pancreatic hormone is secreted to stimulate release of stored glucose?
Glucagon
Which of the following is not a typical component of stools?
Starch
All of the following are minimum requirements for becoming a registered dietitian except
completing up to a three-week clinical internship or the equivalent
The RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowances) for nutrients are generally
designed to meet the needs of almost all healthy people
Who would be the most appropriate person to consult regarding nutrition information?
Registered dietitian
Which of the following fibers is water insoluble?
Cellulose
Which of the following cannot be found in plants?
Cholesterol
What type of compound is lecithin
Phospholipid
What is the primary function of insulin?
Lowers blood glucose levels
In what organ does the digestion process begin?
mouth
Food labels express the nutrient content in relation to a set of standard values known as the
Daily Values
The purpose of bicarbonate in the digestive process is to
raise the pH of chyme
An essential nutrient is one that cannot be
made in sufficient quantities by the body
The most common causes of death today in the United States include all of the following except
tuberculosis.
According to nutrition labeling laws, what two minerals must be listed on the package label as percent Daily Value?
Calcium and Iron
What is the composition of sucrose?
One glucose and one fructose unit
Nutrient dense refers to foods that
provide more nutrients relative to kcalories
Which of the following is not a simple carbohydrate?
Starch
Gram for gram, which of the following provides the most energy?
Fats
Which of the following is a characteristic of the sugar replacers (sugar alcohols)?
They have a low glycemic index
All of the following are recognized, credible sources of nutrition information except
Who’s Who in Nutrition
A high risk of heart attack correlates with high blood levels of
low-density lipoproteins