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527 Cards in this Set

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Hybrid
variety resulting from cross-polination of 2 different species
Crossing
variety resulting from cross-polination of 2 different varieties of the same species (e.g. 2 v vinerfera)
Maritime Climate - Characteristics
warm summers
mild winters
Mediterranean Climate - Characteristics
maritime climate (warm summers, mild winters) but
most of the rainfall occurs in winter
-particularly suite to viticulture
-California, Chile & South Africa, Mediterranean shores
Continental Climate- Characteristics
-middle of a landmass
-extreme temps in both summer and winter
Currents
Locations & Effects
Alaska - cold
Humboldt Current (Chile) - cold
Benguela Current (S Africa) - cold
Gulf Stream (NW Europe)-warm



marked cooling effect on climate
Effects of Rivers on Viticulture
Rivers - less likely to suffer frost damage due to movement of water

Warm Air/Cool Bodies (Tokaji/Sauternes) - mists are created which encourages noble rot
Shallow lakes (Neusiedlersee in Austria) - similar to above
Effects of Mountains on Viticulture
Rain Shadow (e.g. Vosges Mts protect Alsace)
Source of Cold Winds (e.g. Mistral in Rhone Valley)
Temps drop w/increased altitude - (eg Salta, Argentina and Orange, Australia)
Marginal Climates - example regions and risks
-opposite of stable climate
-vintages become important as quality will vary from time to time
-examples are Champagne, Tasmania ("just suitable"), Bordeaux and Hunter Valley (risk of heavy rainfall at harvest), Burgundy, Canada (susceptible to Frost), Mendoza, Barolo (susceptible to hail)
3 Forms of Protection against Spring Frost
1. Smudge Pots - create smoke that acts like blanket to keep heat in.
2. Wind Machines - drawn in warm air from aove to keep the temp at ground level above freezing point
3. Aspersion System - sprinklers spray water so that an insulating coat of ice protects the shoots.
Coulure
"floral abortion"
nonfertilized blossom is shed
Millerandage
"hen and chicken"
appearance of small, seedless grapes within a bunch, results from unsatisfactory pollination
Soils & Topography- Effects
Soil:
water retention (absorption & drainage)
heat retention
nutrients & minerals

Topography:
steepness & direction affect drainage, air circulation & exposure to the sun
When is the first yield and make it be used in production of quality wine?
Year 3
may not be used in production of quality wine in EU
Parts of a Vine - Name 7
roots/rootstock
trunk/arms/cordons - permanent wood
cane/spur-last years wood
shoots-this years growth
nodes/buds (8 to 15 per cane)
flowers/fruit/berries
leaves
Describe Pruning
determines the number and location of shoots, spur, in which a number of short two- or three- bud spurs are left on the vine, and replacement cane, where one or more longer canes, each of 8 to 12 buds are left.
Define replacement cane pruning & describe when it would be used.
one (or more) long canes with up to 15 buds are retained. By minimizing the amount of perm wood (and the vine's carbohydrate reserves), the vine's vigor is restricted , so this system helps to limit yields
Define spur pruning
large number of short (two- or three-bud) spurs are retained. Vines with a large amount of perm wood tent to be more vigorous than replacement-can pruned vines
Define Training
determines the shape of the vine, by positioning the shoots to display leaves and fruit. Most common system is VSP (vertical shoot positioning). Alternatives include pergolas & untrained bush vines.
Yield Management Factors & Effects
Effects: excessive yields results in the grapes failing to ripen properly as the sugars in the leaves are shared among to many grapes.
High rainfall/excessive irrigation can give large crops of bloated/flavorless grapes and resulting wine will lack character.
Factors:
# of Vines per hectare
# of Buds to Vine
# of Shoots
# of Clusters to Shoot
# of Berries to Cluster
Weight of Berries
Green harvesting - pick out excess bunches at veraison
Name 2 of the 5 Vineyard Pests w/ Effect and Treatment
1.grape moths (cochylis, pyralis & eudemis)-attack buds and grapes, insectisides
2.red/yellow spider mite-infest eleaves/decreasing vegetation growth, sprays
3.phylloxera
4.nematodes - attack roots, tx difficult so prevention is key
5.birds and animals - consume grapes, netting/fencing
Name 2 of the 5 Diseases & Treatment
1.Powdery Mildew (oidium) - white powder on green parts, likes warm, shady environment, spray or dust with sulfur
2.Downy mildew (persnospera)-attacks green parts w/downy fungus, likes damp conditions, systemic fungicides
3.Rot (botrytis cinerea)- gray/noble rot
4. Longterm diseases such as eutyps dieback and phomopsis, attacks vine through pruning cuts & kills arms, no treatment.
5.Longterm bacterial disease - Pierce's disease (sharpshooters). vine will die in 5 years, no effective cure. - high risk in So Cal.
Typical Vineyard Calendar -Northern Hemisphere (october - september)
Oct - cellar
Nov/Dec - autumn pruning. Shoots lignify& vines fall dormant
Jan - start main pruning
Feb-pruning
Mar-finish pruning, sap begins to rise
Apr-budburst, first spraying
May-leaves appear, can matures to form old wood, shoots grow
Jun-shoots positioned, flowering, fruit set
Jul-green harvest, last spraying
Aug-veraison, grapes swell & ripen, prepare for the vintage
Sep-Vintage
Two Factors Considered When Assessing Ripeness of the Grape
1.Phenolic ripeness (skins,pips)
2.Super ripeness
How is sugar ripeness measured?
What is the name of the tool used?
What is the measurement in France?
What is the measurement in Germany?
What is the measurement in Cali, Australia and NZ
w/refractometer to measure potential sugar and scales

1. Baume-France
2. Oechsle/KMW - Germany/Austria
3. Brix/Balling - California, Austria and NZ
Must adjustments
Chaptilisation- adding sugar to the must (before or during fermentatation to increase alcohol levels
Sulphur Dioxide-antioxidant / antiseptic, kills wild yeast, prevents oxidation
Acidification-adds tartaric acid
Deacidification-adds potassium bicarbonate
Add tannin powder or stalks to vat for insufficient tannin
What is saccharomyces cerevisiae?
main yeast needed for alcoholic fermentation
Define fermentation
conversion of sugar, by the interaction of yeasts, into alcohol, with carbon dioxide gas and heat as by-products.
Describe vinification of red wine.
destalked/crushed
ferment at 20-32 C
pump over (remontage) or punching down (foulage and pigeage)
Describe vinification of rose wine.
crushed grapes are maccerated for 1-3 days and the run off pale coloured juice is fermented w/out the skins
Describe vinification of white wine.
grapes are pressed as no tannins are needed
juice is drawn off and allowed to ferment.
Fermentation is 15-20 C and takes longer than red wine to enhance to fruit flavours and avoid loss of freshness
Malolactic fermentation
lactic bacteria convert the tart malic acids (as in apples) into the softer lactic acids (as in milk).
Flavors imparted by maturation in American oak.
sweet, vanilla, coconut flavors and a little sappy tannin
Flavors imparted by maturation in French oak
provide more broader spectrum of flavours and tannins than american oak that help the wine age better once bottles.
Declining scale of contribution from types of aging vessels
1. small new oak barrels
2. second-hand oak barrels (1-2 yrs. old); large old casks and vats.
3. neutral vats, stainless steel, epoxy, glass lines.
Define fining & substances used for fining.
method that stimulates tiny problematic molecules to coagulate into larger lumps (colloids) which either sink to the bottom or can be removed by filtration.
-egg whites (albumen), betonite (clay of volcanic origin), and isinglass
2 Examples of Filtration
plate filters - removes unwanted particles
membrane filters - removes both yeasts & bacteria
2 Types of Bottling
cold, sterile bottling - requires complete sterilization not just of the wine, but also of the filling equipment, bottles & closures
hot bottling-used for cheaper wine, wine is heated in the bottle to kill microbes
List the WSET Advanced approach to Wine Tasting
Appearance:
clarity
intensity
color
other

Nose:
condition
intensity
development
aroma characteristics

Palate:
sweetness
acidity
tannin
alcohol
body
mousse
flavour intensity
flavour characteristics
length

