Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/177

Click to flip

177 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Largest vineyard area for DOC and DOCG wines
Piedmonte
Number of appellations in Piedmonte
40
12 wines of Piedmonte
Langhe DOCG
Barolo DOCG
Barbaresco DOCG
Barbera d'Asti DOCG
Barbera d' Alba DOCG
Dolcetto d'Alba DOC
Dogliani DOCG
Nebbiolo d'Alba DOC
Roero DOCG
Moscato d'Asti DOCG
Gavi DOCG
Gattinara DOCG
Gavi DOCG
Piedmonte DOCG
Cortese grape (white)
dry white with high acid and steely backbone
Limestone soil hillside vineyards
Gattinara
Piedmonte DOCG
Nebbiolo (known as Spanna)
High quality, long lived, substantial oak ageing
Long history
Vineyards on Vercelli and Novara hills
Roero
Piedmonte DOCG
- Nebbiolo and Arneis (significant quantities)
- Left bank of Tanaro across from Langhe
Lombardy sub regions
- Oltrepo Pavese DOC
- Valtellina DOC
- Terre di Franciacorta DOC
Oltrepo Pavese DOC
- largest production in Lombardy
- uninteresting Barbera red dominates
Valtellina
Lombardy DOC
- Predominantly nebbiolo
- Sforzato di Valtellina DOCG is Armarone style dried Nebbiolo, must reach 12% abv
Largest DOC producer
Veneto
11 Wines of the Veneto
Valpollicella DOC
Amarone della Valpolicella DOC
Recioto della Valpolicella DOC
Ripasso della Valpolicella
Bardolino DOC
Bardolino Superiore DOCG
Soave DOC
Bianco di Custoza DOC
Colli Euganei DOC
Piave DOC
Veneto IGT
Valpolicella grapes
Corvina
Rondinella
Molinara
Valpolicella dried grapes
Recioto
Bardolino DOC and Bardolino DOCG grapes
Corvina
Rondinella
Molinara
Lighter, fruiter style than Valpolicella
Soave grapes and blending rules
Gargenga
Trebbiano di Soave and Chardonnay (not to be more than 30%)
Bianco di Custoza
Venetian DOC
Full bodied white blend of:
- Trebbiano Toscano
- Garganega
- Friuliano
- Malvasia Toscana
- Riesling Italico
- Cortese
Friuli-Venezia Giulia
Friuli Grave DOC
Colli Orientali
Collio Goriziano DOC
Friuli Grave
- DOC in Friuli-Venezia Giulia
IGT meaning and introduction?
- Since 1992
- Indicazione Geografica Tipica
Number of DOCGs
36
1st DOCG
Brunello di Montalcino
Number of DOCs
Over 300 (since 1963)
DOCG stands for
Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita
Piedmonte main feature
The Alps
Piedmonte climate
Severe winters
Long summers
Warm autumns
Piedmonte IGT
General Piedmonte DOC, instead of IGT which doesn't exist in region
3 important Piedmonte DOCs
Langhe - Barolo style, lower price
Dolcetto d'Alba - Soft, fuity damson flavours with light tannin and low acid
Nebbiolo d'Alba - Barolo satellite soft, less intense, faster maturing Nebbiolo
9 important Piedmonte DOCG
- Barolo
- Barbaresco
- Barbera d'Alba
- Barbera d'Asti
- Dogliano
- Roero
- Moscato d'Asti
- Gavi
- Gattinara
Barolo
- Piedmonte DOCG
- Long ageing of 2 yrs large oak and 1 in bottle
- Modern wineries now using barriques
- Concentration and complexity
- High tannin, acid and alcohol
- Needs further bottle ageing to show full potential
- rose, violet, strawberry, mushroom, leaves, tar and leather notes
Barbaresco
Piedmonte DOCG
- Nebbiolo less body and complexity than Barolo
- Shorter min ageing requirements
- Similar premium price to Barolo
Piedmonte DOCG
- Nebbiolo less body and complexity than Barolo
- Shorter min ageing requirements
- Similar premium price to Barolo
-
Barbaresco
Barbera d'Asti
Piedmonte DOCG
Barbera grape
medium price, growing reputation
2 styles
-Light, sour cherry fruit to drink young
or
- oak aged, higher tannin, complex and needing bottle ageing
Barbera d'Alba
Piedmonte DOCG
Barbera grape
