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81 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the Army's two tactical planning processes?
Troop Leading Procedures (TLP) and the Military Decision Making Process (MDMP).
What are the two general categories of orders?
Administrative and combat
What do administrative orders cover?
Admin operations in garrison or in the field. Ex.: General, specific, & memorandum orders; courts-martial orders; & bulletins, circulars, & other memoranda.
What do combat orders cover?
Operations and service support for these operations. They include OPORDs, service support orders, movement orders, WARNOs, & FRAGOs.
What are the 12 characteristics of a good Operation Plan?
1. Contain critical facts & assumptions;

2. Authoritative expression;

3. Positive expression;

4. Avoid qualified directives;

5. Balance;

6. Simplicity;

7. Brevity;

8. Clarity;

9. Completeness;

10. Coordination;

11. Flexibility;

12. Timeliness.
Which of the following does NOT contain assumptions?

Assumptions are NOT stated in OPORDs.
What are the two Army Field Manuals (FMs) that cover combat orders and TLPs?
FM 5-0 The Operations Process

FM 7-8 Infantry Rifle Platoon and Squad
Unit SOPs are NOT orders, but they are integral to the orders process. Why?
SOPs enhance commander's effectiveness & flexibility because they detail how forces execute unit-specific techniques, procedures, and recurring actions.
What are the 4 benefits of SOPs?
1. Simplified brief combat orders

2. Enhanced understanding of teamwork among commanders, staff, and troops

3. Standard synchronized staff drills

4. Standard abbreviated or accelerated decision making techniques
What is an Operation Order?
An Operation Order is a directive issued by a commander to subordinate commanders for the purpose of effecting the coordinated execution of an operation.
What do Operation Orders contain?
Operation Orders contain the "Task Organization," express the "Commander's Intent," and contain the five paragraphs (5-Paragraph combat order format).
What is "Task Organization"?
Task Organization is a temporary grouping of forces designed to accomplish a specific mission.
What is "Commander's Intent"?
Commander's Intent is a clear, concise statement of what the force must do and the conditions the force must meet to succeed.
What are the paragraphs in the 5-paragraph order?
1. Situation

2. Mission

3. Execution

4. Service and Support

5. Command and Signal

What is significant about the Date Time Group (DTG) on an OPORD?
The DTG on an OPORD/OPLAN is the effective date or "start time" for the OPORD.
What part of the OPORD/OPLAN contains the who, what, when, where - but NOT the how?
The MISSION paragraph.
What part of the OPORD/OPLAN contains the commander's intent or the desired end state?
The EXECUTION paragraph.
What are Warning Orders?
Waring Orders (WARNOs) are preliminary notices of orders or actions to follow.
What are Fragmentary Orders?
Fragmentary Orders (FRAGOs) is an abbreviated order form of an OPORD issued to change or modify a previously issued OPORD.
How many steps are there in the Military Decision Making Process (MDMP)?
What are the steps in the Military Decision Making Process (MDMP)?
1. Receipt of Mission

2. Mission Analysis

3. Course of Action (COA) Development

4. COA Analysis (Wargaming)

5. COA Comparison

6. COA Approval

7. Orders Production
What are the specific components of considered COAs during COA development?
(Point emphasized in class by CW4)
COAs must be:
and complete
What is the overlapping and non-sequential process used at the company level and below?
Troop Leading Procedures (TLP)
How many steps are there in the Troop Leading Procedures (TLP)?
What are the eight Troop Leading Procedure steps?
1. Receive the mission

2. Issue a WARNO

3. Make a tentative plan

4. Initiate Movement

5. Conduct Reconnaissance

6. Complete the plan

7. Issue the order

8. Supervise and refine
Upon receipt of the mission, what planning model should you use to assess the mission?
What is METT-TC?
Terrain & Weather
Time available
Civil Considerations
When determining the proper allocation of time, what process should you use?
Backwards planning.

Identify critical times specified by higher and work backwards from there.
Ideally, how should you divide your time between your planning of the OPORD and subordinate planning/execution?
1/3 time for your planning

2/3 time for subordinate planning and execution
In Step 2 of the TLP (Issue a WARNO), what is the most important point to remember?
Most important: Do not delay issuing the initial WARNO. Give subordinates as much time as possible to plan and prepare.
What are specified, implied, and essential tasks?
Specified, implied, and essential tasks are extracted from the WARNO and the OPORD.

Specified and implied tasks identify the essential tasks. These are tasks that must be completed to accomplish the mission.
In Step 5 of the TLP (Conduct Reconnaissance), what is the minimum you must do?
Conduct a map recon and supplement with imagery and intelligence products.
What are Full Spectrum Operations?
Army forces combine offensive, defensive, and stability or civil support operations simultaneously as part of an interdependent joint force to seize, retain, and exploit the initiative, accepting prudent risk to create opportunities to achieve desicive results.
What is Operational Initiative?
Operational Initiative is setting or dictating the terms of action throughout an operation.
What two factors are intrinsic to seizing the initative?
Risk and Opportunity
What is Individual Initiative?
Individual Initiative is the willingness to act in the absence of orders, when existing orders no longer fit the situation, or when unforseen opportunity or threat arise.
What is "Economy of Force"?

Army Operations class Check on Learning.
Achieving the greatest impact from the forces you have available (the most bang for your buck).

Economy of Force is the reciprocal of mass: Allocate minimum essential combat power to secondary efforts.
What are the purposes of Offensive Operations?

