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212 Cards in this Set

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What does the ENDOCRINE system do?
Allows for communication between different parts of the body
What is the endocrine's signal like compared to that of the nervous?
The signal is slower, and is longer lasting
Horomone (def.)
molecules that act as messengers. They stimulate cells with specific receptors
Target Cells (def.)
The specific cells that a horomone stimulates.
Endocrine Glands
Organs that secrete hormones directly into the blood stream. (DUCTLESS)
In, or at the surface of target cells, the _________ will bind to a ___________ ___________, therby stimulating the cell.
Hormone
Receptor Molecule
Membrane bound receptor molecules
bound to plasma membrane- hormone usually CANT cross
Pathway of hormone
Hormone-binds to membrane bound receptor- initiates signal-transduction pathway-affects reactions in the cytoplasm
Nuclear Receptor Molecules
Found in Nucleas- hormone must cross cell membrane. Steriod-receptor complex interacts with DNA
Feedbacks
The amount of a hormone produced is often controlled by the stimulating gland monitoring the levels of the effected character
Pituitary Gland
small gland at the ventral base of the brain- there are two parts (anterior and posterior pituitary)
Anterior Pituitary
(adenohypophysis)- develops from tissue at the roof of the mouth
The anterior pituitary and brain are connected by a ______ _______
Portal System
Neurosecretory cells of the hypothalmus produce hormones that stimulate or inhibit the production of anterior pituitary hormones --
TRH, PIF, PRF
The anterior pituitary produces:
TSH, FSH, LH, PL, GH, ACTH, MSH, endorphins
TSH
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
FSH
Follicle Stimulating Hormone
LH
Lutenizing Hormone
PL
Prolactin
GH or hGH
Growth Hormone
ACTH
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
MSH
Melanophore Stimulating Hormone
Endorphins
natural pain killer
Posterior Pituitary (neurohypophysis)
develops from tissue from the brain (hypothalmus) it is connected to the hypothalmus by the infundibulum, a narrow stalk
The hormones are produced by the ____________ cells of the ____________ and then are transported down the ______ to the ___________pituitary where they are released into the blood stream
neurosecretory
hypothalmus
posterior
The posterior pituitary produces:
Oxytocin
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
Oxytocin
used to induce labor
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
Stimulate absorption of water in kidney
Pineal Gland (location)
found on top of brain, just under the skull in many species
Pineal Gland (functions)
**produces melatonin when not exposed to light. **Important in regulation of circadian rhythms
** involved in reproductive cycle in seasonal breeding species
Thyroid (functions)
produces Thyroxin (T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3)and calcitonin
T4 and T3 (affect what?)
metabolic rate
Calcitonin (affects what?)
reduces calcium withdrawl from bone
Parathyroid (produces)
Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
PTH
regulates calcium levels in the blood by releasing calcium stored in bones
Thymus
involved in the development of the immune system and maturation of T cells (immune system)
Adrenal Glands (location)
sit atop the kidneys (have 2 parts in mammals)
Cortex (Outter part of adrenal gland): Glucocortids
make glucose from proteins and lipids, decrease inflammation and stress. Controlled by pituitary
Mineralocorticoids
regulate salt balance in body
Medulla (inner part of adrenal glands)
epinephrine (adrenaline) simmilar effect to the sympathetic nervous system
Norepinephrine
(noradrenaline) antagonistic to epinephrine
Pancreas
exocrine function in producing pancreatic juices
Islets of langerhans
produce insulin and glycogon
Insulin
up-take of glucose
Glycogon
release of glucose
Digestive Hormones
(look it up in digestion lecture)
Juvenile Hormone and Ecdysone
controls metamorphosis in insects. Produced by neurosecretory cells (nervous tissue) and is released into bloodstream
Juvenile Hormone (induces what?)
production of juvenile features
Ecdysone (induces what?)
development of adult features
5 Major Hurdles stopping fish from invading land
1) Gills do not function out of water
2) Water conservation is difficult, especially across respiratory surfaces
3) Support, air is less dense than water so animals have to support body off substrate
4) Sensory organs need to be modified to work in air lateral line lost in terrestrial forms
5) Evolution of physiological traits that allow survival at a greater range of temperatures- isozymes
Adaptation
lungs (some fish already had them)
Thickening of what support structures?