medium price, growing reputation
2 styles
-Light, sour cherry fruit to drink young
or
- oak aged, higher tannin, complex and needing bottle ageing
Piedmonte DOCG
Barbera grape
medium price, growing reputation
2 styles
-Light, sour cherry fruit to drink young
or
- oak aged, higher tannin, complex and needing bottle ageing
Barbera d'Alba and Barbera d'Asti DOCGs
Dolcetto d'Alba
- Dolcetto grape
- soft and fruity damson notes with light tannin and low acid
Dogliani DOCG
Finest Dolcetto production region
Roero DOCG
Piedmonte

Left bank opposite Langhe
Arneis and Nebbiolo
Moscato d'Asti
Piedmonte DOCG
Moscato grape
highly perfumed and grapey
slight sparkle
(Asti DOCG is fully sparkling)
to be drunk young and fresh
Gavi
Piedmonte DOCG
Cortese grape
Limestone hillside sites
Dry white with high acid and a steely backbone
Cortese
Dry white grape with high acid and a steely backbone
Grape of Gavi DOCG in Peidmonte
Gattinara
Spanna (Nebbiolo)
long history of quality
Long lived with substantial oak ageing
Langhe
Piedmonte DOC
Nebbiolo at lower price than Barolo/Barbaresco
Some new oak styles being made
Barbara d'Alba & Barbara d'Asti
Barbara grape
Piedmonte DOCGs
Medium price point
2 main styles (both have good acid of the variety):
Light, with sour cherry fruit
or
Oak aged with high tannins
Most planted Italian red varieties (yr 2000)
Barbera is a red Italian wine grape variety that, as of 2000, was the third most-planted red grape variety in Italy (after Sangiovese and Montepulciano).[1]
Dolcetto d'Alba
Piedmonte DOC
Damson notes
Soft and fruity
light tannin
low acid
Dolcetto varietal wines
Damson notes
Soft and fruity
light tannin
low acid
Best Dolcetto
Dogliani
Piedmonte DOCG
Dogliani
Piedmonte
DOCG
Best Dolcetto region
3 Lombardy DOCs
Oltrepo Pavese
Valtellina
Terre di Franciacorta
Oltrepo Pavese
area
soil
wines
landscape
Largest production area in Lombardy
Calcareous clay soils
Mainly uninteresting Barbera but large range of wines
Apennine foothills from Po to Emilia
Valtellina DOC
climate
landscape
grapes
Long summer days, cool nights
Steep slopes of river Adda
Nebbiolo
Valtellina local DOCG
Sforzata di Valtellina
High quality Nebbiolo dried like Amarone
Valtellina Superiore DOCG
12% abv (1% higher than standard Valtellina DOC
Terre di Franciacorta
terrior
wine
yeilds
trellising
grapes
DOC
Low hills, Lake Iseo moderates
High quality red, white & sparkling
10 ton/ ha yeilds
tendone and GDC trellises banned
Pinot Blanc, Chardonnay, Cab Sauv
11 Veneto classifications
Valpolicella DOC
Amarone della Valpolicella DOCG
Recioto della Valpolicella DOC
Ripasso della Valpolicella
Bardolino DOC
Bardolino Superiore DOCG
Soave DOC
Bianco di Custoza DOC
Colli Euganei DOC
Piave DOC
Veneto IGT
Veneto production and climate
Largest DOC producer
Mountains to North, Sea to East - moderate
Valpolicella DOC
Corvina (Rondinella and Molinara also permitted)
Basic Valpolicella is light and fruity from the valley floor
Best, eg Classico DOC is from the hills .
Proportion of recioto may be used
Proportion of Valpolicella fruit dried before fermentation for concentration and complexity
Recioto
Amarone della Valpolicella
DOC
Entirely recioto
intense with long finish
Style affected by level of drying, oxygenation and botrytis
Traditional Amarone style note
Port like, intense, long finish
Modern Amarone style
Pure cherry
Full body
Sweet fruit on palate
Long bitter finish
Recioto della Valpolicella
DOC
Full bodied
Sweet
100% recioto
Fermentation stopped early
Ripasso della Valpolicella
Unpressed Amarone or Recioto skins added to basic Valpolicella.
