Relationship Between Kultur And Natur

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Kultur versus Natur
While German anthropologists rejected the theory of evolution, there was still an interest in understanding the relationship between Kultur and Natur. They rejected evolutionism because it “placed steric categories of human nature into a fluid continuum…” (Zimmerman, 2001, p. 69). Nature, to German anthropologists before the 20th century was perceived to be a “static system of categories that allowed them, in their study of natural peoples, to grasp an unchanging essence of humanity, rather than the ephemeral changes that historians recoded” (Zimmerman, 2001, p. 62). Furthermore, they understood that nature functioned as a timeless oppositive to culture and history (Zimmerman, 2001, p. 7). In addition, “[a]nthropologists
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Would we ourselves have become what we are outside Europe? He who placed us here, and others there, gave to them as much right to happiness in this life as he gave to us. Happiness is an internal state; its standard or determination, therefore, is not outside ourselves but rather within the breast of every individual. No other person has the right to constrain me to feel as he does, nor the power to impart to me his mode of perception. No other person can, in short, transform my existence and identity into his…” (1969, p. …show more content…
These exhibitions were useful for colonial enterprises because it suggested that colonialism imposed a European form on a non-European content, which helped perpetuate the colonizer/colonized binary (Zimmerman, 2001, p. 22). Secondly, it allowed access to objects that were further used in museums, which, sure enough, happened to be the site of the beginning of academic German anthropology. In addition, German anthropologists believed that “objects in their collections contained truth in themselves, apart from the global political economy in which they were enmeshed” (Zimmerman, 2001, 149). Furthermore, “[t]he military not only provided huge numbers of artifacts but also made objects available to anthropologists that they otherwise never could have obtained” (Zimmerman, 2001, p. 155). In return, “when colonizers sent these objects to anthropologists, colonial rule gained significance as a contribution to science, to Kultur in the modernizing sense expounded by anthropologists” (Zimmerman, 2001, p. 150). Lastly, this relationship paradoxically provided and challenged the idea of Natur and Kultur. According to German anthropologists, “To be a subject of historical inquiry, a society had to have a writing, appear to be progressing, and possess some fundamental connection to the narrative or

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