Crossing Boundaries In Gothic Literature

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Gothic literature began with eighteen century. As a genre of literature, it combines supernatural horror and romance element; and it also reflects the fears and anxiety of society. Dracula (1897) is the one of the gothic literature, it was composed by Bram Stocker (1847-1912). The novel tells the story of a vampire Dracula. This essay will focus on Dracula and show how the concept of crossing boundaries helps to create horror in Gothic stories in aspects the idea of femininity, supernatural and natural and life and death; and some evidence will be extracted from Frankenstein (1818) and Varney the vampire (1845).

The woman in Victoria era were given certain roles and requirements. They were expected to be ideal women and required to identify with some characteristics. The ideal woman was pure and
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It is a threat to male idea of female virtue. This change is shown in gothic literature.

In Dracula, author creates horror by crossing the boundary of the idea femininity. It describes several women who are different with the ideal woman. According to Stoker (1897, pp. 54-55), he describes three female vampires as "[a]ll three had brilliant white teeth that shone like pearls against the ruby of their voluptuous lips".
They are also very enthusiastic when they want to suck Jonathan 's blood. "[t]he fair girl shook her head coquettishly, and the other two urged her on. One said, ‘Go on! You are first, and we shall follow. Yours is the right to begin. ' The other added, ‘He is young and strong. There are kisses for us all". These three women represents the New woman. They are proactive, dominant and behave aggressively. They are also lustful and show their desires. It is represents the changing role of women in Victorian society which is also shown in Varney the vampire (Rymer 1845, p.2): "[h]er long hair has escaped from its confinement and streams over the blackened coverings of the bedstead... A neck and bosom ...were

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