Refermentation gives extra viscosity, tannins and complexity
Bardolino
DOC
Shores of Lake Garda (cooler climate)
Valpolicella varieties
Light and fruity red and rose
Bardolino Superiore
DOCG
Corvina/Rondinella/Molinara
More complex with greater concentration than DOC
Soave classification
Soave DOC
Soave Superiore DOCG
Soave Recioto DOCG
Soave Grapes
Garganega (Must be min 70% of blend)
Trebbiano di Soave
Chardonnay
Soave Soil
Volcanic in classico region
Garganega aromas
Almonds, floral or grapey when grown with low yields
Bianco di Custoza
location
soil
style
DOC in Veneto
Limestone hills south west of Lake Garda
Full bodied white blends
Bianco di Custoza grapes
Trebbiano Toscano, garganega, friuliano, malvasia Toscana, Riesling Italico (welschriesling) and Cortese
Colli Euganei
Soil, location and grapes
DOC in Veneto
Rich, volcanic hills near Padua
Replanted in '60s with international varietals, e.g. Merlot
Piave
DOC in Veneto
International varieties dominate
Veneto IGT Styles
- Light, fruity Merlot
- Local grapes made in non-traditional ways
- Local grapes in non- traditional blends
Friuli-Venezia Giulia
Wines and best sites
- large variety of red and white styles
- Best sites in East of region
- Adriatic and alpine airflows benefit hillsides bordering Slovenia
Friuli Grave
DOC in Friuli-Venezia Giulia
Largest quantity production
Flat plains planted mainly light fruity red Bordeaux blends
Fruili Grave local grape and wine
- Refosco red native variety
- High acidity
- Red fruit flavours
- developing plum and dark chocolate with age
White Friuli Grave
- White blends and single varietals grown on hillside sites
- Some cask ageing used
- High reputation
- Crisp fruitiness with depth of complexity
Colli Oriental and Collio Goriziano
DOCs in Friuli-Venezia Guilia
Steep hillside sites
Expressive whites from local and international varieties
Colli Orientali and Collio Goriziano varietals
Friulano
Pinot Bianco
Pinot Grigio
Gewürztraminers
Rhine Riesling
Chardonnay
Picolit for expensive dessert wine
Expensive and prestigious dessert wine in Fruili-Venezia Guilai
Picolit based wines from Colli Orientali and Collio Goriziano DOC
Largest quantity produced in Fruili-Venezia Giulia
Friuli Grave DOC
Trentino-Alto Adige geography
Mountainous most northerly Italian region.
High altitude plantings
Vines in terraces on lower slopes.
Alto Adige quantity and quality
small quantity, high quality
Alto Adige trade
- Highest proportion of DOC wines
- Highest number of exports (Austria is main market)
Trentino-Alto Adige history/regions
Far north = German speaking Southern Tyrol (use QbA not DOC)
North = Alto Adige, formerly Austro Hungarian
South - Trentino always Italian
Alto Adige regional wine style
predominantly varietal production rather than blends
Alto Adige Red Wines
Schiava - light, acidic reds
Lagrein - Dark, intense red developing with bottle age
Alto Adige White Wines
Increasing production of high quality whites:
- Pinot Grigio
- Gewürztraminer
- Sauvignon Blanc
- Riesling
Trentino Wines, main style
Major producer of neutral Pinot Grigio.
Local Teroldego red also important
Quality not as high as Alto Adige
Trentino Red Wine
Local red variety Teroldego
Produces high acidity, low tannin wine with cherry fruit.
Emilia-Romagna
Geography and sub-regions
South of Po,fertile and high yielding
- Colli Piacentini DOC
- Sangiovese di Romagna DOC
- Trebbiano di Romagna DOC
Colli Piancentini
DOC
Emilia-Romagna Western sub region
- Similar to Lombardy's Oltrepo Pavese
- Uninteresting Barbera reds
- Promise from new plantings of Chardonnay, Pinot Noir and Cabernet Sauvignon
Sangiovese di Romagna
Emilia-Romagna DOC
Correct clonal selection results in higher quality product
Trebbiano di Romagna
Emilia-Romagna DOC
Refreshing still or sparkling whites
Italy's global production share
1 (but small holdings)
Tuscan geography
Vineyards at altitude on slopes
Excellent sun exposure
Wide diurnal temperature range
Grapes keep high natural acidity and develop fruity aromas
Maritime sites ideal of Bordeaux
Chianti Consorzio
Represents all zones except Classico
Rule changes in Chianti
2002
International grapes max permitted in Chianti blends
- 15% in Chianti
- 20% in sub zones
- 20% in Classico
Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot permitted percentages in Chianti
= 10% max in Chianti (10/15)
= 10% max in sub regions (10/20)
= 20% max in Classico (20/20)
Chianti irrigation
Emergency irrigation permitted in Classico zone
Chianti white grapes
to be phased out of blend
Chianti DOCG grapes
Sangiovese (dominent in blend or on its own)
Canaiolo
Colorino
Cabernet Sauvignon
Merlot
Syrah
Chianti ageing
3 years for riserva
Large botti casks
or
more recently barriques
Chianti sub zones
7
Chianti Rufina
Small, cool zone NE of Florence
High quality
Full bodied wines
High acidity
Sangiovese
High acid
High tannins
medium body
sour cherry and earthy flavours
Chianti Classico DOCG
Separate DOCG from Chianti
Between Florence and Siena
Hills sites
Varied soils
Finest, most age worthy Chianti
Brunello di Montalcino grape
DOCG
Brunello (Sangiovese clone)
Brunello di Montalcino location
DOCG
South of Siena, near town of Montalcino
Brunello di Montalcino wine and ageing
- top quality, long lived
- Aged min 2 years in cask
- Aged 4 years before release
First DOCG classified?