Conclusions:
Quality
Price Category
Readiness to Drink
Germany - Climate/Weather/Soils
Climate - cool, continental
Weather - variable, annual vintage variations due to spring frost, insufficient warmth during growing season and heavy rains in July / August. Long autumns encourage formation of noble rot.
Soils - best have heat-retaining soils w/good drainage. Mosel=slate
Germany
Name 1 of 2 Main Black Grapes
Spatburgunder (Pinot Noir)
Dornfelder
Germany
Name Main White Grape and one other white grape
Riesling
Muller-Thurgau
Silvaner
Kerner
Scheurebe
Rulande (pinot gris)
Germany
Grapegrowing (i.e. best vineyard sites)
best vineyards sited near rivers to aid frost protection. planted on steep south- and south-esats facing slopes to maximize exposure to the sun. High yields for vineyards planted on plains.
Germany
Winemaking (allowable must adjustments)
chapitalisation allowed for all but QmP wines
sussreserve (sterile grape juice) can be used at bottling
Germany
6 Key Wine Regions
Mosel
Nahe
Rheingau
Rheinhessen
Pfalz
Baden
Bernkastel, Piesport, Saar, Ruwer
Mosel Region of Germany
Scholossbockelheim
Nahe Region, Germany
Rudesheim, Geisenheim, Johannisberg
Rheingau Region, Germany
What region/country is Nierstein located in?
Rheinhessen Region, Germany
In what region and country are Forst and Deidesheim?
Pfalz Region, Germany
What region in Germany are Kaiserstuhl and Tuniberg located in?
Baden Region, Germany
Define trocken & halbtrocken
trocken-dry
halbtrocken - off-dry
Levels of Germany Quality Wines
Deutscher Tafelwein-Table Wine
Landwein - vin de pays
QbA - quality wine from 13 regions (anbaugebiete)
QmP (Pradikatswein)-highest quality
Pradikatswein Categories
Kabinett
Spatlese
Auslese
Beerenauslese
Eiswein
Trockenbeerenauslese
What is an einzellage
individual vineyard
What is a grosslage
group of adjoining vineyards
What is a gemeinde
commune, does not have legal status in germany
What is a bereich
district within a quality region, consisting of several communes
what % of wine must come from the specified source if a Bereich, Grosslage or Einzerllage is mentioned on the label?
85%
What does "classic" mean on a German wine label?
"harmoniously dry"
United Kingdom
Climate, Weather, Soils
cool, maritime climate tempeed by the Gulf stream and global warming
variable weather gives annual vintage variations. rain and frost are major problems
soils are varied but good drainage is essential
United Kingdom
Key Black Grapes
Name 1 of 2 Local Varietals
Name 1 of 2 Int'l Varietals
Dornfelder
Rondo
Pinot Noir
Pinot Meunier
United Kingdom
Name 2 of the 6 Key White Grapes
B, O, R, S, SB, C
Bacchus
Ortega
Reichensteiner
Schonberger
Seyval Blanc
Chardonnay
Austria
Climate, Weather, Soils
What is climatic category?
What is humidity level?
Is there vintage variation?
sunny dry continental
milder and more humid around LakeNeusiedl
fewer variations in Vintages
Romania
Climate Weather, Soils
sunny dry continental
milder and more humid near Black Sea
fewer variations in Vintages
Bulgaria
Climate, Weather, Soils
What is the climate?
What is the humidity level?
Is there much concern from vintage variation?
sunny dry continental
milder and more humid near Black Sea
fewer variations in Vintages
Austria
Key Grape Varieties
Name 1 of the 2 local black varietals. (B or Z)
Name 2 of the 3 most popular white varietals.
Black: Blaufrankisch, Zweigelt
White: Gruner-Veltliner, Riesling, Welschriesling
Hungary
Key Grape Varieties
Name Most Popular Local Black Varietal (bulls blood)
Name 3 Popular White Varietals (tokay production)
Black: Kekfrankos, Kadarks, Cab Franc
White: Furmint, Harslevelu, Irsai Oliver, Pinot Gris,
Romania
Key Grape Varieties
Name 1 of the 2 Black Grapes (Int'l Varieties) P/M
Name 1 of the 2 White Varietals (Local) F/W
Black: Pinot Noir, Merlot
White: Feteasca, Welschriesling
Bulgaria
Key Grape Varieties
Name 1 Key White & 1 Key Black
Black: Cab Sauv, Merlot, Gamza, Mavrud
White: Aligote, chardonnay
Key Regions in Austria
Lower Austria (Niederosterreich)- White - Wachau, Kamptal, Kremstal, Donauland

Burgenland - (Red/Dessert) - Neusiedlersee, Mittelburgenland, Neusiedlersee-Hugelland
Name 2 Key Regions in Hungary
Tokaj-Hegyalja, Eger
Key Regions of Dealu Mare is in what country?
Romania
Key Regions of Thracian Valley, Danube Plain, Struma Valley, Black Sea Region are located in what country?
Bulgaria
Austria
2 Additional Wine Classifications
Ausbruch: between BA and TBA
Strohwine: sweet wine made from dried grapes
What is Minosegy Bor?
quality wine produced in a specific region (Hungary)
Bulgaria
What is the labelling term equiv to French AC
Controliran
Italy
Climate, Weather & Soils
Climate - meditteranean, cooler in North, hot in South
Weather - variable weather giving annual vintages in North
Soils - variable. Must of country is hilly or mountainous, and most of the best vineyards are on slopes.
Italy
Black Grape Varieties
name 4 of the 8 local varietals
name 2 of the 4 intl varietals
Local: Nebbiolo, Sangiovese, Barbera, Dolcetto, Corvina, Montepulciano, Aglianico, Primitivo
Int'l: Cab Sauv, Cab Franc, Merlot, Pinot Noir
Italy
White Grape Varieties
Name 3 of the 5 Local Varietals
Name 1 of the 2 Int'l Varietals
Local: Trebbiano, Malvasia, Verdiccio, Garganega, Cortese
Int'l: Chardonnay, Pinot Grigio
Italy
Grapegrowing Characteristics
What is characteristic about vine training in the North?
What is characterisic about vine training in the South?
high trained vines in the north
low trained, high density planting in the South
Italy
Name the 13 Key Regions
Piedmont
Trentino-Alto Adige
Friuli-Venezia Giulia
Veneto
Tuscany
Marche
Umbria
Latium
Abruzzo
Campania
Apulia
Basilicata
Sicily
In what region and what country are Barolo, Barbaresco, Barbera d'Asti, Dolcetto D'Alba, Gavi located in?
Piedmont Region, Italy
Valpolicella (Amarone, Recioto), Soave, Bardolino, Veneto IGT
Veneto Region, Italy
Bolgheri, Brunello di Montalcino, Chianti, Vernaccia di San Gimignano, Vino Nobile di Montepulciano, Toscana IGT
Tuscany Region, Italy
What region and country are Conero and Verdiccio dei Castelli di Jesi located in? Where is it located in the country?
Marche Region, Italy
What region is Orvieto in?
Umbria Region, Italy
What region is Frascati in?
Latium Region, Italy
In what region and country are Montepulciano d'Abruzzo and Trebbiano d'Abruzzo?
Abruzzo Region, Italy
Taurasi, Greco di Tufo
Campania Region, Italy
In what country and region are Salice Salentino and Copertino located in?
Puglia Region, Italy
What region is Aglianico del Vulture in?
Basilicata Region, Italy
What does the label term "Amabile" mean and what country is it used in?
medium-sweet

Italy
Spain
Climates
Whare are the four climates of Spain?
4 climates:
atlantic coast-moderate, wet, maritime
north-warm, maritime
center - hot continental
mediterranean coast - warm-hot meditteranean
Spain
Weather Effects on Vintage
North & Atlantic - varying vintages affected espially by rain
Spain
Soils - what are they mostly
mostly limestone/chalk except:
Far North-West - granite
South-East - sand
Spain
Key Black Grapes
Name 2 of the 3 Local Varietals (TGM)
Name the 2 Int'l Varietals
Local: Tempranillo, Garnacha, Monastrell
Int'l: Cab Sauv, Merlot
Spain
Key White Grapes
Name 3 of the 4 Local Varietals
Name 2 Int'l Varietals
Local: Airen, Viura, Verdejo, Albarino
Int'l: Chardonnay, Sav Blanc
Spain
Name 4 of the 6 Key Regions
Upper Ebro - Navarra, Rioja, Somontano
Catalonia - Catalona, Costers del Segre, Penedes, Priorato, Tarragona
Duero Valley - Rubera del Duero, Reuda, Toro
Galicia - Riax Baixas
Levante - Valencia
Castilla-La Mancha - La Mancha, Valdepenas
Navarra, Rioja, Somontano
Upper Ebro Region, Spain
Catalonia, Costers del Segre, Penedes, Priorato, Tarragona
Catalonia Region, Spain
Ribera del Duero, Rueda, Toro
Duero Valley Region, Spain
What region is Rias Biaxas in ?
Galicia Region, Spain
What region is Valencia in
Levante Region, Spain
La Mancha, Valdepenas
Castilla-La Mancha Region, Spain
Where is the label term DOCa used and what does it mean?
highest level of quality in Spain (only Rioja & Priorato)
Where is the label term Vino Joven used what what does it mean?
young wine
Where is the label term Crianza used what what does it mean?
2 years minimum aging, of which 6 months must be in cask (in rioga, its 12 months)
When the label term "Reserva" is used in Spain, what does it mean?
Spain
Red: 3 years min aging, of which 12 mos must be in cask
Rose/White: 2 years aging, of which 6 mos must be in cask
Where is the label term Gran Reserva used what what does it mean?
Red: 5 years min aging, of which 18 mos be in cask (rioja=24)
Rose/White: 4 years aging, of which 6 mos must be in cask
Portugal
Climate /WeatherTypes
Near Coast - warm, maritime
Inland - warm-hot continental
South - hot Mediterranean

