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135 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
A/S - Surgical Procedures
A/S - surgical procedures
Wht does OHE stand for? Common name?
Ovariohysterecomy, spay
What are some non-elective reasons for OHE?
pyometra, uterine/ovarian/mammary cancer
What are some elective reasons for OHE?
prevent heat cycles, decr risk for mammary tumors, no risk of pyometra & uterine cancer, fewer behavioral problems, no risk of pregnanacy, term of pregnancy
What are some contraindications for OHE?
breeding animal, too young, anesthetic risk, late pregnancy
At what age is a OHE done?
before 1st heat cycle, ~5mos in cats, ~6mos in dogs, really being done earlier - 8 weeks
How is OHE done?
Incision through linea alba, one ovary pulled out w/ spay hook and removed, other ovary removed, uterus excised and removed, check for bleeding, put everything back, check again for bleeding, close
What are some possible complications w/ OHE?
abdominal hemorrhage (ligature slips off), Von Willebrand's Dz (clotting disorder), bladderr irritation, peritonitis, infection, dehiscence
Client instructions for OHE
restrict activity for @ least 48hrs, sututre removal in 7-14 days, check incision daily, +/- analgesics, don't bathe animal until sutures are removed
Indications for c-section?
dystocia, can't deliver normally (lg fetus, sm pelvis), fx pelvis, uterine inertia, certain breeds
Describbe c-section procedure
ventral midline incision, exteriorize the uterus, cut along one horn, remove babies w/ babies one at a time, close uterus, +/- spay, routine closure
What drug may be injected during a c-section to shrink uterus and reduce bleeding
What are some important things re: anesthesia during a c-section?
be quick and organized, doseage at animals pre-preg wt, Ketamine does not cause resp depression, atropine can thicken mucous in neonates
What are some steps for neonatal care?
Rub w/ towel to dry and stimulate resp, reverse narcotic w/ nalaxone if needed, aspirate mouth, keep warm, use er drugs as needed, check & tie umbilicus, check neonates for abnormalities, place w/ mom asap
When are c-secion sutures removed?
7-14 days
What are some possible c-section complications?
infection, pups chewing on sutures, resp depression
What are some c-section client instructions?
watch pups closely for adequate nursing & growth, watch mom for care of pups, abnormal discharge, depression
What is pyometra?
pus in the uterus
What are some signs of a pyometra?
anorexia, lethargy, pu/pd, vomitting, +/- discharge
What is a closed v. open pyometra?
Closed - cervix closed and pus accumulates in uterus
Open - cervix is open and pus can drain
___ is a toxic, emergency situation. If the uterus ruptures, the condition is often fatal.
Tx of pyometra?
fluids, ABs, supportive care, lt anesthesia w/ safest protocol avail, wide surgical clip & prep, OHE, close monitoring before, during, & after
A medical tx for open pyometra is avail (___), but ___ is tx of choice
prostaglandin, OHE
What are 2 other terms for castration procedure?
neuter, orchiectomy
What are some indications for castration?
prevent breeding, decrease undesirable male behavior, prev testicular dz & some forms of prostatic dz,
At what age is castration done?
usually 6-9 mos, but can be as young as 6-8 weeks
What are two types of castration?
Closed - ligate around vaginal tunic
Open - cord & vessels separated and ligated individually
What are some comlications of castration?
licking, tearing out sutures, infecitons, clipper burn
Why is castration highly recommended for pt that is cryptorchid?
retained testicle(s) have incr risk of testicular cancer & this is a heritable trait
What is unique about a feline v. canine castration?
hair is plucked off scrotum rather than shaved, and there is no closure
What are some castration complications?
scrotal bleeding, swelling, infection
What should you chane in the cat box after a feline castration
shredded paper for 5-7 days
What is the technical name for a declaw?
At what age are cats declawed?
ideally 3-6 months
How is an onychectomy done?
tourniquet proximal to elbow, P3 removed w/ Roscoe trimmer/scalpel/laser, close w/ sutures or adhesive, +/- bandages
What are some complications of an onychectomy?
neuritis from tourniquet, pain, bleeding , infection, nail regrowth, abnormal stance on feet
Client instructions for onychectomy
shreeded paper/yesterday's News in box for 5-7 days, keep from jumping from high places
WHat is a cosmetic otoplasty?