Vino Nobile di Montepluciano
Vino Nobile di Montepulciano grape
Prugnolo (Sangiovese clone)
Vino Nobile di Montepulciano
Prugnolo from town of Montelpulciano. 3 years ageing as per Chianti reserva
Rosso di Montepulciano
DOC
Same region and grape (Prugnolo) as Vino Nobile di Montepulciano
Only aged one year before release
Wine is lighter and fruitier
DOC is used like Bordeaux 2nd label
Rosso di Montalcino
DOC
Tuscany
Same region and grape (Brunello) as Brunello di Montalcino
Only aged one year before release
Wine is lighter and fruitier
DOC is used like Bordeaux 2nd label
Only white DOCG in Tuscany
Vernaccia di San Gimignano DOCG
Vernaccia di San Gimignano geography
DOCG Tuscany
white
High altitude hill sites
Diurnal temp range extends ripening and keeps flavours
Vernaccia di San Gimignano wine
Neutral wine, medium bodied
white
1994 DOC of Tuscany
Bolgheri
Bolgheri
Tuscan DOC
Super tuscans Ornellia and Sassicaia
Principally Cab Sauv and Merlot
More temperate than most of Tuscany due to sea's proximity
Toscana IGT
1992 IGT
Accommodating wines outside DOC regulations
Carmignano
Tuscan DOCG
North of Florence
Serious Sangiovese reds and percentage of Cab Sauv
Pomino
Tuscan DOCG
North of Florence
Serious Sangiovese reds and percentage of Cab Sauv
2 Tuscan DOCGs
North of Florence
Serious Sangiovese reds and percentage of Cab Sauv
Pomino and Carmignano
Vin Santo
Tuscan
Dessert wine from raisined grapes.
Oxidatively aged in cask for many years
Tuscan regions on syllabus (13)
Chianti (+ DOCG + Classico)
Brunello di Montalcino (+ Rosso di)
Vino nobile di Montepulciano (+ Rosso di)
Vernaccia di San Gimignano
Bolgheri
Toscana IGT
Carmignano
Pomino
Vin Santo
Marche wines
Verdicchio dei Castelli di Jesi DOC (WHITE)
Conero DOCG (RED)
Most commonly seen Marche wine
Verdicchio dei Castelli di Jesi DOC
Dry white
Range of styles from light and fresh to rich and complex

Flavours of herbs
Conero
Marche DOCG
Montepulciano grape (NOT Prugnello!)
Full bodied
deep colour
medium tannins
Verdicchio dei Castelli di Jesi
Marche DOC
Herb flavoured dry white in range of styles from rich and complex to fresh and light
Umbrian climate
similar to Tuscan but without moderating sea influence
Umbrian wines
Orvieto DOC (white)
Sagrantino di Montefalco DOC (red)
Orvieto
Soil
Grape
Wines
Umbrian DOC
Tuffeau limestone like Vouvray
Orvieto Wines
Umbrian DOC
Traditional sweet through to dry
styles
Crisp, refreshing but neutral
Best show crisp apple characters
Orvieto grape
Umbrian DOC
Procanico (trebbiano sub variety) in blend with Malvasia and Verdello.
Sagrantino di Montefalco
Umbrian DOC
Sagratino produced in Montefalco
Local variety
Historically tannic and rustic
Responds well to modern winemaking
Frascati
grape and wine
Lazio DOC
Malvasia dominent in blend with Trebbiano
Simple, low price, fresh, clean white
Abruzzo location and geography
Eastern side of central Italy, ranging from mountains to coast
Montepulciano d'Abruzzo
Montepulciano grape
early drinking simple REDS
Deep colour
Moderate acid
Trebbiano d'Abruzzo
Bombino grape used (which is NOT a sub variety of Trebbiano!)