rain can be problem at coast
Portugal
Soil Types for
1) coastal
2) Duoro Valley and Dao
3) Bairrada
sandy near coast
Douro Valley and Dao- granite
Bairrada - limestone & clay
Portugal
Name 2 of 6 Key Black Grapes
Baga, Touriga Nacional, Trincadeira, Tinta Roriz/Aragonez, Jaen, Periquieta,
Portugal
Key White Grapes
Alvarinho, Loureiro, Arinto, Roupeiro
Portugal
Name 4 Key Regions of the North
Bairrada
Dao
Douro
Vinho Verde
Portugal
Key Regions - South
Alentego, Rebatejo
What does the label term "Reserva" mean in Portugal?
wine from a single vintage
What does the label term "Quinta" mean in Portugal?
estate
Greece, Cyprus, Lebanon
Climate
warm-hot Mediterranean
Black: Xynomavro, Agiorgitiko (Saint-George), Cab Sauv, Merlot, Syrah
white: Savatiano, Rhoditis, Assyrtiko, Chardonnay, Sauv Blanc
Greece - Key Varietals
Black: Mavro
White: Xynisteri
Cyprus - Key Varietals
Nemea, Naoussa, Santorini
Key Regions, Greece
In what Southern Europe/Meditteraneam region is the Key Region of Troodos Mountains?
Cyprus
Bakaa Valley
Key Region, Lebanon
What does the label term "TA" mean and what country is it used in?
Traditional Appellation, given to traditional wines (eg Retsina) in Greece
Black: Mavro
White: Xynisteri
Cyprus - Key Varietals
What is the French AC equivalent that is used in Greece?
AOQS
In which country are the following varietals key:
Black: Mavro
White: Xynisteri
Cyprus
Nemea, Naoussa, Santorini
Key Regions, Greece
South Africa
Climate, Weather & Soils
warm-hot mediterranean, very arid inland, cooler near coast

little vintage variation, drought can be a problem

soils are varied. Stellenbosch known for limestone and sandstone
Nemea, Naoussa, Santorini
Key Regions, Greece
Troodos Mountains
Key Region, Cyprus
South Africa
Name 3 Key Black Grapes
Pinotage
Cab Sauv
Merlot
Troodos Mountains
Key Region, Cyprus
Bakaa Valley
Key Region, Lebanon
South Africa
Name 3 Key White Grapes
Chenin Blanc, Sauv Blanc, Chardonnay
Bakaa Valley
Key Region, Lebanon
What does the label term "TA" mean and what country is it used in?
Traditional Appellation, given to traditional wines (eg Retsina) in Greece
South Africa
5 Key Regions
Stellenbosch
Paarl
Worcester
Constantia
Walker Bay
What is the French AC equivalent that is used in Greece?
AOQS
What does the label term "TA" mean and what country is it used in?
Traditional Appellation, given to traditional wines (eg Retsina) in Greece
South Africa
Climate, Weather & Soils
warm-hot mediterranean, very arid inland, cooler near coast

little vintage variation, drought can be a problem

soils are varied. Stellenbosch known for limestone and sandstone
What is the French AC equivalent that is used in Greece?
AOQS
South Africa
Key Black Grapes
Pinotage
Cab Sauv
Merlot
South Africa
Climate, Weather & Soils
Describe general climate, inland climate and coastal climate
Is there vintage variation?
Is drought a problem?
Are soils varied?
What soil type is Stellenbosch known for?
warm-hot mediterranean, very arid inland, cooler near coast

little vintage variation, drought can be a problem

soils are varied. Stellenbosch known for limestone and sandstone
South Africa
Key White Grapes
Chenin Blanc, Sauv Blanc, Chardonnay
South Africa
5 Key Regions
Stellenbosch
Paarl
Worcester
Constantia
Walker Bay
South Africa
Name 3 Key Black Grapes
Pinotage
Cab Sauv
Merlot
South Africa
Name 3 Key White Grapes
Chenin Blanc, Sauv Blanc, Chardonnay
South Africa
5 Key Regions
Stellenbosch
Paarl
Worcester
Constantia
Walker Bay
South Africa
3 Key Wines
Stellenbosch Bordeaux-blends
South African Pinotage
South African Chenin Blanc
California
Climate
mostly moderate-warm Mediterranean, cooled by Pacific fogs. Hotter and drier in Central Valley. More continental in foothills.
Oregon
Climate
cool maritime
Washington State / BC
Climate
arid, extreme continental
Ontario
Climate
moderate continental (cold winters)
North America
Soils
varied and not as significant as in Europe
North America
Name 4 Key Black Grapes
Cab Sauv
Merlot
Zinfandel
Pinot Noir
North America
Name 3 Key White Grapes
Chardonnay
Sauv Blanc
Viognier
North America
Grape
Growing Issues
-irrigation widespread due to lack of rain in ripening period
-problem with phyloxxera in the 1980/90s due to poor resistance in rootstock AXR-1
ongoing probs w/Pierce's disease
California
Name 4 Key Regions
North Coast:
Carneros
Mendocino
Nappy Valley
Sonoma
N Central Coast
Monterey