Pelvic and pectoral fins
Elongation of bones that support-
the base of fins
Development of ear
uses bones from the second gill arch
Eye Lids
to keep eyes moist
To help with greater range of terrestrial temperatures- isozymes
to help maintain constant internal body temperature regardless of outside temperature
Water is much more ___________ in its physical characteristics than air
stable
Amphibians did not completely leave the aquatic habitat (T OR F)
true
Most eggs are laid in ______ and the young go through an ________ ________ stage before metamorphsing into adults
water
aguatic larval
Amphibians evolved during the Devonian and diversified during the __________ ________
Carboniferous Period
There are 3 orders of amphibians:
1) Order Apoda
2)Order Caudata
3)Order Anura
Order Apoda
(Caecilians)- small, snake-like
many vertebrae
no legs
limited vision, blind
Order Caudata
(Urodela) salamanders
Legs come off body parallel to ground
Larvae and adults are predators
Have gills as aquatic larvae and use skin and lungs as adults
Plethodontid Salamanders
lungless- use cutaneous respiration
Where is the center of salamander diversity??
Southern Appalachian Mtns!
Salamander Reproduction
aquatic- release egg and sperm into water
larval stage with gills- indirect development
Terrestrial
spermatophore passed from male to female
young hatch as miniature adults (NO LARVAL AQUATIC STAGE) direct development
Order Anura
(without a tail) frogs and toads
** most diverse group
**adult body specialized for jumping and swimming
** long hind legs
** fused vertebrae near pelvis
** skin has epidermis and underlying dermis
Chromatophores
how organisms change their surface color
Xanthophores
yellow, orange, red
Iridophores
(blue) guanine crystals
Melanophores
dark pigments
What makes a frog green?
Iridophores are over-layed by xanthopores
Frog Reproduction
aquatic- males grab onto back of femule (amplexus)
Indirect Development
Gametes are released simultaneously
How do animals get energy??
By consuming organic molecules (eat other organisms, food is processed to release nutrients and energy)
Intracellular Digestion
Phylum Porifera
Specialized cells used called collar cells
Extracellular Digestion
Involves 4 stages of food processing
Ingesting
Capturing and eating
Digestion
breaking down of molecules
Absorption
absorbing nutrients in the body
Elimination
undigestable material released from digestive tract
Classifications
Herbivores
Carnivores
Omnivores
Saprophagous
Herbivores
feed on plants (autotrophs)
Carnivores
feed on animals (heterotrophs)
Omnivores
digesting either auto or hetero
Saprophagous
feed on dead material
3 Various specializations
1) Suspension feeders
2) Deposit Feeders
3) Fluid Feeders
Suspension Feeders
collect prey items suspended in water column, use mucus or hairs to collect matter from water
Deposit Feeders
ingest sediment or collect matter as it settles from water
Fluid Feeders
ingest matter rich fluids- (spiders)
Oral Cavity
chemical and physical digestion
Physical
mastication by teeth breaks food into smaller particles and mixes in saliva
Chemical
saliva contains enzymes. AMYLASE breaks down starches and long carbs. Saliva also lubricates food
Bolus
chewed up food mass
Esophagus
tansports by the use of smooth muscle
Cardiac Sphincter
ring-shaped structure around esophagus (stops material from coming back up to esophagus from stomach)
Stomach
food exposed to harsh conditions for chemical
Gastric juices (released by..)
Epithelium of stomach
Parietal Cells
(HCl- pH of 1.5)
Chief Cells
Pepsinogen
Pepsinogen
converted to pepsin by HCl (when exposed to acidic environments)
Acid Chyme
passes through the pyloric sphincter into the duodenum, first section of the small intestine
Pancreatic Juice (fuctions..)
released into the duodenum, it neutralizes the acid (pH=7)
Pancreatic Juice
also contains proteases, nucleases, and lipases (digestive enzymes)
Bile (produced where?)
in liver, stored in gall bladder
Bile (functions...)
is released into the duodenum and emulsifies fats and lipids (breaks down fat)
Small Intestine
membrane enzymes (specific enzymes work on specific molecules)
Jejunum and Ileum (function)
absorption of nutrients
What 3 things help increase surface area of the jejunum and ileum?
