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145 Cards in this Set

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Paleolitic
old stone age,2.5 million-12000 BC
Mesolithic
Middle ages 12000-8000BC
Neolithic
New age 8000-3000 BC
Specilization
ability of humans to concentrate on tasks not directly related to survival
Myth
traditional stories about gods, ancestors, or heros to explain natural worlds(customs beliefs of a society)
Cultural diffusion
spreading of ideas or products from one culture to another
Barter System
system of trade in which people exchange goods & services w/o the use money)
Civilization
form of culture charaterized by cities, specialized workers, complex institution, record keeping & advaced technology
Catal Huyuk
Oldest found city
How society changed from early man in meso.& Neo eras
(hint there are 3)
Domestication
Sickle
Pottery
Domestication
training animals for human use
Sickle
used to cut down grain
Pottery
clay pots for storage
Mene
King,who created a double crown, from red and white crowns,unites 2 kingdoms and name it memphis
Hyksos
Asian war-like nomads, who beats Eqyptions b/c of use of Bronze weapons
Akhenaton
pharon;whose a vision came up came up w/idea of one god's sun god ran and had Egyption religion changed to monothesis
What contribuations to civilization did the Sumerians?
irrigation-carried river to a wheel these fieilds and allowed them to have unified writting surplus of crops
what are the 5 charateristic of sumerian civilization
advanced cities
specialized workers
complex instutitions
record keeping
advancded technology
Sargon I
caonqueror who defeated the city-states of Sumer,(created 1st empire)
Ziggurat
where the priest applead to the gods for well being ,also go-between w/Gods also city hall, Harrapa in present day packistan
what is religion of the Summerians?
polytheistic
god/goddess had human virtues(man created in their form)
no heaven/hell
What is the code of hammurabi?
It brought everyone together to have one set of concerte rules,1st law code
Epic of Gilgamesh vs. Old Testament
-flood-
-paradise-
-snake/serpant-
-apple/flower-immorality
-Flood-
Harappa
city named civilization,well planned and laid out, had sepprate neighborhoods
Aryans
nomads that moved into india ,from asia
Monsoons
winds,wet=south,Dry=North, unpredictable and caused either floods or doughts
Shang Dynasty
1st family of Chinese rulers to leave written records
Oracle Bones
animal bones & tortuise shells on which priests scratched questions for the gods
Han Dynasty
Cunfician scholars running gov't, grain warehouse,incase of famine expanded,gov't based on cunticition idea's,had exminations
Qin Dynasty
expanded roads and canals, standardized carts wheels,gauge, oppressions againest confucians scholars,great wall of china
Zhou Dynasty
overthrew Shang Dynasty
Vedas
religious teachings that came w/Aryan's:all oral
Karma
life is determained in this one on how you do in the next
Dharma
duty,how you were expected to act/do
Varna
system distinguished by skin, color, family, rigid caste sytem
Mosksha
vitamite release once you reach your highest level
Four Major Truths
Buddha's 1st sermon
1.all existene is suffering
2.suffering is caused by desire
3.to end suffering, stop desiring
4.Follow the 8th Fold Path
Eightfold Path
C
R
F
W
R
K
S
P
1.Control thoughts
2.Resist evil
3.free mind of evil
4.work for the good of others
5.repect life
6.know truth
7.say nothing to hurt others
8.Practice meditation
Siddhartha Guatama
Buddha memeber of warrior Varna,prince
Theravada
Tradtional Buddihism
Mahayana
Budda's is diety
Recarnation
any and of rebirth
Major events in life of Buddha
leaves place 4 times
-old man-
funeral
sickman
monk
Great renounciation
tree enlightment
4 Noble truths
Toran
1st 5 Books of Hebrew bible,most sacred writings in Jewish tradition
Babylonian Captivity
when Babylonians captured Israelites and they were the 1st to wrote down there stories
Judaism was differnet b/c
monothesis
Confucius
grew up a scholar, taught students to learn and rulers to rule, devolped philosophey on how to create a democracy
Lao Tse
founder of Daoism
Legalist
