The Ottomans,Safavids,and Mughals were powerful Muslim empires that were successful due to their access to gunpowder,and good leadership early on in the start of the empires.The 3 gunpowder empires had difficulty sustaining power due to mistreatment of peasantry,and poor leadership, which led to their decline in 1700 CE.
One of the reasons that the empires were so successful, was because of gunpowder,which gave them an advantage over other nations.This is shown when Father Paul Simon wrote
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The decline of the gunpowder dynasties began in the 1700s CE,which was caused by bad leadership and later on led to mistreatment of the peasantry.Sir John Malcom commented on how the later monarchs were greatly affected by the harems and pleasures of being a monarch.The monarchs were bad leaders,due to the fact that they were inexperienced and were distracted by the pleasures of being leader.(Doc.7)Due to their lack of experience they did not know how to operate the government which led to mistreatment of the peasantry.In addition to the mistreatment of peasants,the policies of the Sultans demanded for new impositions in addition to the yearly taxes that the peasants already pay.(Doc.8)Which put more reason on the peasants to rebel and leave.Dr.Francois Bernier,foreign employee of the Mughal emperor,wrote about how the soldiers,governors,and even farmers had almost absolute authority over the peasantry.Dr.Bernier probably had a less extreme look at how the peasant's were treated,due to the fact that he worked as a forein employee of the emperor. (Doc.5)This later on led to peasants leaving from these lands and abandoning their former duties.This weakened the empire's economy by not having a labor force and a decrease in population.
In conclusion the 3 gunpowder dynasties ruled ,because of their advantage with gunpowder,and