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116 Cards in this Set

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NEW ZEALAND

Location
Climate
Soil
Varietals
NEW ZEALAND

Location:
South of Australia
Southernmost wine country

Climate:
Maritime

Soil:
Gravelly
Stoney


Varietals:

WHITES
Sauvignon Blanc
Chardonnay

REDS
Cabernet Sauvignon
Pinot Noir
Merlot
NEW ZEALAND - Overview
NEW ZEALAND - Overview

- young wine country
- focus is on quality
- Certified Origin System (1996)
NEW ZEALAND

Important Regions
NEW ZEALAND - Important Regions

**** NORTH ISLAND ****

AUCKLAND
- warmer region reds
- Bordeaux blends with lots of merlot

GISBORNE
- Chardonnay with good acidity
- Riesling

HAWKES BAY
- high sunshine hours
- Bordeaux varietals
- ripe

WAIRARAPA (MARTINBOROUGH)
- Pinot Noir (high quality)


**** SOUTH ISLAND ****

MARLBOROUGH
- world class Sauvignon Blanc
- crisp and herbaceous

CENTRAL OTAGO
- Pinot Noir
NEW ZEALAND

Viticulture
Vinification
NEW ZEALAND

Viticulture:
- maximum sun exposure
- canopy management
- Dr. Richard Smart wrote "Sunlight Into Wine"

Vinification:
- modern
- stainless steel
AUSTRALIA - Overview
AUSTRALIA - Overview
- arrived from British settlers - 19th century
- dominated by large companies
- have fortified wines
- EXPERTS at marketing
- history of blending
- labels are easy to read
- PROBLEM: difficulty with appellation laws
- G.I.'s (Geographical Indicators)
- G.I.'s are influenced by the large companies
AUSTRALIA

South Australia Regions
AUSTRALIA - South Australia Regions

Barossa Valley
- old important (quality)
- well regarded Cab Sauv and Syrah (Shiraz)

Clare Valley
- Riesling (bone dry)
- Pretroleum based

Coonawarra
- Cooler
- Cab Sauv
- terra rosa

McLaren Vale
- Cab Sauv
- Shiraz

Eden Valley
- Whites
AUSTRALIA

Location
Climate
Soil
Varietals
AUSTRALIA

Location:
- mostly grown in southeast Australia

Climate:
- Mediterranean
- Arid
- Maritime influence

Soil:
- limestone
- terra rosa (red loam) Coonawarra
- sand
- clay

Varietals:

WHITES
- Chardonnay
- Semillon
- Riesling
- Sauvignon Blanc

REDS
- Shiraz
- Cabernet Sauvignon
- Pinot Noir
- Grenache
--- Noir
--- Blanc
--- Clarendon Hills (old vines Grenache)
AUSTRALIA

Viticulture
Vinification
AUSTRALIA

Viticulture
- irrigation
- canopy management
- ungrafted vines

Vinification
- grapes shipped to wineries that are grown from different locations
- blending between regions
- acidification widely used (done during post fermentation)
- Oak
AUSTRALIA

Victoria Regions
AUSTRALIA - Victoria Regions

Yarra Valley
- Pinot Noir

Rutherglen
- "stickies" fortified from Muscat
AUSTRALIA

New South Wales Regions
AUSTRALIA - New South Wales Regions

Hunter Valley
- Upper Hunter (top quality Chardonnays)
- Lower Hunter (Semillion)

Mudgee
- red wines
AUSTRALIA

Western Australia Regions
AUSTRALIA - Western Australia Regions

Margaret River
- quality Red and White Bordeaux varietals
AUSTRALIA - Most Important Regions
AUSTRALIA - Most Important Regions

