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134 Cards in this Set

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During what years was WWI fought?
World War I - The Great War - was fought between 1914 and 1918.
What are the "unintended consequences" of the War of 1914-1918?
Bolshevist Revolution

Cold War


Creation of new nations

What were the reasons for WWI?



What were the militarism issues leading to WWI?
Germany competing with UK to build battleships;

British feared an attack;

Germany competing with Russia & France to expand armies
What were the alliance issues leading to WWI?
In 1914, all major powers linked by system of alliances. Alliances made it easier for one country to pull others into war.
How did European nations think WWI was going to progress when it started?

Check on learning question
European nations expected the war to be short and glorious.
How did imperialism contribute to WWI?
The major powers were competing for territory.
True or False: in 1914, the US did not have any overseas alliances.
What were the British afraid of leading up to WWI?
They were afraid of Germany signing a treaty to protect Belgium, defeating France, and dominating Europe.
What was The Schlieffen Plan?
The Schlieffen Plan was the German war plan detailing a German plan to attack France through Belgium.
Why did the US get involved in WWI?
1. Unrestricted submarine warfare;

2. American propaganda stressing German barbarism;

3. German dictatorship

4. Zimmerman Note
What was the Zimmerman Note?
1917 diplomatic proposal from Germany to Mexico to make war against the U.S. It was intercepted/decoded by British. Outraged American public opinion and helped generate support for the U.S. declaration of war on Germany.
Who commanded the first US Expeditionary Force in WWI?
General John Pershing
It has been calculated that 112,432 Americans died in WWI. What percentage of these died from disease?
50% - mainly from influenza
What was significant about the Battle of Ypres?
Poison gas was first used as a weapon at the Battle of Ypres. Central Powers used this against the Canadians and killed over 6,000.
What was significant about the Battle of Somme?
British artillery failed to neutralize German machine guns and defenses. British & Canadian troops attacked and lost 57,470 men on day 1.
How many soldiers total died during the Battle of Somme?
1,250,000 soldiers died.
At the Battle of Somme, what was the British artillery supposed to have accomplished?
The British artillery was to have destroyed German machine gun positions and obstacles so infantry could maneuver.
France built a long line of sunken forts from Swiss frontier to which French town?
Which battle showcased the importance of reherals and practice before battle?
The Battle of Vimy Ridge.
What did the Battle of Vimy Ridge demonstrate?
Rehersal and practice are vital to success in combat. Canadian General Arthur Currie practiced battle drills over and over and over.
Which WWI battlefield was literally a sea of mud after the drainage ditches were destroyed?
The Battle of Passchendale.
What sanctions did Germany face at the end of the war?
1. All territorial conquests acheived by Central Powers had to be abandoned;

2. German Army surrendered 30,000 machine guns;

3. German Army surrendered 2,000 aircraft;

4. German Army surrendered 5,000 locomotives, 5,000 lorries, and ALL submarines
There were 13 main terms to the Versailles Treaty, what were they?
1. Surrender of all German colonies;
2. Return of Alsace-Lorraine to France;
3. Central Power colonies surrendered;
4. Danzig to be a free city;
5. Settlement of Danish-German border dispute;
6. Occupation/special status for Saar under France;
7. Demilitarization & 15 year occupation of Rhineland;
8. German reparations of 6,600 million
9. Ban on union of Germany & Austria;
10. German acceptance of guilt for the war;
11. Trial for Kaiser & other war leaders;
12. Limitation of Germany's Army re: men & equipment - NO aircraft, NO tanks;
13. Limitation of Germany's navy re: ships size & NO SUBS.
How did chlorine gas kill?
Chlorine gas destroyed the respitory organs of victims, which led to asphyxiation.
What aircraft were used by the French Army & the Royal Flying Corps?
Farman MF-7 & MF-II - these were popular reconnaissance aircraft.
Who designed the first all metal airplane?
German aircraft designer Hugo Junker's Junker D-1.
What was the first Allied aircraft to shoot down an enemy aircraft?
The Voisin III was the first Allied aircraft to shoot down an enemy aircraft.
What was the first bomber aircraft to be equipped with a cannon instead of a machine gun?
The Voisin V was the first bomber aircraft to be equipped with a cannon instead of a machine gun.
What aircraft was capable of long range bombing attacks, but were also vulnerable to attack and bad weather?
Zeppelin airships
Winston Churchill set up the Landship Committee to develop what idea?
The tank.
What secret weapon was nicknamed "Little Willie"?
The tank
The Battle of Amiens marked what significant shift in tactics?