Folds, villi, and microvilli
Hepatic Portal System (process)
heart- vessel- capillary- vessel- capillary-vessel- heart- hepatic portal vein
Hormones
Gastrin, Secretin, Cholecystokinin
Insulin
allows liver to store most of the glucose as glycogen
Colon
(large intestine) and rectum remove water before defecation through the anus
Saliva's main component
H20
Examples of specialization of digestive tracts
Teeth of mammals
Incisors
grasping, cutting
Canines
tearing
Premolars
shearing, cutting
Molars
grinding
General Trends of Digestive Tract Length- Herbivores
longer, harder to break down materials, allows longer time for chemical digestion
Ruminates (mammals)
Have a four-chambered stomach filled with bacteria that help digest cellulose
Cecum
non-rumincant animals (bacteria that helps in digestion)
Stomach produces _________ acid
hydrochloric
Homeostasis
maintenance of an internal steady state by means of self-regulation. Keeps the internal environment of the body constant
Homeostasis Regulates Osmotic Pressure
created by osmosis- liquids going from an area of higher concentration to lower
marine animals
salt in environment- water leaves body
freshwater animals
water enters body
terrestrial animals
water leaves body
temperature
more of a problem for terrestrial animals in water- ambient temperature does not vary much
Levels of Metabolic Waste
ammonia is produced when proteins are catabolized- ammonia is toxic
Temperature Regulation (Q10)
the multiple by which a reaction will increase with a 10C increase in temperature
Poikilothermic
body temp. varies with the environment
Homeothermic
body temp. held constant
Ectothermic
body heat from an outside source
Endothermic
body heat generated from inside the body
Conduction
heat transfer between 2 substances (sand)
Convection
loss of heat through flow of fluids
Radiation
laying out
Evaporation
adjust temp. by having molecules evaporate
Adaptations by ENDOTHERMS in cold environments (5)
1) Stout Bodies
2) Decrease conductance
3) Increase Heat production
4) Counter current heat exchange
5) Daily torpor
5) Hibernation
Allen's Rule
????????
Decrease Conductance
thick fur, fat layer
Increase heat production
brown fat (lipid when matabolized produces huge amount of heat) and shivering
Counter Current Heat Exchange
extremeties lose heat quickly (feet on snow)
Daily Torpor
animals cool down at night
Hibernation
temp. decreases to ambient respiration and circulation decrease (bears and racoons)
In Warm Environments
1) Temp. Fluctuation
2) Evaporative Cooling
3) Concentrated urine and feces
4) Light fur- reflective
Endothermy
in reptiles, fishes, invertebrates
Osmotic Conformers
animals that allow the concentration of salts in the body to change as the salt concentration in the environment changes
Osmotic Regulators
maintain the osmotic pressure in the bodies tissues by using active transport to take salt into the body or release it from the body
Stenohaline
animals that can only survive in a narrow range of salinities- typical of animals living in the ocean
Euryhaline
animals that can survive in a wide range of salinities- typical of animals in estuaries
Osmotic Regulators
maintain the osmotic pressure in the bodies tissues by using active transport to take salt into the body or release it from the body
Freshwater Animal
body has higher salt concentration than the water around it- water diffuses in, salts diffuse out.
Gills
absorb salt produce dilute urine
Saltwater Animals
body has lower salt concentration than the water around it. Water diffuses out, salts diffuse in
Gills
Secrete salt produce concentrated urine
Chondrichthian fishes never invaded freshwater--
they have higher levels of urea whcih stops water from diffusing out
Terrestrial Animals are in a similar situation to saltwater fishes-
they need to conserve water
Water is lost by:
1) evaporation at respiratory surfaces
2) evaporation at body covering
3) urine production
4) feces- water added to digestive tract during digestion
Water is gained by:
1) drinking, eating
2) meatbolic water- o2 accepts the electron at the ETS and binds to H's
Excretion of metabolic wastes (in small animals)
ammonia diffuses out
Excretion of metabolic wastes (in large animals)
ammonia is excreted from body by excretory system, often after being converted to less toxic forms
What animals convert ammonia into non-toxic urea?