South Central Coast:
Santa Barbara
San Luis Obispo

Central Valley

Sierra Foothills
Oregon
Key Region
Willamette Valley
Washington State
Key Region
Columbia Valley
Canada
Key Regions
Okanagan Valley
Niagara Peninsula
5 Key Wines of California
name region/grape
Napa Cab
Old Vine Zin
Fume Blanc (SB, usually oak-aged)
Meritage (Bordeaux blend)
Blush/White Zin (rose)
Key Wines of Oregon
Pinot Noir
Pinot Gris
Chardonnay
Sparkling wine
Chile
Climates
variety of climates - cooler near the sear and the south of the country, warmer in the central valley
Chile
Weather
little rain, abundance of water for irrigation from snowfall melt from Andes
Chile
Soils
varied, can be over-fertile
Chile
Key Black Grapes
Cab Sauv
Merlot
Carmenere
Chile
Key White Grapes
Chardonnay
Sauv Blanc
Chile
3 Key Regions
Aconcagua Region
Central Valley
Southern Valley
What region and country are Aconcagua and Casablanca located in?
Aconcagua Region, Chile
Maipo, Curico, Rapel, Maule
Central Valley Region, Chile
What region and country are Bio Bio and Itata located in?
Southern Valley, Chile
Key Chilean Wines
Name 1 key white region & varietal
Name 2 key black regions/varietals
Casablanca Sauv Blanc
Rapel Cab Sauv
Chilean Carmenere
Argentina
Where are most vineyards in Argentina planted and why?
vineyards above 500m to benefit from cooling influences of altitude (Andes)
Argentina
Key Black Grapes - Name 2 of the 3 Grapes
Malbec
Bonarda
Cab Sauv
Argentina
Name 2 Key White Grapes
Torrontes
Chardonnay
Argentina
4 Key Regions & 1 Key Varietal in Each
Mendoza - Malbec, Cab Sauv, Chardonnay
San Juan
Salta (Cafayate) - Cab Sauv, Torrontes
Rio Negro - Malbec
Name 2 Key Wines of Argentina (region and varietal)
Mendoza Malbec
Cafayate Torrontes
3 Most Important Subregions in Austria for quality exports of what 2 grapes
Wachau, Kamptal & Kremstal for Gruner Veltliner & Riesling
What are the 2 grape varietals used in Tokaji?
Furmint, Harslevelu
What grape varietal is used to make Bulls Blood in Eger?
mainly Kekfrankos
What does "Tokaji Szamorodni" mean?
Tokaji, as it comes. includes botrytis and healthy grapes.
What does the word "Aszu" mean?
nobly rotted grapes
How is Tokaji Aszu made?
healthy and botrytis grapes are separated. The botrytix/aszu grapes are ground into paste which is added back to the healthy dry wine during or after fermentation. paste is added back and measured in puttonyos
Describe classic tokaji in terms of color, acidity, intensity, flavors
deep amber, high acidity, intense aromas, flavors of orange marmalade, apricots & honey. the best have hints of rye bread, smoke, coffee and caramel
What is "Aszu Eszencia"
made only in the best years from the best vineyards. sugar is in excess of 6 puttonyos, can age for over a century without losing their flavor
What is "Tokaji Eszancia"
Rarest Tokaji. Made from the free run juice of the Aszu berries. takes years to ferment and has alcohol levels less then 5%
What grape is used for Barolo DOCG
Nebbiolo
What grape is used for Barbaresco DOCG
Nebbiolo
What grape is used for Barbera d'Asti DOC
Barbera
What grape is used for Barbera d'Alba DOC
Barbera
What grape is used for Dolcetto d'Alba DOC
Dolcetta
Name one local white varietal used for Trentino DOC wines. The local black varietal there is Teroldego
Pinot Grigio
Name 1 of the 3 grapes used for Valpolicella DOC wines
corvina
rondinella
molinara
What grape is used for Chianti DOCG
sangiovese
What grape is used for Brunello di Montalcino
sangiovese
What grape is used for Vernaccia di San Gimignano
Vernaccia
What grape is used for Orvietto DOC wines
Trebbiano
What grape is used for Frascati DOC wines?
malvasia
trebbiano
What grape is used for Montepulciano d'Abruzza DOC wines?
Montepulciano
What grape is used for Trebbiano d'Abruzza DOC wines?
Trebbiano
What grape is used for Taurasi DOC wines in the Campania region and the Aglianico del Vulture DOC wines in the Basilicata region?
Aglianico
What 2 grapes are used for Salice and Copertino DOC wines in the Puglia region?
N
MN
Negramaro
Malvasia Nera
Key 2 of the 7 grapes of Rioja DOCa wines
Tempranillo
Garnacha
Mazuelo
Graciano
Viura
Malvasia
Garnacha Blanca
Name2 of the 4 Key black varietals of the Priorat DOC region
GCSP
Grenache Carinena
Cab Sauv
Syrah
Pinot Noir
Key Grape of the Ribera del Duero and Toro DO wines
Tempranillo
Key Grape of the Rias Biaxas DO Wines
Albarino
Name 1 Key white grape of the La Mancha DO wines of the Meseta region of Spain. Name 1 of 3 key black grapes
W-Airen
B-Tempranillo, CS, Syrah
Key varietal used in Valdepenas DO wines from the Meseta region in Spain
Tempranillo
Key black grape of Stellenbosch region
Cab Sauv
Key black grape of the Coastal region of S Africa
Pinotage
Key black grape of the Paarl & Stellenbosch regions
Shiraz
Key black grape of the Walker Bay region
Pinot Noir
Key white grape of the Coastal region of S Africa
Chenin Blanc
Key white grape of the Walker Bay, Coastal & Roberson regions of S Africa
Chardonnay
Key white grape of the Constantia, Coastal, Durbanville, Elgin, Robertson regions of S Africa
Sauv Blanc
Key grape of the Central Valley California
White Zin
Key red varietal of Sonoma, Sierra Foothills, Santa Cruz
Zin
Key Black varietal in Napa and Sonoma
Cab Sauv
Key Black varietal in Napa Sonoma and Monterey
Merlot
Key black verietal in Carneros & Sonoma
Pinot Noir
Key white varietal in Carneros, Sonoma & Monterey
Chardonnay
Key white varietal in Napa
Sauv Blanc
Key black varietal in Oregon
Pinot Noir
Name 1 Key white and 2 key black black varietals in Washington State
Chardonnay
Cab Sauv
merlot
Describe flavor characteristics of Chardonnay
cool climates:
steely wines
med to light body
high acidity
apple or green plum fruit

slightly warmer regions impact more citrus flavors

Hotter regions lend to more melon and peach and even exotic flavors like banana, mango and fig

Hotter regions will be full-bodies, high in alcohol and low in acidity

not an aromatic varietal but oaking and ML are used to contribute to flavor
Describe flavor characteristics of Sauv Blanc
cool regions w/poor soils produce classic green, herbaceous, gooseberries, green pepper, grass, passion fruit or elderflower.

warmer regions - fails to develop much aromatic flavor and has just hints of peach

some can develop vegetal aromas of peas and asparagus
Describe flavor characteristics of Riesling
cool climates (Mosel) - very fresh grape and apply fruit character and high natural acidity is balanced with sugar.

Late harvested grapes in cool regions and in warmer regions (alsace, austria, clare valley) result in more citrus and peach fruit notes.

some australian have lime character

aged rieslings develop notes of honey, smoke and sometimes petrol
Describe flavor characteristics of Pinot Gris
at its best in Alsace

almost oily, rather high in alcohol, and low in acidity. rich, aromatic, exotic fruit, such as melon, ripe banana and mango, and sometimes botrytis flavors can appear in dry wine.

In Italy for Pinot Grigio, a different approach is taken. they are harvested early to retain acidity and avoid development of too much fruitiness. wines are generally light and fairly neutral in character
Describe flavor characteristics of Viognier
soft full body texture of chardonnay but with more aromaticc fruit character. delicate perfume, sily texture and mineral flavors
Describe flavor characteristics of Chenin Blanc
high in acidity and unusual fruit characteristics. vegetal notes, aromas of green apples and flavors of citrus pith in young, dry CB.
Describe flavor characteristics of Cab Sauv as it relates to the fruit aspects
black currants.

cooler regions - notes of green capsicum and cedarwood

warm climate - black cherry, black olive, fruit character

Australian CS, particularly Coonawarra have hints of mint, eucalyptus or menthol
Describe the flavor characteristics of Merlot
harvested late: blackberry and plum fruit, soft velvet textured tannins combine with a rich, full body due to high alcohol and concentrated fruit.

harvested early to make a more lighter body and alcohol wine w/higher acidity and more red fruit (raspberries, ripe strawberries) and maybe even vegetal, leafy aromas
Describe the flavor characteristics of Syrah
very dark in color and has blackberry fruit flavors.

cooler climates, the tannins can be very high and the blackberry fruit can be accompanied by notes of black pepper and sometimes mint.

hot climates - more full-bodied, with soft tannins and earthy, leathery flavours and spice notes that are more like liquorice /anise/
Describe the flavor characteristics of Grenache
high in alcohol and full-bodies with soft tannins. pale in colour and oxidise easily (browning at the rim).

red fruit flavours (strawberry, raspberry and hints of white pepper, which deveops into flavors of leather, tar and toffee as the wine ages.
Describe the flavor characteristics of Pinot Noir
young PN displays a fruity perfume of raspberries, strawberries or red cherries w/soft/light tannins - seldom deep in colour

with age, vegetal and farmyard aromas develop
Describe the flavor characteristics of sangiovese
typically not aromatic grape.
high in acidity w/sour red cherry . sometimes astringent tannins and earthy, dusty aromas reminiscent of tea leaves.
Describe the flavor characteristics of Tempranillo by describing tannin levels, color, and 2 "other" characteristics
light levels of tannin and color, nose of soft leather and ripe strawberries
Burgundy
Climate & Weather
continental (severe winters & hot summers)
frost & hail are major hazards
frequent summer rains make area prone to gray rot
Burgundy
Soil
Mix the following:
Soil in Chabis
Soil in Cote d'Or
Soil in Beaujolas

with the following:
limestone w/kimmeridgian
limestone w/marl
granite
Chablis - limestone overlaid with kimmeridgian clay

Cote d'Or - limestone mixed with marl

Beaujolais - granite
Burgundy - North
Grape Varieties
Name 1 Black
Name 2 Whites
B: Pinor Noir
W: Chardonnay, Aligote
Burgundy - South
Grape Varieties
Name 1 White & 1 Black
B Gamay
W Chardonnay
Burgundy - North
Grapegrowing
high density planting, guyot trained best vineyards on E or SE facing slopes
Burgundy - South (Beaujolais)
Grapegrowing
Name pruning technique
Where are best vineyards located?
goblet-pruned, free standing vines
best vineyards on hillsides in North
Burgundy - Red
Winemaking
traditional fermentation w/sensitive use of oak maturation for Pinot Noir

carbonic maceration for Beaujolais
Burgundy - White
Winemaking

What is characteristic about vessel for Chablis production
What is characteristic about vessel for Cote de Beaune Chardonnary?
stainless steel w/very little oak for Chablis

barrel fermentation w/new oak for Cote de Beaune Chardonnay
Burgundy
Key Wine of Chablis
Name 2 ACs
Premier Cru, Grand Cru
Burgundy
Name 4 Key ACs of Cote du Nuits
Gevry-Chambertin
Vougeot
Vosne-Romanee
Nuits-Saint-Georges
Burgundy
6 Main Regions
Chablis
Cote du Nuits
Cote de Beaune
Cote Chalonnaise
Maconnais
Beaujolais
Burgundy
Name 6 Key ACs of Cote de Beaune
Aloxe-Corton
Pommard
Volnay
Mersault
Puligny-Montrachet
Chassagne-Montrachet
Burgundy
Name 4 Key ACs Cote Chalonnaise