strict,negitive view of human nature,man is animal by nature and must be trained
What do Jesus, Budda,Confucius and Socrates have in common
none of them wrote anything down
Daomism
is concerned w/this world -Ying Yang
Myceneans
white people who moved w/Heliamous,War-Like people who bulit fortresses on hill tops ,learned bronze from minoans
Dorians
had iron weapons, supierior to bronze, learning declined and trading stopped
Minoans
1st ancient Greek civilization named after Mythical creature ,Minotar,destroyed by volcano- Thera
Lonians
decendents from those who fled Dorians,Brought back alphabet,Oligarchies
Geography of Grecce
many island and city-state-sea
Athens and Sparta Alike
Both are greek city states
Athena and Sparta Different
Sparta-war based
Athena-based on lituratue and music
Sparta-men warriors and women =baby makers
Athens-men intelliectual,women=not
athenaian decormany
Citizen:male,18years old;born of citizens parents
Democratic Athens
Citizen-male, 18yrs, born of citizen parents
laws voted on and proposed directly by assambly and citizens
Leader is chosen by lot
Excetive branch had 500 men
Juries varied in size
No attorney;No appels and one day trials
political power was exercise by the people
3 branches
legislative passes laws
excuise carries out the law
judicial enfosies laws
Cleithenes
he knew you couldn't have aristocracy he said they had to share power w/people ,established basic principals of democracy
The Athenians Revolt
Athenians revolted againest gov't and were successful
monarchy
gov't in which Power is in the hands of a single person
*State ruled by a king
*rule is heredity
*some rulars claim divine rights
*Practiced in Mycenae
Oligarchy
ruled by few
*State ruled by a small group of citizens
*rule is based on wealth
*ruling group controls military
*In Sparta
Decmocracy
state ruled by it citizens of through represitives
rule is based on citizenship
majoirty rule decides
In Athans
Why was the Persian wars so significant?
*Greek-city-states felt a new sense of confidence and freedom
*Athens was based in glory
*Athens became the leader of 140 city states
*Athens used its large navy to control the other league members
Phalanx
military formation of foot soliders armed with spears and shields.
Marathon
Pheidippides runs from Marathon to Athans as fast as possible and brought news of Perisan's defeat then collapsed and died
Salamis
a few miles southwest of Athens
Why was the Golden Age titles the Goldern Age?
because art,music,theateher,and science and mathmatic di=iscovers acord.also Athans had a lot of gold
Socrates
sophist philosopher,he believed that absoulte standards did exist for truth and jusidence.
Plato
students of socrates, philospher,who thought an intelligent and insightful person should be choosen
Aristotle
philopher who questioned nature of world and of human thought,belief and knoweledge
Pericles
wise and skillful politions who wanted to strenghten Athenian democracy, hold and strenghten empire , and glorify Athens
Greek sturcture characteristics:
figures graceful
strong and perfectly formed
faces showed only serenity
vaules of order, balance, porportion
What events lead to the decline of athens during the peloponnesian?
Plague
in 404BC Athens surrenders and they lost power, wealth, and empire
How was the dealth of socrates significicant?
He was the first to die for what he believed in.Also he was a scapegoat for the war.
who were the great playwrights and charateristic of drama?
2 types of drama
Tragedy(about heros) and Comendy(satire)
actors wear huge boots and masks
Sophocles-Greek playwright introduced 3rd actor,making conflict possible
Aristophane-wrote comedies
Aeschylus-added 3rd actor
Thesbis-became 1st actor
Phillip of Macedon
wanted to take control of Greece,he used 16x16 phalanx and calvery
Hellenism
principals or ideas realted to the greeks,under alexander the great,age that had change in thought
Philosophies of Stoicism
created by zeno,accept what happens and don't try and change it,don't seek out pain and viture source of wisdom that comes from morality
Philosophies of Epicureanism
Pleasure is purpose of life but avoiding habits that bring pain, health,frustuation and desire.
