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87 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are Characteristics of Living Organisms?
-maintain homeostasis
-respond to environmental changes
-may evolve
Define Evolution:
a change in gene frequencies over time
(ex. wamer climate cuases plants to grow higher on mountains)
Steps of the Scientific Method
-Ask Questions
Six, 24 hour days
-no science required
-conradicts most science
-does not allow for resolution
-creation days 24 hours with a long break between days
Allegorical Interpretation
-not literal truth, designed to tell a greater truth
Time Lapse told to moses (slide show version)
-moses was shown how earth was created, the show lasted six days
Multiple Creation
-creation occured multiple time- Hebrew language does not consist of articles (a, the) so in a begginging makes as much sense as in the beggining
Theistic Evolution
-God used evolution to create universe. Sequence in Genes correct but timing not literal
Intelligent Design
-evidence of design implies a designer
-some things too complex to have evolved
-no mechanism specified
Major Theories from Darwin
-populations have potential to increase exponentially
-populations fairly constant in size
-only some organisms survive
-natural resources limited
-(Deduction 2)-individuals with favourable traits are more likely to survive-> natural selection keep good and strong, get rid of week, useless-- mutations constantly occuring.environmental selector does not cause mutations
-(Deduction 3) Accumulation of intheritable variation over many generations is evolution-> if changes within species become great enough new species evolve.
What is Species
Species extinct if they do not interbreed in nature(implies offspring must also be able to reproduce
Evidence supporting Evolution
-selective breeding
-fossil record
-homologus structures->structures dissimilar in form and function but share underlying structural similarity
How did Life Originate?
What are some speculations about earths early atmosphere?
-little free oxygen->abundance of methane,ammonia,nitrogen,water vapor,perhaps free hydrogen
-earthquakes and lightning common
-lack of evidence
Created earths early atmosphere
-result: one week later amino acids formed
-scientist repeated procedure
-speculation continues
Possible scenarios for producing proteins
-ocean tide pools evaporate, concentrated amino acids likely to combine and form protein
-bubbles common in carbon compound ocean. powerful electrostatic forces inside bubbles would attract amino acids pulling them together forming proteins
-"fools gold" and clay crystals common, could attract and concentrate amino acids
Phospholipids created
-tiny bubbles made of phospholipids fuse together eventually reaching level of complexity could be called protocell->(non-living organism)
-proves theory that prokaryotic cells evolved into eukaryotic cells
-mitochondia and chloroplasts invade eukaryotic cell and become an organelle in eukaryotic cells
What are major theories of Biology?
-evolution by natural selection
-Biological Classification
What are three major classes of adaptions?
-Morphological-anatomical (for example, body shape in many aquatic animals
-Physiological-biochemical (for example, DDT, tolerance in insects)
-Behavioral (especially important in social animals, including humans)
Why Study Biology?
-biology can be controversial
examples ( dealing with endagered species, use of human fetal tissue in biomedical research, safety of irradiated foods)
About Charles Darwin
-offerec position as naturalist on British survery ship, The Beagle
-studied animals and fauna
-noticed South American fossils differed from contemporaries
-collected data for 27 years to support mechanism for evolution.
How did Darwin account for Species?
In origin of species, he developed two main concepts
-evidence that evolution has occured
=mechanism for evolution: natural selection
Major points of Darwin's theories or evolution and natural selection.
First Observation:
-Populations have the potential to increase exponentially
Major points of Darwin's theories or evolution and natural selection.
Second Observation:
-Populations are fairly constant in size.
Major points of Darwin's theories or evolution and natural selection.
Third Observation:
-Natural resources are limited
-limited amount of space, nutrients, shelter
-results in competition for resources to survive.
Major points of Darwin's theories or evolution and natural selection.
Deduction one:
-only some organisms survive. There is a struggle for existence among individuals in a population
-organisms posses characteristics that enhance survival -(called adpations)
Major points of Darwin's theories or evolution and natural selection.
Fourth Observation:
-There is variation within individuals of a population and variations are inherited
Major points of Darwin's theories or evolution and natural selection.
Deduction two:
-Individuals with favourable variations are more likely to survive and reproduce.
-Natural selection:"preservation of favourable variations and the rejection of injurious variations"
-The enironmental selector DOES NOT cause a mutation
-Mutations are constantly occuring.
-most are deleterious and eliminated
-some are neutral in a constant environment and are not eliminated, BUT may be an advantage if the environment changes
Major points of Darwin's theories or evolution and natural selection.
Deduction Three:
-Accumulation of inheritable variation over many generations is evolution
-If changes within a species become great enough, a new species can result.
What is a species?
-Species are considered distinct if they do not interbreed in nature
(implies offspring must also be able to reproduce.
Evidence supporting Theory of Evolution
-selective breeding practices used by farmers result in:
"improved domesticated plants and animals,Darwin wondered if nature could do the same.
-Fossil record: comparing fossils from ancenstors with today's species demonstrates species have evolved.
-Homologous structures: structures dissimilar in form and function, but share underlying structural similarites-> similarity due to common ancestor?
