Bipolar Disorder : Etiology, Pathophysiology, And Clinical Manifestations

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Bipolar Disorder: Etiology, Pathophysiology, & Clinical Manifestations
Bipolar I Disorder is a psychiatric disorder of unknown etiology, that results due to an “abnormal functioning of neurotransmitters in the brain,” often precipitated by an imbalance of glutamate, norepinephrine, and/or GABA neurotransmitters (Adams & Urban, 2016, p. 257). When these chemicals are not proportional with one another, the brain becomes over stimulated by excitatory neurotransmitters. In such cases, the patient may experience sudden mood swings from a depressive to a euphoric state. This state of Euphoria is also referred to as “Mania,” and typically presents itself as “inflated self-esteem,” loss of interest in or “decreased need for sleep or food,” sudden desire to start projects or activities only to soon lose interest, “excessive pursuit of pleasurable activities without consideration of the negative consequences,” and, depending on the severity of the patient’s illness, they may experience “delusions, paranoia, hallucinations, and bizarre behavior” (Adams & Urban, 2016, p. 257). This disease process is an affliction of the mind that causes the individual to experience emotional fluctuations between sadness, hopelessness, and fatigue (Depression) to a sudden state of high energy, extreme drive, and loss of cause and effect analysis (Mania).
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