1. South Australia
-- Shiraz
-- Riesling
-- Semillion
-- Grenache Noir/Blanc
-- Chardonnay

2. Victoria
-- Pinot Noir
-- Chardonnay
-- Shiraz
-- Cabernet Sauvignon

3. New South Wales
-- Chardonnay
-- Shiraz
-- Semillion

4. Western Australia
AUSTRALIA - Food
Lamb
ARGENTINA - Overview
ARGENTINA - Overview

- large producers
ARGENTINA

Location
Climate
Soil
Varietals
ARGENTINA

Location:
- southwest South America
- west of Andes mountain range

Climate:
- warm continental
- altitude moderates heat
- low rainfall

Soil:
- sand
- clay
- alluvial
---- fine grain fertile soil deposited where stream flow stops

Varietals:

WHITE
- Chardonnay
- Bonarda (Patriota = Bonarda/Malbec)
- Torrontes

RED
Malbec
Cabernet Sauvignon
ARGENTINA

Viticulture
Vinification
ARGENTINA

Viticulture:
- high yield
- best sites are in high altitide (longer growing)
- drip irrigation

Vinification:
- concentrated reds
- oak aging
ARGENTINA - Important Regions
ARGENTINA - Important Regions

Mendoza
- largest region
- foreign investment
- concentrated reds

Cafayete
- northern region
- reputation for aromatic Torrontes
ARGENTINA - Foods
ARGENTINA - FOODS

- beef
- organ meats
CHILE - Overview
CHILE - Overview

- new world
- Spanish brought the vines
- botanical nursery set-up 1830
---common with regions with educational system
---library for plant matter
- vinifera before Phylloxera
- export market
- "Reserved" does not mean anything
CHILE

Location
Climate
Soil
Varietals
CHILE

Location:
- southwest South America
- East of Andes
- Pacific Ocean on west

Climate:
- largely Mediterranean
- almost continental climate
--- ocean breezes
--- high altitude

Soil:
- sand
- Phylloxera-free since it is isolated

Varietals:

WHITE
Chardonnay
Sauvignon Blanc

RED
Cabernet Sauvignon
Carmenere (behaves like Merlot)
-- green, leafy
Merlot
Starting:
-- Syrah
-- Pinot Noir
CHILE

Viticulture
Vinification
CHILE

Viticulture:
- irrigation water
--- spring run-off
--- melted snow from Andes
- largely ungrafted vines

Vinification:
- a lot of French investment
- a lot of American investment
- old world and new world
- new world dominates
CHILE - Most Important Regions
CHILE - Most Important Regions

Aconcagua
- most northerly
- hot, dry, intense

Casa Blanca
- excellent crisp white
- cool
- wetter area

Maipo
- Cab and Chard
- best known wine region
- south of Santiago

Rapel
- Subregions
--- 1. Cachapoal
--- 2. Colchagua (Cab Sauv)

Maule and Bio Bio
- new producers (Pinot Noir)
CHILE - Food
CHILE - Food

- savory
- rich
- pork
- seafood
SOUTH AFRICA - Overview
SOUTH AFRICA - Overview

- longest history of NW wine history
- French/Dutch history
- makes a lot of brandy
- exports; locals can't afford it
- massive replanting led to overproduction
- Apartheid impact
---- helped create KWV
- KWV Cape Wine Growers Cooperative
---- sets minimum price
---- paid people for grapes based on quantity only
---- no quality requirements
- WO
---- set in 1973
---- Wines of Origin
---- Regions___ Districts___Wards
SOUTH AFRICA

Location
Climate
Soil
Varietals
SOUTH AFRICA

Location:
- southwest of Africa

Climate:
- largely Mediterrenean
- Benguela current (from Antartica) cools vineyard
- Cape Doctor (strong winds) clears mold

Soil:
- wide variation
- granite

Varietals:

WHITE
Chenin Blanc
--- main white
--- called Steen
Sauvignon Blanc
Chardonnay

RED
Pinotage (Pinot Noir X Cinsaut)
--- iodine
--- burnt rubber
--- medicinal
--- main red
Cabernet Sauvignon
Syrah
Merlot
SOUTH AFRICA

Viticulture
Vinification
SOUTH AFRICA

Viticulture:
- soil adjusted for acidic soil
- inland is drier and uses direct irrigation