Philosophies of Synicism
radical doctrine of moral-self suffenciracy, rejected materialism
Hellenistic Sculpure vs.Classical
more dramatic,movent and or action shown, more based on humans
Geography of Italy
mountains N and middle of sea ,open plains
Etruscacns
built iron weapons and tools
artist
supersious religion
disicpled army
Cynicism
radical doctrine of moral-self suffenciracy, rejected matericalism
Greeks
brought olives and grapes-a alphabet
Laitn
drained swamps
intro the brick
forum-central place
Senate
300 men,served for life
Consul
2 commanders-in-chief
Censor
Census takers and tax assesors
Tribune
safeguard,represented people
Functions of Repulication gov't
sente
Consul
Hannibal
military genius,had hatered of Rome
Cannae
Battle where Haniball conplelly surrounds an army(very rare)
Zama
battle where haniball is defeated
Punic Wars
effects: new territory, elimation of rival, new territories, needed civil service ,farms,destoryed people killed
Accomplishments of Caesar:
public works project
urban revivial
Calender
land reform
flood control
cultural expansion
Julius Claudian Emperors
emperors immeadiality after Augustus
Good Emperors
series of Good Emperors
Hadrian's Wall
barriar of stopping of me Roman Empire
Accomplishments of Augustus
reforming city
1st police and fire dept
great public works
reduced size of army
established formal pension
Pax Romana
Roman Peace
Roman empire @ height
expands to present border
economy @ its high
How did Diolectian and change the empire?
Dicoletion
divided empire
froze occupation
raised taxes
improve collection method of taxas
How did Constantine change the empire?
had churchs bulit
called 1st church consol
Passed Edict of Milian
Believed in Christian god after Milvian bridge
Peter
one of the first apostles
Paul
apostle had enormas influance on christanity devolpment ,never met Christ
Battle of the Milvian Bridge
Where Constine had ephiphany and saw cross,painted it on sheilds,won battle
Edict of Milan
passed by constantine,it granted religoius freedom
Muhammad
born into a powerful Meccan clan ,orphange @ the age of 6,raised by grandfather and uncle,recieve very little education ,was "last"propet
Hijira
migration,when muhammad and his followers moved to Yathrib
Quaran
Islamic Holy book,which was god's words as reveled to muhammad
Mecca
where muhammad began to preach publicly
Medina
aka yathrib renamed to mean"city of the prophet"
What are the 5 pillers of islam?
Faith
Alms
Fasting
Prayer
Pilgrimage
Faith
has to say "There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is the messager of Allah."Said daily and in islamic rituals.
Prayer
5 times a day ,face Mecca,
Alms
supporting the poor
Fasting
during Ramadan they fast from from sunset to sunrise
Pilgramage
they are suuposed to go on a hajj.
Shi'a
the branch of Islam whose members acknowlege Ali and his desendants as the rightful successors of Muhammad
Sunni
the branch of Islam whose members acknowledge the first four caliphs as the rightful successors of Muhammad
Clovis
1st leader to accept christanity, established merovian an dynasty
Battle of Tours
battle that stopped the spread of muslism empire
"Carolingian Renissance"
established schoolgy irish, scholars were teachers economy went UP,money used again ,public work projects
Treaty of Verdun
broke up empire into,Germany France and Celtic Belt
Magyars
plunders,horse riding people from central Asia
Dark Ages
learning scare,money was lost,no legal system and economy stragnated
Dim Age
leaning,was scarce but it still occured
Accopmlishments of Charlemagne:
added terriory to Frankish empire
estblished system of governers courts who traveled throught region to solve promblems
encouragment to learning
What happen after Charlamane died?
Loius& Loius's 3 sons fought over crown=>civil war=>Treaty of Verdan=>loss of King's power
Vassal
person reciving a fief
fief
land,granted by land owner,given in exchange for military protection
Serf
people who could not lawfully leave the place they were born ,bound through land
Manor
lord's estate
Chivalry
code complex set of ideals demanded a knight bravely for this 3 masters
Benedict's rule
rules for priests,code
Excommunication
taking away of a person's right of membership in a christan church
Simony-
selling of the church postions"preaching ordersy"
lay investiture
the apponiment of religious officals by kings or nobles
Reasons for fuedal system
*King's power decreased ,central gov't power decrease
*people invaded by 3 people and local leaders set up and offer protection,in exchange for alligance
What is the legal and social status of serfs?
lord 2 vassal
land
right wrongs done 2 vassals ,oath,finical aid, tax and house him,military,relief,and fuedal aids.
Blonged w/land
not slaves
almost peasants
Describle the contributions of monoasteries to Medival society?
hospitals
schools
Pope Greg VII and Henry IV conflicts
*Pope Greg VII banned lay investiure
*Henry IV didn't like that abd sent him a letter
Pope excommmunicates Henery
Henery travels to see amd askas him for forgivness