CW3 Gorden pointed this out in class!
Combined arms. At Amiens, British used 414 tanks, followed by infantry, and supported by more than 1,000 aircraft.
What were the major technological developments of WWI?
Chemical weapons
Advanced artillery
Machine gun
Bolt action rifle
What was the most devastating weapon used by the infantry in WWI?
The machine gun
What was the most popular rifle in the U.S. Army during WWI?
Springfield M1903 rifle.
About how many African-American soldiers served in WWI?
About 200,000
Who was the early supporter of strategic bombing and military superiority of Air Forces?
Italian General Giulio Douhet.
What was Adolf Hitler's main platform leading up to WWII?
He preached racist brand of fascism;

Promised to overturn the Versailles Treaty;

Promised to secure Lebenstraum ("living space") for Germans
What was the military doctrine of the new German Army?
Blitzkrieg - "lightning war"
What was the first country Germany attacked at the outset of WWII?
Poland. 1 Sept 1939
WWII began as a war based on technical tactics and Blitzkrieg, but was decided by what?
WWII was a war reliant on industry and mass production.
How did the US impair its ability to act against Axis aggression?
The US had passed neutrality laws prohibiting material assistance to all parties in foreign conflicts.
What was the British & French policy toward Hitler in the 1930s?
How did the Germans render the Maginot Line irrelevant?
A flanking maneuver through the low countries.
What was the Maginot Line?
A line of concrete fortifications, tank obstacles, artillery casemates, machine gun posts, and other defenses, which France constructed along its borders with Germany and Italy, in light of its experience in World War I, and in the run-up to World War II.
What was Operation Dynamo?
Codename for the evacuation @ Dunkirk. 27 May - 4 June: 693 ships rescued 338,226 people from Dunkirk (140,000 were French Army).
What was Operation Sea Lion?
Amphibious and air plan to destroy British industry. Never carried out due to Battle of Britain.
What were the contributing factors to the British success at the Battle of Britain?
British preparedness


The valor of their pilots
What were the losses at the Battle of Britain?
Germany lost 2,375 planes

England lost 800
What was the First Battle at Kasserine Pass?
First large-scale meeting of American and German forces in World War II, the relatively untested and poorly-led American troops suffered heavy casualties and were pushed back
What was the Second Battle of Kasserine Pass?
Gen. Patton defeated the Germans in this second battle.
What was Operation Husky?
The Allied Invasion of Sicily. Goals were to knock Italy out of the war, influence Turkey to join Allies, open Med for Allied shipping, and launch Allied forces into Austria & Germany.
What was Lend-Lease?
Lend-Lease was the program under which the US supplied the UK, the Soviet Union, China, Free France, and other Allied nations with materiel between 1941 and 1945.
What was the most visible sign of wartime cooperation between the US and the Soviet Union?
Lend Lease. Approx. $11 billion in aid sent to Soviet Union.
The US was initially hostile to Soviet Union due to their actions in WWI; what brought them together?
Mutual aim of defeating the Nazi Germany
What did Lend Lease help the Soviets accomplish?
L.L. helped the Soviets push the Nazis out of Soviet Union & Eastern Europe - accelerating the end of the war.
Why did Hitler sign a non-aggression pack with USSR?
Necessity. Hitler was too busy on other fronts & felt the pact would protect him in the East.
Why did the USSR sign a non-aggression pact with Hitler?
USSR was in a state of rebuilding after the purges of the 1930s and wanted to buy time.
True or False: The Germans took the Soviets by surprise when they invaded USSR?
What was the key to the combined arms victory in the German invasion of USSR?
Close air support.
What was the Invasion of the USSR code named?
Operation Barbarossa.
Why did the Germans surrender at the end of the Battle of Stalingrad?
The Soviets out-lasted their siege. German tactics were not suited for dense MOUT conflict. Germans: almost 200,000 killed or missing.
What was the Battle of Kursk?
Pivotal battle between Germans and Soviets. One of the largest tank battles in history. Soviets won but lost 50% of their tank strength.
What was Operation Overlord?
The Allied invasion of Europe.
List the key points from the handout re: Op. Overlord (D-Day).
Three years of planning;


Omaha, Utah, Sword, Gold, & Juno beaches;



Before D-Day, there was an allied invasion across the English Channel resulting in heavy losses, where was this invasion?
French port city of Dieppe.
Which American aircraft was the major transport of WWII?