Ear cropping
At what age are ears cropped?
depends on breed - 8wks - 6 mos
How long are ears bandaged after a crop?
Can be up to 20 weeks
What is a caudectomy?
tail docking
What are three reasons for a caudectomy?
cosmetic, trauma, neoplasia
At what age is a cosmetic caudectomy done?
1-5 days
What is the pre-op prep for a cosmetic caudectomy?
no prep, no anesthesia
What are two indications for declaw removal?
cosmetic, prevent trauma
HOw old are puppies when dewclaws are removed? Anesthesia?
1-5 days, no anesthetic
What is an indication for feline perineal urethrostomy (PU)?
recurrent urethral obstruction in MALE cats
What are two indications for anal gland ablation?
recurrent anal gland impactions/infections, routinely done in ferret descenting
What are two complications w/ anal gland ablation?
infection, fecal incontinence
What is an abcess?
a localized collection of pus (neutrophils) & bacteria in a fibrous capsule
What can cause an abscess?
puncture introduces bacteria into SC or deeper tissue - bites (most common), foreign body, injection
What are some clinical signs of an abscess?
local imflammation, fever, depression, dehydration
What is important about a drain site?
Needs to stay open and clean
In which direction does a drain need to point?
What are some drain comlications?
premature removal by animal, recurrence of abscess, sepsis
When are drains removed?
in 2-5 days
Generally, when are sutures usually removed?
7-14 days
What is an aural hematoma?
hemorrhage in the pinna forms a sanguinous seroma, usually uncomfortable
What is goal of aural hematoma surg?
drain seroma, have ear layers heal together, prevent recurrence
What kind of sutures are placed on ear in aural hematoma surg?
through and through
What are some complications of aural hematoma surg?
infection, recurrence, scarring of pinna (cauliflower ear)
Whan are sutures removed from an aural hematoma surg?
Iftumor is malignant, what besides the tumor will be removed?
wide margin of surrounding tissue if possible
What are some common tumors seen in SA practice (6)?
mammary, lipoma (benign fat cells), mastcell, squamous cell carcinoma, thyroid adenoma, perianal gland adenoma
In what kind of pt is mammary neoplasia usually seen?
older, intact dogs/cats or animals spayed later in life
What is the malignancy rate of mammary neoplasia?
50% in dogs, 90% in cats
What are some surgial options for tx of mammary neoplasia?
lumpectomy, partial mastectomy, radical mastectomy +/- removal of lymph nodes
What is tissue fixed in for histopathy?
formalin (9 parts formalin, 1 part tissue)
What are some f/u therapies for mammary neoplasia surgery?
radiation, chemotherapy
In what pt do lipomas usually occur?
older, overweight animals
What is a lipoma?
benign (usually) fat cell tumor - SC, soft moveable masses
What is unique about the appearance of a lipoma aspiration on a slide?
looks like corn oil - doesn't dry
Are lipomas benign?
usually but a malignant form does exist but it is uncommon - occurs on limbs
Surgical removal of a lipoma is pallative or curative?
Mast cell tumors are, by definition, ___.
Mast cell tumors are braded _, _, or _ based on their likelihood to metasasize w/ _ being most likley.
I, II, or III
III most likley to metastasize
What should you never do to a mast cell tumor? Why?
NEVER squeeze or press on - will release histimine from the granules & cause swelling * increased bleeding during surgery
What solution should be used to scrub area for an ophthalmic suregery? Why
Dilute betadine solution or saline - others may damage eye
What is nictating membrane flap placement?
pulling up the 3rd eyelid to cover the corneal surface
What are some indications for nictating membrane flap placement?
corneal ulcers, proptosis
Describe the 3rd eyelid flap placement procedure
horizontal mattress suture placed through 3rd eyelid and upperlid, usually using a quill to reduce pressure
What is a conjuntival membrane flap? indications?
pulling the conjunctiva over part of the cornea - often for severe corneal ulcers
What is prolapsed gland of 3rd eyelid more commonly known as?