Army Operations class Check on Learning.
There are six purposes to Offensive Operations:

1. Dislocate, Isolate, Disrupt, and Destroy Enemy Forces

2. Seize Key Terrain

3. Deprive Enemy of Resources

4. Develop Intelligence

5. Deceive and Divert the Enemy

6. Create a Secure Environment for Stability Operations
What is ASCOPE?

Army Operations class Check on Learning.
ASCOPE is the acronym commanders use to evaluate civil considerations.

Areas, Structures, Capabilities, Organizations, People, and Events.
What are the 9 Principles of War?

Army Operations class Check on Learning.

Economy of Force

Unity of Command
What type of commands is MDMP used for?

Check on learning question.
MDMP is used for commanders with a staff - battalion and above.
What is the first step of MDMP?

Check on learning question.
Receipt of the Mission
Why is Mission Analysis crucial to MDMP?

Check on learning question.
Mission Analysis allows the commander to begin battlefield visualization. The results of Mission Analysis are defining the tactical problem and determining feasible solutions.
What organizational level are TLP used?

Check on learning question.
Company and below.
What is first step of TLP?

Check on learning.
Receive the Mission
Do the TLP steps follow a rigid sequence?

Check in learning question.
No. TLP does not follow a rigid sequence.
What are the three parts to motivation?

Check on learning question.
Motivation has three parts: Arousal, Direction, and Intensity.
What are the things that the arousal, direction, and intensity of motivation produce?

Check on learning question.
Motivation focuses ATTENTION

Motivation produces EFFORT

Motivation generates PERSISTENCE

Motivation produces TASK STRATEGIES
Motivate Subordinates focused on three motivation theories, what are they?
Individual Needs theories of Maslow and Alderfer

Work Motivation theory of Hertzberg
How many levels are there in Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs?
What are the five levels in Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs?
1. Self Actualization

2. Esteem Needs

3. Social Needs

4. Safety Needs

5. Psychological Needs
What are the assumptions underlying Maslow's theory?
1. Humans are always in a state of wanting; needs which are unmet are motivators.

2. Human needs are arranged in order of importance: once a need is satisfied, another takes its place.
Alderfer modified Maslow's theory and developed ERG Theory. What does ERG stand for?
ERG Theory is specific to Existence, Relatedness, and Growth.
The differences between Maslow and Alderfer are centered around three concepts, what are they?
1. How needs are categorized

2. The relationship of needs and levels

3. What happens when a need is not satisfied
According to the handout, what were the four causes of the Civil War?
States rights, tariffs, slavery, and the Patrone factor.
What was the first battle of the Civil War?
The Battle of Ft. Sumter.
What was the first state to secede from the Union?
South Carolina
For every man killed in battle during the Civil War, how many died from sickness and disease?
Two. For every 1 man killed in combat 2 died from sickness and disease.
True or False: Most soldiers in the Civil War were under 21 years old?
Approximately how man African American soldiers fought for the Union Army?
Approximately 180,000 black troops fought for the Union Army. This was about 10% of the Union Army strength.
True of False: the Civil War is known as the First Modern War.
Specific to strategy and tactics, what type of conflict was the Civil War?
The Civil War was a war of maneuver.

It was a war in which the balance of power was described in terms of technology.
In terms of strategy and tactics, how did the civil was begin and how did it end? What type of tactics were used?
The civil war began with Napoleonic Principles and by the end showcased a preview of WWI style trench warfare.
According to our handout, the South fought two foes. The Union was one of them and what was the other?
Approximately how many soldiers fought in the Civil War?
3.5 Million
Of the 3.5 Million soldiers who fought in the Civil War, how many were actually regulars of the Union or Confederate military forces?
75,000. The vast majority of the rest were volunteers from State organized units.
How did the South tend to name battles?
The South named battles after the closest town or city.
How did the North name battles?
The North named battles after the closest stream or river.
The North called them the first and second battles of “Bull Run”, but what did the South call them?
The South named the battles of Bull Run the first and second battles of “Manasses”.
In the South, what is the battle of Antietam called?
In the South, the Battle of Antietam is known as the Battle of Sharpsburg.
What was the number one resource of the South?
The number one resource of the South was agriculture.
What was probably the most destructive force to the Confederacy?
What are the main reasons the Confederates lost the Civil War?
1. Lack of manpower;
2. Lack of industry;
3. An opponent with almost unlimited resources;
4. Railroads that only ran in north-south direction;
5. Economics: The southern economy only got worse as the war raged on.
What was the Percussion Cap ignition system?
The Percussion Cap ignition system had a simple tube running straight into the gun barrel. It did not use an exposed flash pan to begin the ignition process.
What was the primary rifle of the Civil War?
The primary rifle of the Civil War was the 1861 Springfield Musket.
What was the Minnie Ball?
The Minnie Ball was a lead projectile tapering forward from its narrow base. The force of the explosion expanded the hollow base of the bullet to fit the rifling. The round left the rifle spinning, which greatly increased accuracy.
Which British weapons company sold arms to both the Union and the Confederacy?
Royal Small Arms Factory of Enfield, England.
How many rounds per minute could a good Civil War artillery crew fire?
About two rounds per minute.
Name the technological innovations of the Civil War:
1. Telecommunications
2. photojournalism
3. aerial observations (balloons)
4. submarines (CSS Hunley: first sub to sink a ship in wartime)
5. Steam and ironclad ships (Monitor & Merrimac)
6. railroads
7. rapid-fire weapons
Who used the first machine-gun type weapon in combat?
The Confederacy. They used the Williams breech-loading rapid fire gun.
What is significant about the CSS Hunley?
The CSS Hunley was the first submarine to ever sink a ship in wartime. CSS Hunley rammed a spar-torpedo into the USS Housatonic.