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However, through anthropology and etymology we understand more on origins of counting. There are two possibilities for how counting originated. The first possibility is that counting started spontaneously in different parts of the world. The other possibility is that counting was born once somewhere and then spread to different parts in the world from that source. This thought came from the similarities in counting found in different parts of the world such as India, Egypt, and China (Allen, 2000-03). Some societies designated words or symbols for numbers. For example the Indians of Tamanaca on the Orinoco River used certain words for numbers 0-4. Then used one whole hand for the number 5, a whole hand and a finger from the other hand for 6, and so on; then both hands for 10, and “an Indian” for number 20. In the trading of tobacco sticks for sheep, the tribesmen of the Dammara tribe in Africa from the 19th century used 2 sticks for 1 sheep. However they failed to know that 4 sticks would then equal 2

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With today’s technology, we seldom ponder on the history of what we are using and where it came about. There exists valuable artifacts in the world that reveal how ancient societies managed their lives using mathematics without the conveniences we have at the tips of our fingers today. Physical evidences such as notches on bones or stones reflect the knowledge of quantities back then. Many of the notches were engraved in such a way where groupings are apparent. Societies needed a way to manipulate numbers in order to survive. The more complex the society was, the more sophisticated calculation systems they needed. The use of quantities dates back to the beginning of time, more than 35,000 BC. In more recent anthropological and archeological studies, scientists were able to discover more information about numbers associated with words and symbols. Not all societies had words that represented every number, therefore they had to compensate and re-use the few words they had. For example, a tribe that only counted to two used “two-two” to represent 4. Other people developed symbols to represent numbers. Although our ancestors would be rolling in their graves if they see an iPhone today, they are the ones who invented mathematics and empowered our world to be more convenient in terms of mathematical calculations. Ancient societies started the basics of the logic and mathematics, which