Innate Immunity Constitutes The First Line Of Defense Essay

1627 Words Apr 20th, 2015 null Page
Innate immunity constitutes the first line of defense and is fundamental for the recognition and the initiation of an inflammatory response against microorganism. Maintenance of homeostasis is a primary function of the innate immune system and it is achieved through immune surveillance by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat containing receptors (NLRs). The PRR’s are predominantly expressed by cells of the myeloid lineage. TLRs and NLRs are distributed throughout the gastrointestinal mucosa mostly being expressed in the epithelium and in lamina propria cells. The gastrointestinal mucosa surfaces are in constant interaction with a wide variety of commensal bacteria that normally would contribute to the nutrition uptake. Disruption of this homeostasis can led to chronic inflammation and lead to diseases such as Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), Crohn’s disease and tumorigenesis. The NLRP3 inflammasome is the best characterized inflammasome has been associated with gut homeostasis and determining the severity of inflammation in IBD. Inflammasomes are a set of intracellular protein complexes that enable activation of inflammatory caspases that are responsible for the processing of the pro-inflammatory cytokines that help with the initiation of an adaptive immunity response. Inflammasomes are key regulators in the innate system. Inflammasomes complexes have been divided in the NLR family or…

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