Robert Hooke
-in 1662, he oberved boxes in cork and named then "cells" after small, plain rooms occupied by monks.
Aton van Leeuwenhoek
-creates his own mircroscope
-in 1675, he reported viewing "animalcules"
Cell Theory
-organisms are composed of one or more cells
-cells arise from pre-existing cells
-cells are the fundamental units of life.
-consist of: nucleice acids and protein coat
-considered nonliving.
Viruses are dempendent on other organisms to:
-obtain raw materials
-obtain energy
Viruses use host cell machinery to produce what?
What is Mitosis?
The process of one cell dividing into two identical daughter cells
-the most common type of cell division
-mitosis is a nucleus phenomenon
How long does the mitosis cycle take?
from one hour to one month
Cytokinesis is..
cytoplasm division
Mitosis is a from of ______reproduction.
Mitosis occurs when...
organism grows or replaces damaged cells.
Prior to mitosis, cell undergoes ______
What is replication?
-process in which chromatin is copied.
Replication doubles each __________.
Replication produces_______ cells.
What is prophase?
-Start of mitosis
-chromatin condenses into rod-like chromosomes
(each chromosome consists of sister chromatids, connected at the centromere)
-Nuclear membrane dissapears.
-Chromosomes align themselves in flat plane at cell equator.
-centromeres split
-sister chromatids-now chromosomes are pulled to opposite poles of the cell.
-chromosomes unravel, returning the chromatin to its non-dividing threadlike state.
-nuclear membrane assembles
-division of the cytoplasm
-begins during anaphase and telophase
What are the major kinds of cells? (two types)
-Prokaryotic cells
-Eukaryotic cells
Prokaryotic cells:
-have few internal parts
-simples cells
Eukaryotic cells:
include single-celled organisms
-Largest organelle
-surrounded by nuclear envelope, (porous double membrane)
-contains chromosomes (heriditary material)
-found in nucleus
-ribosomes are assembled here
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
-extensive membranous structure.
-formed by membrane emerging from nuclear envelope.
What are the Two types of Endoplasmic Reticiulum?
-Rough ER
-Smooth ER
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum:
-ribosomes are found on the outside
-site of protein synthesis
Smooth Enoplasmic Reticulum
-Site of lipid and carbohydrate synthesis.
Golgi complex recieves transport vesicles from the ____ _____ ______. Cellular products are modified, packaged and prepared for their final destination
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Golgi complex:
following modification, products may be released from the cell via ________.
Lysosomes arise from ______ _____
Golgi complex
Lysosomes fuse with ______ vesicles.
Lysosomal enzymes digest _____,_______ and ______.
proteins, carbohydrates and lipids.
Lysosomes process ______ and _________.
cellular debris and worn-out organelles.
Mitochondria is found where?
in all eukaryotic cells
Mitochondria is responsible for what?
energy production.
Cytoskeleton is made of what?
long, thin, protein filaments.
Three sizes..
intermediate filiaments
Cytoskeleton provides what?
-internal cell structure
-anchor and connect organelles
-move parts and products
Plasma membrane:
fluid mosaics of phospholipids, proteins and carbohydrates.
Phospholipids provide what?
basic architecture.
-have hydrophyllic tails and hydrophobic heads.
Plasma membrane:
_______ act as channels, recognition molecules, carrier proteins, etc.
Plasma membrane:
______ help connect cells and play a role in identification.
What is diffusion?
-net movement of molecules from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration.
-no energy required.
What is Osmosis?
-type of diffusion.
-movement of water across semipermeable membrane from area of high water concentration to area of low water concentration.
What is the effect of osmosis on cells in a hypotonic solutions
-high concentration of water in extracellular fluid compared to inside the cells causes net movement of water into the cell.
-results in increased cell size.
-can cause cell to burst.
What is the effect of osmosis on cells in isotonic solutions?
-concentration of water inside and outside of the cell are equal.
-results in no net-movement of water.
-cell size remains the same.
What is the effect of osmosis on cells in hypertonic solutions?
-concentration of water in cell exceeds that outside of cell.
-results in net movement of water out of the cell
-cell shrinks
Membrane transport:
-Large or hydrophillic substance cannot pass freely through the membrane.
-To move them through the membrane, must have channel proteins or carrier proteins
Passive Transport: Ion Channels.
Ions are _______ and the channel must be open for the ion to pass through the channel.
Selective for each______.
-ion moves ______ concentration gradient.
Passive Transport: Facilitated diffusion...
Selective for each_____.
-Induces protein shape change allowing molecules to ____ __ _____. molecule moves down the _______ _______.
-exit the carrier.
-concentration gradient.
Active Transport uses what?
-carrier protein
active transport moves molecules _______ their concentration gradient.
Active transport requires ____ as an energy source.
What is Endocytosis?
-cells absorb outside material by inverting plasma membrane to form a vesicle that encases the material
-moving molecules, particles, and other substances contained in vesicles across the plasma membrane and out of the cell.