MGRM
Mercurey
Givry
Rully
Montagny
Burgundy
Name 1 Key AC of Maconnais
Pouilly-Fuisse
Burgundy
Key Wines of Beaujolais
Beaujolais Crus (Fleurie, Moulin-a-Vent, Morgon, Brouilly)
Bungundy - South (Beaujolais)
Grapegrowing
gobelet-pruned, free standing vines
best vineyards on hillsides in North
Burgundy - Red
Winemaking
traditional fermentation w/sensitive use of oak maturation for Pinot Noir

carbonic maceration for Beaujolais
Burgundy - White
Winemaking
What is characteristic about vessel for Chablis production?
What is characteristic about fermentation for Cote de Beaune Chardonnay?
stainless steel w/very little oak for Chablis

barrel fermentation w/new oak for Cote de Beaune Chardonnay
Burgundy
Key Wine of Chablis
Premier Cru, Grand Cru
What subreqion and reqion are the following located in:
Gevry-Chambertin
Vougeot
Vosne-Romanee
Nuits-Saint-Georges
Cote de Nuits, Burgundy
Burgundy
6 Main Regions
Chablis
Cote du Nuits
Cote de Beaune
Cote Chalonnaise
Maconnais
Beaujolais
Burgundy
Name 6 Key Wines ACs of Cote de Beaune

APVMPC
Aloxe-Corton
Pommard
Volnay
Mersault
Puligny-Montrachet
Chassagne-Montrachet
Mercurey
Givry
Rully
Montagny
Name 4 Key ACs of Cote Chalonnaise
Burgundy
Name 1 Key AC in Maconnais
Pouilly-Fuisse
Burgundy
Name 4 Beaujolais Crus
F, MV, M, B
Fleurie
Moulin-a-Vent
Morgon
Brouilly
Burgundy
Label Term: Generic
wines that do not qualify for AC, must have Bourgogne in title
Burgundy
Label Term: District
wines from a single district or group of better villages within a district
Burgundy
Label Term: Commune
wines from a single communes (willages) allowed own AC
Burgundy
Label Term: Premier Cru
Is the village and vineyard mentioned on label?
Yes. village name followed by vineyard name, used for better vineyards
Burgundy
Label Term: Grand Cru
vineyard name only, highest level for best vineyards
Alsace
Climate & Weather
cool, sunny, dry continental

protected from rain and wind from teh west by the Vosges Mtns, giving long, dry autumns
Alsace
Soils
varied

slopes contain granitic, limestone, sandstone, clay, loam and even volcanic

plains - alluvial
Alsace
Noble Grape Varieties
Gewurtz
Muscat
Pinot Gris
Riesling
Alsace
Grapegrowing
Where are best vineyards located?
What is unusual about trade?
best vineyards in Haut-Rhin, on East facing foothills of Vosges Mtns

majority of vineyards are small holdings, co-ops & merchants important
Alsace
Winemaking
What is unusual about the vessels?
What % of the varietal is typically listed on the label?
What is unusual about bottle?
stainless steel or tartrate encrusted casks used to retain varietal character

100% named varietal on label

Bottled in region in Alsace flute
Alsace
Classifications: Alsace Grand Cru
w/name of vineyard, highest level for best vineyards
Alsace
Classifications: Vendange Tardive
late harvest, noble varieties only, dry - med sweet
Alsace
Classifications: Selection de Grains Nobile
sweet wine made from grapes affected by noble rot, noble varieties only
Alsace
Classifications: Edelzwicker
wine blended from more than one variety
Describe characteristics of a Alsace Gewurtz in terms of intensity, characteristics, acidity and alcohol levels
pungent, aromatic spicy nose, reminiscent of lychees, roses and cashews

low in acidity and high in alcohol
Describe characteristics of an Alsace Pinot Gris
rich and high in alcohol.
similar in color to Gewurtz but less aromatic
luscious and full of fresh / dried fruits and a smoky/honey character
Burgundian Pinot Noir
Tasting Notes
red fruit flavors (cherry, raspberry & strawberry) in youth that evolve into vegetal and savory, gamey notes.

tannins/acidity vary with producer but tannins are rarely too astringent

wines are usually full-bodied, due to natural ripeness or chapitalization
What is the main varietal used in Beaujolais
Gamay
Burgundian Chardonnay
Tasting Notes
rich, ripe, creamy-buttery fruit

chablis - lean, steely, high acide

Cote d'Or - complex, expressive

Macon - fuller bodied, ripe fruit
Burgundy
Regional ACs
Bourgogne Grand Ordinaire AC
mainly red from Gamay. If white, maybe made from Melon de Bourgogne (muscadet) blended with Aligote
Burgundy
Regional ACs
Bourgogne Aligote AC
Characteristics in terms of acidity and alchol
What regions are they largely produced in?
high acidity, low alcohol
largely produced in Chablis, Cote D'Or and Cote Chalonnaise
Burgundy
Regional ACs
Bourgogne Passetoutgrains AC
"chuck all the grapes in together"

mixture of Pinot Noir & Gamay
Burgundy
Regional ACs
Bourgogne Rouge AC or
Bourgogne Blanc AC
made from best grape varieties from that area, usually PN or Chardonnay
Burgundy
District ACs vs Bourgogne ACs
districts are a step up from Bourgogne and don't include the word "bourgogne"
Burgundy
Commune ACs
above Bourgogne & District ACs

usually name of commune only on label, if name of vineyard is used, must be smaller print than village

BEAUNE Lalune
Appellation BEAUNE Controllee
Burgundy
2 Label Terms for Single Vineyard ACs
Premier Cru (#560)
Grand Cru (#30)
Burgundy
Premier or Grand Cru?

BEAUNE GREVES
Appelation Beaune Greves Controlee
Premier Cru because vineyard and village are same size on label
Burgundy
Premier Cru or Grand Cru?

MONTRACHET
Appellation Montrachet Controlee
Grand Cru because it only mentions vineyard name
Gevrey-Chambertin
Aloxe-Corton
Nuits-Saint-George

vineyard or commune?
communes

Mayors added their names (Aloxe, Nuits) to the name of the village
Montee de Tonnerre, Vaillons & Fourchaume

Examples of Premier Cru or Grand Cru?

What grape varietal & region?
Chablis Premier Cru ACs

Chardonnay
Les Clos, Vaudesir, Valmur, Les Preuses, Bougros, Blanchot, Grenouilles

Examples of Premier Cru or Grand Cru?

What grape varietal & region?
Chablis Grand Cru ACs

Chardonnay
What grape varietal is the Cote de Nuit known for?
Pinot Noir
What grape varietal is the Cote de Beaune known for?
Chardonnay
What region are the following in?

Gevrey Chambertin
Vougeot
Vosne-Romanee
Nuits-Saint-Georges
Cote de Nuits
What region are the following in?

Aloxe-Corton
Beaune
Pommard
Volnay
Mersault
Puligny-Montrachet
Chassagne-Montrachet
Cote de Beaune, Burgundy
What region are the following in?

Rully
Mercurey
Givry
Montagny
Cote Chalonnaise, Burgundy
What region is Pouilly Fuisse in ?

What is the grape varietal?
Macon, Burgundy

Chardonnay
Describe characteristics of Gamay
full of raspberry and cherry and very light in tannins

vinification technique: carbonic maceration to extract fruit flavors but very little tannin giving the wine flavors of kirsch, bananas, bubblegum and cinnamon-like spices
Define carbonic maceration
fementation of whole bunches of black grapes with the berries initially intact. The intracellular fermentatino results in well-coloured, fruity red wines, with little tannins.
What region is Wachau, Kamptal, Kremtal, Donauland in?
Lower Austria/Niederosterrich
What region and country are Neusiedlersee, Mittelburgenland, Neusierlersee-Hugelland located in?
Burgenland Region, Austria
Describe climate in Bordeaux and its effect.
45degress - long hours of sun, moderated by maritime climate.
high humidity due to rivers, can cause noble and/or grey rot
vingtage variations from weather
Describe soils in Bordeaux.
Alluvial - borders of rivers (lowest appellation wines)

