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43 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
BINARY FISSION
method of asexual reproduction in which an organism constricts and separates into two smaller new individuals
CILIUM
(plural: CILIA)
cylindrical cytoplasmic extension from the surface of certain protozoa and of some kinds of metazoan cells.Serves in locomotion and feeding protozoa. Similar to flagellum, but generally shorter and more numerous. Both cilia and flagella are supported by internal microtubles arranged in a characteristic nine outer plus two central pattern.
COCCIDIOSIS
disease of birds, rabbits, and other animals caused by the sporozoan /Eimeria/ and related sporozoans (Phylum Apicomplexa).
COLONIAL THEORY
suggested explanation for the evolution of metazoa from the unicellular protozoan ancestor throught eh aggregation of unicellular forms into a colony
CONJUGATION
a specialized type of mating, nuclear exchange, and nuclear reorganization characteristic of ciliates; a form of sexual reproduction
CONTRACTILE VACUOLE
an organelle found in many freshwater protozoa that serves in osmoregulation (water balance)
CYTOSTOME
the "cell mouth" found in many protozoa, including ciliates, some flagellates, and some apicomplexa. In ciliates, the cytostome is often surrounded by specialized ciliary feeding organelles
DIOECIOUS
occurence of sex organs in different individuals; that is, there are distinct male and female individuals of a species
FLAGELLA
(singular: flagellum)
cylindrical cytoplasmic extensions from the surface of certain protozoa and some metazoan cells. Function in locomotion and feeding mastigophorans. Similar to cilia but longer and usually fewer per cell
MACRONUCLEUS
the large metabolic nucleus typlical of ciliates. Often has a characteristic chape. Divides amitotically by pinching in two. Contains many duplicated sets of genes (polyploid)
MALARIA
disease of humans and other animals. Caused by members of the protozoan genus /Plasmodium/, which invade the blood and other tissues of the hosts
MICRONUCLEUS
the small reproductive nucleus in ciliates. Some ciliates have more than one micronucleus. Usually divides by ordinary mitosis
MONOECIOUS
occurrence of male and female reproductive organs in the same individual; hermaphroditic
MONOPHYLETIC
having a common evolutionary origin; sharing a common ancestry
NUCLEAR DIMORPHISM
having two distinct types of nuclei within the same cell. Characteristic of the ciliated protozoa, Phylum Ciliophora
POLYPHYLETIC
having different evolutionary origins; no common ancestry
PSEUDOPODIUM
(plural: pseudopodia)
protoplasmic extension of an amoebid cell; the "false foot" of the Sarcodina used for feeding and locomotion. Various Sarcodina have pseudopodia specialized for specific purposes. Also present in other kinds of amoebid cells auch as leucocytes or white blood cells in many kinds of animals
STIGMA
light-sensitive spot found in certain protozoa, such as /Euglena/
SYNCYTIAL THEORY
suggested explanation for the possible evolution of metazoa from some protozoan ancestor as a result of partitioning a multinucleated ciliate form. The resulting metazoan is thought to resemble a primitive flatworm
ABORAL
away from or opposite to the mouth
ANAL
toward the anus or away fromt he mouth
ASYMMETRY
an irregular arrangement of body parts; without a central point, axis, or plane of symmetry
BILATERAL SYMMETRY
an arrangement of body parts on opposite sides of a central plane (midsagittal plane), which divieds the body into two symmetrical halves (mirror images)
CAUDAL
toward the tail or tail end; the opposite of the cephalic
CEPHALIC
of or pertaining to the head; the opposite of caudal
CEPHALIZATION
the concentration of nervous and sensory structures to form a head at the anterior end
CRANIAL
relating to the skull or cranium
CROSS SECTION
sections of the body cut on any transverse plane; such sections are perpendicular to the sgittal and frontal planes
DEEP
pertaining to structures away fromt he surface of the body; the opposite of superficial
DISTAL
awat from the center or point of attachment; the opposite of proximal
DORSAL
relating to the back or upper surface; the opposite of ventral
FRONTAL PLANE
plane parallel to the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the body, which bisects a bilaterally symmetrical animal into upper and lower halves
LATERAL
toward the side; the opposite of medial
LONGITUDINAL
lengthwise; parallel to the long axis
MEDIAL
toward the sagittal plane or center of the body; the opposite of lateral
MEDIAN
located in or near the sagittal plane
ORAL
toward the mouth
PERIPHERAL
toward the outer surface
POSTERIOR
the hind part(rear) of the body; the opposite of anterior
PROXIMAL
toward the center or point of attachment; the opposite of distal
RADIAL SYMMETRY
arrangement of body parts symmetrically around a central axis; any plane through the central axis divides the body into symmetrical halves (mirror images)
SAGITTAL PLANE
any longitudinal plane passing from the head to tail. The midsagittal plane bisects a bilateral animal into two symmetrical halves (mirror images). All longitudinal planes parallel to the midsagittal plane are parasagittal planes
SEGMENTATION
the serial repetition of body parts into distinct segments or metameres