(The Gooney Bird)
Douglas C-47 Dakota

Also known as the DC-3
What was the Winter battle in 1945 where the Allied forces fought a battle of attrition with the Nazis along a 50-70 mile front?
Battle of the Bulge
What was the last Nazi attempt to turn the tide of war in Europe and push the Allies to the brink of disaster?
Battle of the Bulge
What was the significance of Bastogne?
This Belgian town was the hub for seven major roadways and a railway. This crossroads was crucial to Hitler's plan.
What was significant about Dresden?
Allied Air bombed Dresden in repeated waves. A firestorm consumed 11 square miles of the center of the city.
What was the bridge US troops found intact and used to cross the Rhine?
The bridge at Remagen.
What happened the day before Hitler's death?
All German troops in Italy laid down their arms.
What convinced Japan that war with the US was inevitable?
The American decision to impose sanctions on Japan in response for Japan's invasion of Indo-China.
What does the Article I, Section I, of the US Constitution specify?
Congress alone has power to raise & support armies/navies;

to declare war;

enact rules re: captures on land & water;

provide for organizing, arming, & disciplining Militia
When were the Joint Chiefs of Staff created?
WWII. President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill created these staffs to provide strategic direction to the US-British war effort.
Why did Congress pass the National Security Act of 1947?
To formally establish the organizations that were created during WWII AND to facilitate better control over the military.
What 5 things did the National Security Act of 1947 bring about?
1. Created the National Security Council;

2. Created the National Military Establishment (NME);

3. Created the Service Secretaries & their responsibilities;

4. Created the Unified & Specified Combatant Commands;

5. Legitimized the Joint Chiefs of Staff as a permanent organization
Beginning with amendments in 1949, what 3 significant changes were made to the National Security Act?
1. Changed National Military Establishment to Department of Defense;

2. Created position of Secretary of Defense as head of DoD and above all other departments: Army, Navy, & AF.

3. Sec. Def. installed in operational chain of command between President & all other warfighting commanders.
What was the Goldwater-Nichols Act of 1986?
Attempt by Congress to rectify problems in joint operations post Iran (Operations Desert One) and Grenada (Operation Urgent Fury).
What new department was created by the Homeland Security Act of 2002?
Department of Homeland Security (DHS).
What was the purpose of the Department of Homeland Security?
To prevent terrorist attacks w/in the US;

Reduce America's vulnerability to terrorism;

Minimize the damage from terrorism and national disasters.
What is the one military service that also has a statutory law enforcement authority?
The US Coast Guard
In terms of Joint Operations, what does the term "joint" mean?
Activities, operations, organizations, etc., in which elements of two or more Military Departments participate.
With relation to Joint Force Structure & Operations, define ROLES.
Roles are the broad and enduring purposes for which the services (Army, Navy, AF, Marines, and USCG) and SOCOM were created.
What is the Army's role?
To organize, train, and equip forces for prompt and sustained combat operations on land.
What is the Navy's role?
To organize, train, and equip forces for prompt and sustained combat operations at sea.
What is the role of the USMC?
To organize, train, and equip forces for service with the fleet in the seizure and defense of advanced naval bases, and conduct land operations as necessary to prosecute the naval campaign.
What is the role of the Air Force?
To organize, train, and equip forces for prompt and sustained offensive and defensive operations in air and space.
What is the role of SOCOM?
To organize, train, and equip forces for special operations activities involving spec ops forces from all services.
With relation to Joint Force Structure & Operations, define FUNCTION.
Functions are specific responsibilities assigned by the President and SECDEF to enable the services to fulfill their legally established roles.
Example of ROLE & FUNCTION:

This is how I understand it; if someone thinks this is wrong or opaque, please let me know.
The Army's role is to fight the nation's land wars and it is the Army's function to provide the forces to do this.
With relation to Joint Force Structure & Operations, define MISSIONS.
Missions are tasks assigned by the President or SECDEF to the commanders of the Combatant Commands.
What is a Specified Command?
Broad, continuing mission, normally functional, and is established and so designated by the President through the SECDEF.
What is a Unified Command?
A Unified Command is a broad and continuing mission requiring two or more Military Departments.