Cherry eye
What is entropion?
eyelid rolls inward
What is ectropion?
lid rolls outward
What is Distichiasis?
abnormal eyelashes - need o remove w/ electrolysis or cryosurgery
What is enucleation?
removal of eyeball
What are some indications of enucleation?
glaucoma, trauma, neoplasia, refractory infections
What is proptosis?
protusion of eye globe from the orbit w/ associated muscle and nerve damage
What is tarsorrhapy?
suturing the eyelids shut
define suffix otomy
to open/cut into
define suffix ectomy
to remove
define suffix resection
to remove (partial)
define suffix anastomosis
toreattach free ends
define suffix stenosis
a narrowing or stricture of a canal or lumen
In GI surgeries, fingers may be used rather than Doyens to retract tissue - why?
Fingers are less traumatic
During surgery, intestines and other organs need to stay ___. What is used to do so?
sterile saline
It is important to remember that intestinal lumen contents are not ___. Anything that contacts these areas is ___. Surgeon will need a second set of instruments to close.
not sterile
Any non-food item that is ingested is a ___.
foreign body
Removal of foreign bodies is one of the most common surgeries on a ferret; they especially like to eat ___.
rubber objects
Cats often have ___ foreign bodies such as string, yarn, ribbon.
What is resection and anastomosis?
partial removal of a part (intestines) and then suturing the remaining ends together
What is GDV? How serious is it?
Gastric Dilation and Volvulus (bloat) - it is a life threatening emergency
What is the surgical tx for GDV?
untwist (+/- removal of damaged parts) stomach and spleen and fixing stomach to body wall
Why are feeding tubes placed?
pt will not or cannnot eat
What is intervertebral disk dz?
Weakness inthe outer capsule of the disk leads to bulging or rupturea d subsequent pressure on the spinal cord
In what breed is intervertebral disk dz common?
beagles, bassets, dachsunds, cockers
What is the surgical tx for intervertebral disk dz?
dorsal laminectomy or hemilaminectomy, +/- fenestration of adjacent disks
What is luxation?
a dislocation of a joint
What is subluxation?
partial dislocation of a joint
What is an articular fx?
fx through a joint
What is an open fx?
fx which penetrates the skin
What is a comminuted fx?
3 or more fx lines which interconnect
What is an epiphyseal (psalter) fx?
Fx line that involeves a growth plate
What is a greenstick fx?
incomplete fx
What is a transverse fx?
fx line is perpendicular to the long axis os bone
What is an oblique fx?
fx line is at an angle to the long axis of the bone
What is a spiral fx?
fx line spirals up bone shaft
What is a multiple fx?
3 or more fx lines that do not interconnect
What is an impacted fx?
fx due to compressive forces
What is an avulsion fx?
fx at point whew ligament or tendon attach to bone
What is a stable fx?
fx that does not displace under force (transverse)
What is an unstable fx?
fx that displaces easily under force (oblique)
What are three external fixation devices?
Kirschner apparatus, cast, splint
What are six internal fixation devices?
intramedullary pins, Rush pins, k-wire, plates, screws, cerclage wire
What is osteomyelitis?
infection of bone and marrow cavity
What is a callus?
a collar of new bone which bridges the fx to repair the fx - formed by periosteum
What is cancellous bone?
soft, lattice-like bone at ends of long bones, used for grafting
What is cortical bone?
compact, hard bone which makes up the shaft of the bone
What are the terms that refer to separation or change inthe relationship of the areticular surfaces of bones?
luxation or dislocation
What is an acute luxation?
result of direct or indirect force of recent occurence
What is a chronic or recurrent luxation?
long standing luxation or recurrence following a reduction, due to degeneration of restraining structures of the joint
What kind of joints are most often involved in luxations?
synovial, vertebral
What is a reduction?
The correction of a fx, dislocation, or hernia
What is tx for a dislocation?
traction & counter-traction, fixation, surgical repair if other methods fail