Quartz/flint pebbles over subsoil of marl-well draining gravel (finest vineyards)
Why are almost all Bordeaux made from a blend of varietals?
varying climates make vinegrowing unpredictable leading to vintage variation

by blending, they can hedge their bets allowable for reasonably good wine production even when conditions are unfavorable
Describe Bordeaux Cabernet Sauvignon
moderate yields, tannic wine with characteristic blackcurrant, when ripe. Hide to ripen so may produce some tough, vegatal wines that must be softened with Merlot.
Describe Bordeaux Cabernet Franc.
bigger yields than Cab but has less body and finesse. Flavours can be herbaceous/stalky, and matures rapidly.
Describe Merlot in Bordeaux
medium yield of full-bodied, moderately tannic wines which matures earlier than Cab. Adds softness, richness and body when added to Cab. Benefits from limestone in St. Emilion & Pomerol.
Even at world class estates, they add Cab or Cab Franc to provide aromatic fuit, colour and tannin.
Describe significance/importance of Petit Verdot in Bordeaux
ripens fully only in very hot years, giving a very deep-colored, tannic wine which ages slowly. always plays minor role in blend and is used to add tannin, colour and exotic spicey notes.
Describe significance/importance of Semillon in Bordeaux
most widely planted white in Bordeaux.
thin skin/susceptible to noble rot so is used widely for sweet wines. gives wines with golden colour and plenty of body.
Describe significance/importance of Sauv Blanc in Bordeaux
vegetal, glass & elderflower. when blended, its high acidity acts to counterbalance the flabbiness of Semillon, particularly in the great sweet wines.
Describe key characteristics of viticulture in Bordeaux.
mostly high density planting w/machine harvesting. Handpicking for fine sweet wines (noble rot)
Name the three levels of AC heirarchy in Bordeaux
Generic Appelations
District Appelations
Commune Appelations
Describe the Generic Appelation AC in Bordeaux and give an example AC name
wine produced anywhere in the Gironde

-Bordeaux AC & Bordeaux Superieur AC
Describe the District Appelation AC in Bordeaux

Name the 3 Key District ACs
highest appelation attainable in particular location (eg Entre-Deux-Mers) or a couple of superior commune ACs (Haut-Medoc)

-Medoc AC, Haut-Medoc AC and Graves AC
Describe the Commune Appelation AC in Bordeaux
highest appelations in Bordeaux
Do Chateaux names form any part of the AC system in Bordeaux
No. For example, Chateau Latour has the AC Pauillac.
Name 4 Key Commune ACs in the Haut-Medoc
Saint-Estephe AC
Pauillac AC
Saint-Julien AC
Margaux AC
Name the Key Commune AC in northern Grave AC
Pessac-Leognan AC
Name the 2 key Commune ACs on the west bank of the Garonne upstream from Graves and the 2 grape varietals allowed
Sauternes AC & Barsac AC

only white - Semillion, Sav Blanc
Name the key District AC between the Garonne and the Dordogne? Name the key varietals
Entre-Deux Mers

-SB and Semillion
Name the key Commune AC in the Entre-Deux-Mers District AC and the wines from this commune.
Sainte-Croix-du-Mont

sweet wine in Sauternes style
Name the 2 key District ACs North and East of Gironde & Dordogne
Bourg & Blaye

Cotes de Bourg
Premieres Cotes du Blaye
Name the most important Commune AC of right bank of Bordeaux
Saint-Emilion AC
Name the two most important Commune ACs on right bank of Bordeaux
Saint-Emilion AC
Pomerol AC
What does it mean to sell wines "en primeur"
wines, especially from Bordeaux, that are sold before they are bottled.
What region of wines is included in the 1855 Classification?
Medoc & Sauternes
Name the 5 Ranks of the 1855 Classifications
Premier Cru (First Growth)
Deuxieme Cru (Second Growth)
Troiseimes Cru
Quartrieme Cru
Cinquiemes Cru
What is the only Chateux to carry Premier Grand Cru Classe of the sweet wines in the 1855 Classification
Chateau d'Yquem
Name 4 of the 6 Premier Crus of the 1855 Classification
Chateau Haut-Brion (the only one from outside Medoc)
Chateau Latour
Chateau Lafite-Rothschild
Chateau Mouton-Rothschild (only reclassification, in 1973 from second growth to premier cru)
Chateau Margaux
Chateau d'Yquem
In non-Bordeaux Southwest France, what varietals are Bergerac, Monbazillar, Cotes de Duras, Buzet known for?
Bordeaux clones (Cab, Merlot, Semillion, Sauv Blanc, Cab Franc)
What grape is used to produce Madiran AC
Tannat
Name the 4 subregions of the Loire Valley
Central Vineyards
Touraine
Anjou-Saumur
Nantais
Name 2 key AC wines in the Central Vineyards region of the Loire
Sancerre
Pouilly-Fume
Describe the weather of the Central Vineyards region of the Loire
continental climate, severe winters and hot summers

summer hail and spring frosts are continuing hazards
What white varietal is Sancerre known for?
Sauv Blanc
What white varietal is Pouilly Fume known for?
Sauv Blanc
Describe the climate of Touraine
halfway between Muscadet and Sancerre so its a cross between maritime and continental
What varietal is always is Vouvray
Chenin Blanc
What is the most prestigious red wine of the Loire Valley (i.e. what AC?)
Chinon AC - Cab Franc
What are the key varietals of both Anjou AC and Saumur AC?
Cab Franc
Chenin Blanc
What varietal are the best wines of Anjou Saumur
Chenin Blanc
What region/country is the Nantais in?
Loire- west end by Atlantic
What is the key wine / region of the Nantais
Muscadet, Sevre et Maine subregion
What is the grape varietal in Muscadet
Melon Blanc
Describe topography & climate in Northern Rhone
valley is narrow & steep w/vineyards planted on western slopes, close to the river.
dominant climatic feature - Mistral (strong, cold, north wind) provides chill factor but inhibits diseases by improving air circulation.
Vines are staked from Mistral

climate = southern continental, hot (but not oppressive) summers
What is the dominant grape of Northern Rhone & describes characteristics
syrah - soft black fruit flavours (blackberry & blueberries) with spicy hints of black pepper when young and gamey aromas when mature.
Name 3 white grapes of Northern Rhone
Viognier, Roussane, Marsanne
Name 6 crus of Northern Rhone
Cote-Rotie
Condrieu
Saint-Joseph
Crozes-Hermitage
Hermitage
Cornas
Describe the topography and climate of the Southern Rhone.
mediterranean climate

topography is flatter than Northern Rhone so vines have to be protected from Mistral by planting windbreaks
Name key grape varietals of Southern Rhone
Grenache, but blended with (Mouvedre, Syrah, Cinsault)
Describe profile of Southern Rhone syrah.
high alcohol
low in tannin and colour
flavors of spiced red berries ( strawberry) fruit character can be quite baked, jammy or even burnt.
Describe the climate of Touraine
halfway between Muscadet and Sancerre so its a cross between maritime and continental
What varietal is always is Vouvray
Chenin Blanc
What is the most prestigious red wine of the Loire Valley (i.e. what AC?)
Chinon AC - Cab Franc
What are the key varietals of both Anjou AC and Saumur AC?
Cab Franc
Chenin Blanc
What varietal are the best wines of Anjou Saumur
Chenin Blanc
Name two most important ACs of Southern Rhone
Cotes du Rhone
Chateauneuf-du-Pape
What is the importance of the pudding stones in the Rhone
effective in storing heat during they day to warm the vineyards throughout the night
What is the general climate of Australia
mediterranean
What is the classic red Australian varietal?
-characteristics of one grown in Hot regions of Hunter and Barossa
-characteristics of one grown in cooler regions (Margaret River, W Victoria)
Shiraz
-soft earthy, spicy style that develops leather /caramel notes
-leaner more peppery style
Describe Australian Cab Sauv & name two classic regions for CS in Australia
ripe black fruit (blackcurrant, black cherry) underpinned by toast, meaty oak notes.
Coonawarra & Margaret River
What is the primary grape grown in the Barossa Valley? What country?
Shiraz
Australia
What is the primary grape grown in the Adelaide Hills Region? What country?
Chardonnay
Australia
What are the three primary grapes of the McLaren Vale Region? What country?
Cab Sauv
Shiraz
Merlot
What is the most famous region in the Limestone Coast Zone of Australia and what varietal is it known for?
Coonawarra Region
Cab Sauv
What is the most famous region in the Port Philip Bay Zone by Melbourne and what varietal is it known for?
Yarra Valley Region
Pinot Noir
Where is New South Wales Zone located and in what country? what is the famous wine growing region there?
Australia
NW of Sydney
Hunter Valley
What are 2 primary white grape varietals of Upper Hunter Valley and Lower Hunter Valley?
What is the primary black grape varietal of same?
Chardonnay/Semillion
Shiraz
Name the most important wine region in the SW Australian Zone and what grape varietal is important?
Margaret River Region
Cabernets / Bordeaux Blends
Chardonnay & Grassy Semillions (like NZ Sauv Blanc)
What is the predominant climate in New Zealand
maritime (two islands)
What is the most climatic problem?
excessive rainfall so most vineyards on the Eastern seaboard, where they are protected from prevailing west wine and rain by the moutainous pine of the country
What varietal is New Zealand known for?
Marlborough Sauv Blanc
Describe Marlborough Sauv Blanc
capsicum, cut grass, elderflower, but may include passion fruit, stony mineral notes and hints of creamy oak. High end w/intense concentration of fruit and high acid levels are capable of developing vegetal, asparagus notes with age.
Name three region in the North Island of New Zealand and the grapes they are known for
Gisborne - Chardonnay
Hawkes Bay - Cav Sauv, Merlot
Martinborough - Pinot Noir
Name two famous regions on the South Island of NewZealand and the varietals they are known for
Marlborough - SB, Chard
, Pinot Noir
Central Otago - Pinot Noir
Name the three basic ways to make sparkling wines
1. secondary fermentation in the the bottle
2. secondary fermentation in the tank
3. carbonation
What is liquer de tirage and what is it used for?
cokctail of wine, sugar, yeast nutrients and a clarifying agent. used to start 2ndary fermentation for sparkling wines
Describe remuage
riddling; moving the sediment to the neck of the bottle prior to disgorgement (sparkling wines)
What is liquer d'expedition and what is it used for?
final adjustment to the sweetness of sparkling wine after disgorgement and prior to corking (aka dosage)
What are the three grapes used for Champagne?
Pinot Noir
Pinot Meunier
Chardonnay
Why is the Coquard Press important?
vertical press for making white wine from black grapes
What do the letters RM at the base of a Champagne label indicate?
made by a grower
What do the letters CM at the base of a Champagne label indicate
made by a co-operative cellar
What do the letters NM at the base of a Champagne label indicate
made by a champagne house
What is the name used for French sparkling wines?
cremant wines
What is the name for Spanish sparking wines? and where is the predominant region for production?
Cava, Penedes in Catalan
What sparkling wines are made using the tank method? What country?
Prosecco, Italy
What is German sparking wine called?
Sekt
What is the climate of Champagne?
Northern Continental
What is the primary soil in Champagne?
chalk
Describe the traditional method for making champagne (8 steps)
1.First fermentation
2.Blending
3.Second fermentation
4.Maturation and Autolysis
5.Riddling/Remuage
6.Disgorgement
7.Dosage
8.Dressing
What are the three key regions of Champagne?