Chondrichthian fishes, amphibians, and mammals
What animals convert urea to uric acid?
Reptiles, birds, and terrestrial insects
Uric acid
is a solid that can be excreted with minimal water loss
Protonephridium
blind end system of tubulues
Metanephridia
excretory tube is open on both ends
Antennal Gland (green gland)
blind end sacs attached to a bladder that opens to the ventral surface of head
Malpighian Tubules
blind end sacs attached to the intestine
Archinephros
kidney found in embryo of hagfish, this is the inferred ancestral condition of the vertebrate kidney
pronephros
functional kidney in adult hagfish
mesonephros
transient function in embryonic lampreys, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals
metanephros
functional kidney of adult reptiles, birds, and mammals
opisthonephros
functional kidney of adult lampreys, fishes, amphibians
Human Kidneys
it filters 2000 liters of blood a day
blood enters only through renal artery and leaves through the renal vein
only 10% of plasma is actually cleaned as blood flows through the kidney
Cortex
outter most region
Medulla
inner region- high salt concentration
Renal Pelvis
large duct in medulla
Ureter
duct that transports urine to bladder
Nephron
functional unit of the kidney- 1 million per kidney
fluid enters nephron from blood stream in the cortex
Glomerulus
a ball of capillaries, small blood vessels
Blood Plasma
but no cells or blood proteins--- enters nephron
Bowman's Capsule
cup structure that surrounds the glomerulus
Proximal Convoluted Tubule
short section of the nephron, 60% of the filtrate is reabsorbed including sugars, amino acids, and other valuable nutrients
Loop of Henle
a long, thin section of the tube takes the filtrate into the medulla, and then back into the cortex
As the fluid descends.....water diffuses _____ and salt diffuses _____
out
in
As the fluid ascends, salt is actively transported ________ ________
back out
Distal Convoluted Tubule
more water and salt are reabsorbed. Substances (ions and drugs) can be secreted into the tubule
Collecting Duct
fluid will travel back through the medulla and into the renal pelvis
ADH
Antidiuretic Hormone (pituitary gland) increases uptake of water from the collecting duct
Amniotic Egg
allowed reptiles to be truly terrestrial vertebrates
Amniotic Egg contains 4 membranes
1) amnion
2) allantois
3) yolk sac
4) chorion
Amnion
surrounds the developing embryo
Allantois
storage of metabolic waste- blood vessels in the membrane used for exchange of gases with atmosphere
Yolk Sac
contains yolk rich in energy
Chorion
surrounds the other three membranes and exchanges gases with the environment
Other characteristics of Reptilia
tough dry skin
keratin scales
copulatory organ for internal fertilization
more efficient legs
more efficient lungs, ciruclation, jaws
Subclass Anapsids
turtles, no temporal opening in skull
Body protected by shell of
bone and keratin
Turtle Jaw composed of....
bony plates
Subclass Diapsida
2 temporal openings in the side of skull
Order Squamata
lizards, snakes, and worm lizards
*most diverse group
*kinetic skull allows for more mobility of bones
Snake sensory organs
ears internal, jacobson's organ, pits of pit vipers sense heat
Order Sphenodonta- Tuatara
Two species in New Zealand- ancient morphology similar to that of many Mesozoic diapsids
Parietal Eye
third eye under top of skull with cornea, lens and retina
Order Crocodilia
crocodiles, alligators, caiman
Thecodont Dentition
teeth set in sockets
Four chambered heart
completely separates oxy and deoxy blood
Gender of young is dependent on ________ _________
incubation temperature
Paraphyletic Group
gave rise to mammals and dinosaurs (birds)