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37 Cards in this Set

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Phylum Mollusca
2nd most diverse phylum / 100000 species
Head-foot
the body region of a mollusc that contains the head and is reponsible for locomotion as well as retracting the visceral mass into the shell
Radula
the rasping, tonguelike structure of most molluscs that is used for scraping food. Coposed of minute chitinous teeth that move over a cartilaginous odontophore.
Visceral mass
the region of a mollusc's body that contains visceral organs
Mantle
the outer fleshy tissue of molluscs that secretes the shell. The mantle of cephalopods may be modified for location
Mantle Cavity
The space between the mantle and the visceral mass of molluscs
Class Gastropoda
snails, slug, limpets
torsion
a 180 degree counterclockwise twisting of the visceral mass, mantle, and mantle cavity
shell
they are asymmetrically coided into a more compact form
gastropoda locomotion
have flattened foot that is often cilated and helps them creep along
gastropoda mode of nutrition
feed by scraping algae or other small, attached organisms from their substrate using their radula / many use herbivores
gastropod gas exchange
involves the mantle cavity / primitive gastropods had two gills, modern have one gill because of coiling
Gastropods have what kind of circulatory system?
Open / blood leaves the vessels and directly bathes cells in tissue spaces
How do gastropods sense?
they use tentacles / retractor muscles can rapidly withdraw the tentacles
gastropod reproduction
marine snails are dioecious / gonads in spirals of the visceral mass / most other snails are monoecious
What is Class Bivalvia?
clams, oysters, mussels, and scallops
Do bivalves have a head and radula?
no
How many shells do bivalve have?
2 - clams?
What is the hinge ligament in bivalves?
the hinge that attaches the two shells called valves / when muscles relax, the ligament opens
What is a bivalve umbo?
the swollen area near the shell's anterior margin / the oldest part of the shell
What is the adductor muscle?
the muscles at either end of the dorsal half of the shell that close the shell
What are bivalves mode of nutrition?
sedentary, filter-feeding / gills trap food
What are labial palps of bivalves?
leaflike areas on either side of the mouth that also sort filtered food particles / ciliated
How do bivalves do gas exchange?
they have gills
What type of circulatory system do bivalves have?
open
How do bivalves move?
they don't
What is Class Cephalopoda?
octopuses, squid, cutlefish, and nautiluses
Shell variation in celphalopods
only natutilus have shells
What is a cephalopod siphuncle?
A cord of tissue that perforates the septa and absorbs fluids by osmosis and replaces them with metabolic gases / regulates buoyancy
What is a cephalopod pen?
No shell in all other cephalopod - the shell of a squid that is reduced to an internal, chitinous structure
How do cephalopods move?
Use a jet-propulsion system / mantle contains radial and ciruclar muscles / circular muscles contract they decrease the volume of mantle cavity and prevent water from moving out
Cephalopods have what mode of nutrition?
locate prey by sight and capture prey with tentacles that have adhesive cups / small hooks in squid / all have jaws and radula
What type of circulatory system do cephalopods have?
closed / blood is confined to vessels throughout its circuit around body
Cephalopod senses?
unparalleled nervous system than any other invertebrate / brains large / eyes are similar to vertebrates
What are chromatophores?
pigment cells in cephalopods / when tiny muscles attached to these pigment cells contract, the chromatophores quickly expand and change the color of the animal
What are spermatophores?
structures for encasing sperm in packets / sperm transferred with a tentacle
What is the inc sac?
used for protection