VM
CB
MR
Vallee de la Marne
Cotes des Blancs
Montagne de Reims
What are the key regions for sparkling wine production in Loire?
Saumur, Vouvray
What are the key regions in North America for sparkling wine production?
Carneros, Oregion
What does the label term "Extra Brut" mean in sparkling wine production?
bone dry
What does the label term "Extra-sec" mean in sparkling wine production?
off-dry
What does the label term "Demi-sec" mean in sparkling wine production?
sweet
What does the label term "Blanc de Blancs" mean in sparkling wine production?
white grapes only
What does the label term "Brut" mean in sparkling wine production?
very dry
What does the label term "Sec" mean in sparkling wine production?
medium-dry
What does the label term "Doux" mean in sparkling wine production?
luscious
What does the label term "Blanc de Noirs" mean in sparkling wine production?
black grapes only
What is the minimum length of maturation required for vintage Champagne?
3 years minimum
What method is used to make Cava?
traditional
Name 2 of the 3 grapes are used to make Alsace cremant?
Pinot Blanc
Riesling
Chardonnay
What 4 grapes are used to make Cava?
3 local varieties and 1 Int'l
Parellada, Xarel-lo, Macabeo, Chardonnay
What 2 regions in Australia make sparkling wines?
Yarra Valley, Tasmania
What region in New Zealand is known for Champagne production?
Marlborough
In what country is the labelling term "Cap Classique" used. What is a term for?
South African quality sparkling wine
What grape varieties are used to make Port?
Name 3 of 5 local varieties
Touriga Nacional
Tinta Roriz
Touriga Franca
Tinta Cao
Tinta BArroca
Name 2 of the 5 grape varieties used to make Madeira?

SVBMT
Sercial
Verdelho
Bual
Malmsey
Tinta Negra Mole
Name 2 of the 3 grapes varieties used to make Sherry
Palomino
Pedro Ximenex (PX)
Moscatel
What grape varieties are used to make Montilla-Moriles
Pedro Ximenez (PX)
What grape varieties are used to make Vins Doux Naturels
Muscat
Grenache
What grape variety is used to make Rutherglen
Muscat
Is Port fortified during or after fermentation?
during
Is Madeira fortified during or after fermentation?
during
Are Sherry & Montilla-Moriles fortified during or after fermentation?
After
What are the two key styles of Port? (i.e. what are two ways Port can be matured)
wood-matured
bottle-matured
What is the key difference between wood maturation and bottle maturation of Port?
wood is ready to drink and bottle needs further maturation for many years
What styles of Port are bottle aged?
Vintage
Xingle Quinta Vintage
Which styles of SHerry are matured under Flor?
Fino
Manzanilla
Pale Cream
Which styles of Sherry are matured oxidatively?
Oloroso
Cream
Which 2 styles of Sherry are matured under Flor, then oxidatively?
Amontillado Seco
Palo Cortado
Which Sherries are Dry?
Manzanilla
Fino
Amontillado Seco
Oloroso Seco
Which Sherries are Medium?
commercial Amontillado
Which Sherries are sweet?
Oloroso
Pale Cream
Cream
Is alcohol added during or after fermentation in the production of port?
during. alcohol is added to halt the fermentation before it has finished naturally.
Describe soils/topography of the Duuro that make it known for Port production
vineyards are planted on terraces (originally were narrow socalcos & now wider patameres)cut into the schistours rock on steep hillsides
Describe climate of the Duoro Vineyards.
dry/continental. Serra do Marao protect vineyards from the rain-bearing winds.
Describe details of the fortification of Port
Once the fermented wine has reached 6% to 9% abv, spirit at 77% abv is added at 1 part spirit to 4 parts of wine. this kills yeast and stop fermentation.
What are the 5 preferred grapes for Port production?
Tinta Roriz (Tempranillo)
Touriga Nacional - finest, used for very best
Touriga Franca - premium
Tinta Cao - very little
Tinta Barroca
Which style of Port is young, non-vintage, full-bodied, deeply coloured wine, generally sold at less than 3 years old.
Ruby Port
Which style of port is from 1 or more vintages, cask matured for up to 5 years before bottling. Full bodied, w/rich fruit and better integration and ready for drinking when bottled
Reserve Ruby Port
Which style of port is made by blending ruby and white ports to produce cheap wines recognized by their Pink rim.
Tawny Port
Which style of port is the result of 7 years maturation in cask and can be very soft and smooth and recognized by their more russet, tawny rim.
Reserve Tawny Port
Which style of port is a high quality ruby of one or more vintage, bottled young and unfiltered. They throw heavy sediment (crust) and require decanting
Crusted Port
Which style of port is made from a specific, but not necessarily a "declared" year, aged in cask for 4-6 years before bottling. can be traditional style(bottled unfiltered) or modern (matured in cask and filtered before bottling)
Late Bottled Vintage Port (LBV)
Which style of port is known for singel vintage that age in cask until just before sale. min aging is 8 years, tho many are longer.
Colheita Ports
Which port is the product of one particular year, typically best vineyards only and bottled when they are 2 years old. mature slowly and peak at 20 years. throw heavy deposits. not produced every year
Vintage Ports
Which port is a full vintage port that is the product of a single estate, the flagship of the shippers vineyards holdings.
Single Quinta Vintage Ports
Describe climate, soil & viticulture of Madeira
mountainous island w/vineyards maily on slopes of North and South coasts. fungal diseases are a problem. irrigation from mountains through levadas
Key varietal in Madeira
Tinta Negra Mole
What do the labelling terms for Madeira mean?
-Finest
-Reserve
-Special Reserve
-Extra Reserve
Finest - 3 yo
Reserve - 5 yo
Special Reserve - 10 yo
Extra Reserve - 15 yo
What region in what country is known for soils of albariza, arena & barro? What are they known for producing?
Jerez, Spain (sherry production)
What is the climate of Jerez
hot Mediterranean
Which grape is approx 90% of sherry production?
palomino
Why is flor important in the production of Sherry?
important in aging. Flor yeast feed on oxygen, alcohol and glycerine and reduces overall acidity of the wine. prevents oxidation (protective layer)
Describe the solera system
fractional blending system to refresh flor.
What style of sherry is pale in colour, and light/dry/clean on the palate. lower in alcohol and should be consumed young since they loose freshness once bottled. Aged on flor
Fino
What is significant about a Manzanilla sherry as opposed to a Fino sherry?
fino sherry aged in a bodega in seaside town of San lucar (climate allows flor to be active year round)
Which sherry is one that is an aged Fino or Manzanilla for which the flor has died away (naturally after 7 years of aging). Browny-yellow in color, dry w/nutty flavours from oxidative aging under flor.
Amontillado
Which sherry style is a very rare style which occurs when an elegant wine, that had been selected to be a Fino, fails to sustain Flor. flavors of amontillado but palate of oloroso (full-body, dry)
Palo Cortado
Which sherry style is a full-bodied, russet-color dry wine, which has oxidised from the beginning. robust aromas & flavor that can be savoury, meaty & nutty.
Oloroso
Which varietal makes the finest desert wines of Jerez
PX (pedro ximenez)
What style of sherry is made by adding concentrated grape juice to a Fino
Pale Cream
What do these label terms mean and where are they used and for what wine?
VOS
VORS
Spain - Sherries
VOS-very old sherry (20 year old soleras)
VORS - very old rare sherry (30 year old soleras)
What is the lesser known region of Spain for liquer wines
Montilla-Moriles
What is the key varietal used in VDN (and what is VDN) and which is the lesser used grape?
VDN - vins doux naturels - 95% abv grape spirit is added to partially fermented must to make a strong sweet wine (15-20% abv)