What are the unique staff elements at the Joint Level?
J-5: Strategic Plans & Policies

J-7: Plans & Interoperability

J-8: Force Structure, Resources, & Assessment
Unified Combatant Commands are divided into what two types of commands?
Unified Combatant Commands are divided into GEOGRAPHIC (regional) commands and FUNCTIONAL commands.
What is a Geographic Command?
A geographic command is a command responsible for a specific geographic region.
What is a Functional Command?
Functional Commands provide capabilities to other combatant commanders. Four Functional Commands: TRANSCOM, STRATCOM, SOCOM, and JFCOM.
What are the SIX regional commands?
What is the Joint Forces Command?
Known as the "Transformation Laboratory"/Searches for alternative solutions for future operations through joint concepts; develops JF doctrine & warfighting capabilities
What is Strategic Command?
Responsible for controlling space; deterring attacks on US & allies; launches and operates satellite systems; directs the use of our strategic forces.
What is Special Operations Command?
Provides combat ready special operations forces to combatant commands.
Which functional command is unique in that it performs certain service-like functions?
What is Transportation Command?
TRANSCOM moves materials and people around the world.
What is a Joint Task Force?
Joint force constituted and designated by SECDEF, combatant commander, subordinate commander, unified commander, or existing JTF commander.
What is the "key to effective integration" of joint forces?
Understanding the capabilities & limitations of the components and assigning them missions that best meet overall objectives.
What is the historical significance of Vicksburg re: Joint Operations?
General Grant and Admiral Porter worked together without specific direction/orders from higher or specific formal recognition of joint operations. They saw the critical importance of joint operations leading to victory.
What is the historical significance of Desert One (Operation Eagle Claw) re: Joint Operations?
Rescue attempt of American hostages in Iran. Complex operation involving all services - but the components did not train together or operate in a joint fashion. From this failure came the impetus for more focused joint force doctrine.
What is the historical significance of Grenada (Operation Urgent Fury) re: Joint Operations?
Grenada demonstrated how to apply simultaneous air-land-sea action to eliminate untenable political situation.
What is an Army staff's most important function?
A staff's most important function is to support and advise the commander throughout the operations process.
What THREE functions do all staff organizations and procedures exist to fulfill?
1. Support the commander

2. Assist subordinate units

3. Keep subordinate, higher, adjacent, supported, and supporting HQ informed.
What are the primary staff products?
Information and analysis
The basic staff structure has what THREE subsets?
1. Personal Staff Group

2. Coordinating Staff

3. Special Staff
What is MTOE?
MTOE is a unit's wartime authorization document.
Who is the commanders principle staff officer?
The Chief of Staff (XO)
What staff group are the commander's principle staff assistants and directly accountable to the COS/XO?
The Coordinating Staff Group

G/S Shops
What staff group is comprised of staff officers to help the commander and other staff members perform their functional responsibilities?
The Special Staff Group
What staff group work under the commander's immediate control?
The Personal Staff Group
Who commonly makes up the Personal Staff Group?
Personal assistants, such aides-de-camp;

Personnel the CO desires to supervise;

Personnel who by law/regulation have a special relationship with CO
What are the examples of the Personal Staff Group?
What is the Secretary to the General Staff (SGS)?
The SGS acts as the XO for the COS
At the division level, how many assistant commanders are there usually and what are their roles?
One for maneuver or operations: ADC-M/ADC-O

One for support: ADC-S
What is the G-5/S-5?
Civil Military Operations
What is the G-6/S-6?
Command, Control, Communications, and Computer Operations
What is the G-7/S-7?
Information Operations
What is a support operations or materiel officer?
Authorized in support commands/battalions. The principle staff officer for coordinating logistics and combat health support.
What is the Operational Environment (OE)?
A composite of the conditions, circumstances, and influences that affect the the employment of military forces and bear on the decisions of the unit commander.
What is the Contemporary Operational Environment (COE)?
Realistic combination of current and near-term operational variables with a capabilities-based composite of potential adversaries to create a wide array of conditions necessary for full spectrum training & leader development.
What are the PMESII-PT Variables?
The critical COE variables:

Physical Environment
What is DA PAM 600-3?
DA PAM 600-3 is "Commissioned Officer Professional Development and Career Management"
What is DA PAM 611-21?
DA PAM 611-21 "Military Occupational Classification and Structure"
What is NGR 600-101?
NGR 600-101 is "Warrant Officers - Federal Recognition and Personnel Actions" - this only applies to ARNG