Abruzo 2 wines
Trebbiano d'Abruzzo (WHITE)
Montepulciano d'Abruzzo (RED)
Italian barrel woods
Traditionally
Tuscany & Piedmonte = Cherry
Veneto = Acacia
Islands = Chestnut
Hungarian and Slovenian oak also used
5 wines of Campagnia
Taurasi DOCG
Greco di Tufo
Lacrima Christi del Vesuvio
Fiano d'Avellino
Falerno del Massico
Campagnia soil and history
Volcanic soils ideal for quality production (Vesuvius)
Greatest wines of classical Italy
Standards now fallen and few aim for quality
Taurasi grape
Campagnia DOCG
Aglianico
thick skin
High acid
Late ripening
Complex flavours
Taurasi wine
Campania DOCG
Full bodied
Tannic
dark plum and spice
Aglianico grape
Taurasi wine
3 yrs aging (one in cask) required
Campania DOCG
Lacrima Christi dei Vesuvio grape
Greco grape with others in blend
Campania DOCG
Lacrima Christi dei Vesuvio wine style
Campania DOCG
dry to sweet
Still to sparkling
Some red and rose produced
Greco di Tufo grape
Campania white wine
Greco is the grape
Tufo is the village
Greco is a clone of Greco Bianco
Greco di Tufo wine
Campania white
Fresh, aromatic white from low temp fermentation
Fiano d'Avelino
Campania white
Fiano grape grown near Avellino
Full bodied
Hazelnut and pear flavours
Falerno del Massico
Red Campania blend
60-80% Aglianico
20-40% Piedirosso, Primitivo and Barera (max 20%)
Slopes of mount Massico
5 wines of Campania
Taurasi DOCG (RED)
Lacrima Christi del Vesuvio (WHITE, dry, sweet, red & Rose)
Greco di Tufo (WHITE)
Fiano d'Avellino (WHITE)
Falerno del Massico (RED)
Puglia production
2nd highest by volume
Puglia climate
Hot maritime
Puglia grapes & wine styles
Primitivo and Negroamaro
Full bodied reds
High alcohol
Spicy berry characters
3 Puglia wines
Salice Salentino DOC
Copertino DOC
Primoitivo del Manduria
Salice Salentino DOC
Puglia DOC
Negroamaro and Malvasia Nero red blend
Intense, almost Port like
Similar to Copertino DOC
Copertino DOC
Puglia DOC
Negroamaro and Malvasia Nero red blend
Intense, almost Port like
Similar to Salice Salentino DOC
Basilicata
Poor, mountainous, small industry
Aglianico del Vulture DOC
Aglianico del Vulture
Basilicata DOC
Range of styles from Aglianico grape
Young and fruity
to
Full bodied aged for min of 3 yrs
Calabria
Ciro DOC (RED)
Ciro
Calabria DOC (RED)
Gaglioppo principal grape
Hefty red
Handful of producers
Quality starting to be recognised
More focus on int styles from small barrel aging
Sicily 3 wines
Alcamo DOC
Carasuolo DOCG
Passito di Pantelleria DOC
Sicily quality wines
Q symbol on label
Denotes quality at any level
Much bulk wine
Better quality from mountains
A few estates make very high quality wines
Sicily area under vine
Largest area under vine in Italy (much bulk)
3 Sicilian wines
Alcamo DOC (WHITE, red + rose)
Cerasuolo DOCG (RED)
Passito di Pantelleria DOC (Moscato SWEET)
Sicily grapes
Indigenous & int
Nero d'Avola common
Cataratto, Grillo and Inzolia for blended dry whites & Marsala
Alcamo
Sicily DOC (WHITE, red & rose)
NW Sicily
Around town of Trapani
Trapani's vineyards most extensive in Italy
Mainly Cataratto whites
Cerasuolo
Sicily DOCG (RED)
DOCG in 2005
Long lived red
Frapatto grape
Passotp do Pantelleria
Sicily DOC
Pantelleria is island nr North Africa!
Luscious sweet wine
Moscato grapes
Lighter than Rutherglen muscat
Sardinia
Great potential due to geography and climate
Varietal whites from Vermentino
Reds from Cannonau (Grenache)
Number of IGT/DOC/DOCG
38 DOCG
316 DOC
118 IGT