Muscat
lesser=Grenache
What type of wine are these regions known for?
Muscat de Beames de Venise (Rhone)
Muscat de Saint Jean de Minervois (Langeudoc)
Muscat de Frontignan (lang)
Muscat de Mireval (lang)
Muscat de Lunel (lang)
Muscat de Rivesaltes (lang)
VDNS (Vins doux Naturels) - "other fortified wines"
Name a new world fortified wine
Rutherglen Muscat (Australia)
Describe distillation
concentration of alcohol present in a fermented liquid. alcohol boils at a lower temp than water and vaporises and can be collected.
Which still is the type that looks like a large kettle and is heated by direct heat. Vapors collect and go through swans neck to the condenser to be liquified, Produces liquers with character. made of coper
pot still
Which type of still consists of two vertical columns, the analyser and the rectifier. Steam enters the bottom of the analyser, rises and meets the wash, which hsa been heated in teh rectifier, descending the column. The alcohol in the wash is vaporised as it encounters the hot steam. It rises and is passed to the bottom of the rectifier. produces more neutral spirit
continuous still
Which still is the type that looks like a large kettle and is heated by direct heat. Vapors collect and go through swans neck to the condenser to be liquified, Produces liquers with character. made of coper
pot still
Which type of still consists of two vertical columns, the analyser and the rectifier. Steam enters the bottom of the analyser, rises and meets the wash, which hsa been heated in teh rectifier, descending the column. The alcohol in the wash is vaporised as it encounters the hot steam. It rises and is passed to the bottom of the rectifier. produces more neutral spirit
continuous still
What is the spirit/liquer made from distilled wine?
Brandy
What are the two most famous regions for Brandy?
Cognac & Armagnac, France
What is the main grape used in Brandy production in Cognac?
Ugni Blanc (aka Trebbiano)
What do these label terms mean and what liquer/spirit are they used for?
VS or ***
VSOP
XO
Cognac
VS or *** - 2 yr min age
VSOP - 4 yr min age
XO - 6 yr min age

Armagnac
VS or *** - 1 yr min age
VSOP - 4 yr min age
XO - 5 yr min age
Name 4 of the 7 "other" types of grape spirits
Spanish Brandy
Pisco
Marc
Grappa
Pomace Brandies
Calvados
Fruit Eaux-de-vie
How many years must a Scotch Whiskey be matured for?
3 years min
Which Scotch whisky is made from malted barley only and is double-distilled in a pot still
Malt Whiskey
Which Scotch whiskey is made from non-barley grains with a small amount of malted barley in a continuous still
Grain Whiskey
What is a single malt whiskey
malt whisky from one distillery
Name the 6 stages of production for Scotch whiskey before fermentation
steeping
green malt
kilning
milling
mashing
conversion
Where are most bourbon whiskeys produced
Kentucky
What is the minimum % of corn in a Bourbon?
51%
What is the minimum % of rye in a Rye Whiskey
51%
What kind of still is used for Cognac production
pot still
What kind of still is used for Armagnac production
usually Armagnac but can use pot
What is the name for apple Brandy from Normandy and Brittany
Calvados
What liquer can be made from grain, potato or molasses
vodka
Is aging of vodka required
no
What liquer can be made from sugar-cane juice or molasses
rum
What liquer must be distilled in a sugar-cane growing country but can be aged in any country?
rum
Tequila can only be made from what plant?
Blue Agave
How long has a Blanco tequila been aged.
unaged
How long has a Golden Tequila been aged
unaged and colored
How long has a Reposado tequila been aged?
min 2 months
How long has an Anejo tequila been aged?
min 12 months
Which liquer is made from a base of highly recitified neutral spirit
gin
What is significant about gin as it relates to the distillation process
its redistilled in the presence of botanicals
What is the predominant botanical in gin
juniper
Name 3 fruit liqueurs
Creme de Cassis - Blackcurrant
Sloe-Sloe Gin
Apricot Brandy
Cherry Brandy, Maraschino
Curacao, Cointreau, Grand Marnier - Orange
Southern Comfort - Peach
Name 2 herb liqueurs
Galliano
Benedictine
Charteause
Drambuie
Kummel
Creme de Menthe
Name 2 kernel liqueurs
Kahlua, Tia Maria, Creme de Cacao, Amaretoo, Malibu
Name 2 dairy liquers
Baileys
Advocaat
What is the service temperature of medium/full-bodied, oaked white wines such as White Burgundy, Fume Blanc
lightly chilled - 12C
Name 2 kernel liqueurs
Kahlua
Tia Maria
Creme de Cacao
Amareto
Malibu
What is the serving temp for light/medium-bodied white such as Muscadet, NZ Sauv Blanc, Fino Sherry
chilled - 10C
Name 2 dairy liquers
Baileys
Advocaat
Name 2 kernel liqueurs
Kahlua, Tia Maria, Creme de Cacao, Amaretoo, Malibu
What is the serving temp for sweet wines such as Sauternes & Sweet Muscats
well chilled 8-10C
What is the service temperature of medium/full-bodied, oaked white wines such as White Burgundy, Fume Blanc
lightly chilled - 12C
Name 2 dairy liquers
Baileys
Advocaat
What is the service temperature of medium/full-bodied, oaked white wines such as White Burgundy, Fume Blanc
lightly chilled - 12C
What is the serving temp for light/medium-bodied white such as Muscadet, NZ Sauv Blanc, Fino Sherry
chilled - 10C
What is the serving temp for sweet wines such as Sauternes & Sweet Muscats
well chilled 6-8
What is the serving temp for light/medium-bodied white such as Muscadet, NZ Sauv Blanc, Fino Sherry
chilled - 10C
What is the serving temp for sweet wines such as Sauternes & Sweet Muscats
well chilled 6-8
What is the serving temp for sparkling wines?
well chilled 6-8C
What is the serving temp for light-bodied reds such as Beaujolais, Valpolicella
lightly chilled 12C
What is the serving temp for med/full body red such as Burgundy, Shiraz, port, Barolo
room temp 17-18C
What is the prescribed storage of wine?
cool and constant for longterm storage
store wine on its side to ensure contact with cork to avoid cork drying and let air in to oxidize the wine
keep wines away from light
keep away from vibrations
KANSAS CITY, MO
MCI (Many Can Ignore)
Name 3 things impacting BAC
amount of alcohol
speed of drinking & length of time
weight
gender
health
food intake
What is the Int'l recommended guidelines for Adult low risk consumption
Men - 2 drinks per day, max 14 /week
Women - 1 drink per day, max 7/week
Name three things forbidden in US beverage advertising
association w/sports activity
aimed at minor
association w/maturity
use of high degree alcohol as attractive
suggestion that bev has therapeutical properties or enhances physical performance
Name 3 health benefits of moderate drinking
decreased risk of cardiovascular disease
helps reduce the risk of harmful clots and clogging of arteries
small amounts may stimulate liver to produce good cholesteral
lowered risk of dimentia, Alzheimers, osteoporosis and Type 2 diabetes
Name 5 risks of drinking to drunkenness
increased risk of injury/accident
unsafe sex/STD/pregnancies
risk of being robbed/going home w/stranger
risk of fights, arguments or relationship problems
risk of criminal record
alcohol poisoning, coma, brain damage and death
Name 5 risks of getting drunk or drinking heavily on a regular basis
alcohol dependency/alcoholism
sexual difficulties/impotence
cirrhosis of the liver
cardiac arrest & stroke
pancreatitis
stomach disorders/ulcers
certain types of cancer (aero-digestive tract & breast cancer)