Vinification:
- old world styles - Rustic
- new world styles - less tannic, fruitful
SOUTH AFRICA - Most Important Regions
SOUTH AFRICA - Most Important Regions

Stellenbosch
- maritime
Constancia
- Pinot Noir, dessert wine from Chenin
Paarl
- hq of KWV
Robertson
- coops / small producers
- high quality
- Sauv Blanc / Syrah
Walken Bay
- cool maritime
Olifants River
- bulk brandy
Orange River
- bulk brandy
SOUTH AFRICA - Food
SOUTH AFRICA - Food

- game
- ostrich
- antelope
- prawns
- figs
- coconut
CANADA - Overview
CANADA - Overview

- grape growing area is extremely limited
- VQA Vinter's Quality Assurance
---- defines regional boundaries
---- guarantees grape is grown in Canada
---- not just "Product of Canada"
CANADA

Location
Climate
Soil
Varietals
CANADA

Location:
NIAGARA PENINSULA
--- province of Ontario (southern tip)
--- Great Lakes area

OKANAGAN VALLEY
--- province of British Columbia
--- some actual desert area
--- OSOOYOOS - only desert area in Canada

Climate:
NIAGARA PENINSULA
--- cold continental
--- humid in the summer time
--- winter freeze is a threat
--- Great Lakes moderates climate

OKANAGAN VALLEY
--- cold continental
--- arid
--- Lake Okanagan moderates weather


Soil:
NIAGARA PENINSULA
--- limestone
--- glacial till

OKANAGAN VALLEY
---- sand


Varietals:
NP
--- history of hybrids
------ Vidal
------ Bacos Noir
--- vitis vinifera
------ Riesling (Ice Wine)
------ Chardonnay
------ Gewurztraminer
------ Cabernet Franc
------ Merlot

OV
--- Pinot Gris
--- Riesling
--- Chardonnay
--- Gewurztraminer
--- Pinot Noir
--- Merlot
--- Cabernet Franc
--- Syrah
CANADA

Viticulture
Vinification
CANADA

Viticulture:
NP
--- winter protection practices
--- cold resistant rootstock

OV
--- irrigation by Lake Okanagan
--- Frost protection (early)

Vinification:
None covered in class
CANADA - Most important regions.
CANADA - Most important regions

Niagara Peninsula (a lot of bulk wines)

Okanagan Valley (more quality wine)
CANADA - FOOD
CANADA - FOOD
None covered in class
OREGON - Overview
OREGON - Overview

- small production
- starts at 20$ range
- small growers
- quality production
- attention to individual vineyards
OREGON

Location
Climate
Soil
Varietals
OREGON

Location:
- Pacific Northwest

Climate:
- Mild maritime
- can get cold
- west side of Cascade Mountain for growing region
- fog

Soil:
- volcanic
- marine fossils
- red clay loam (terra rosa)

Varietals:
- Pinot Noir
- Pinot Gris
- Chardonnay (some)
OREGON

Viticulture
Vinification
OREGON

Viticulture:
- canopy management to increase sunlight
- training and trellising
- a lot of growers that do not produce wine


Vinification:
- many single varietal wines
- must be 95% Pinot Noir in Oregon
- adoption of Burgundy techniques (old school)
- use of older barrels and newer barrels
OREGON - Most important AVA's
OREGON - Most important AVA's

Willamette AVA
- largest
- excellent reputation for Pinot Noir
- sub-regions
--- 1. Yamhill Carleton AVA
--- 2. McMinnville AVA
--- 3. Dundee Hills AVA

Umpqua Valley AVA
- further south
- fuller body

Rogue Valley AVA
- close to California
- Cabernet Sauvignon
- Merlot
- Zinfandel
OREGON - Foods
OREGON - Foods

- oysters
- salmon
- lamb
- hazelnuts
- craft produced cheeses
WASHINGTON - Overview
WASHINGTON - Overview

- history and industry relatively young
- 2nd largest producing state
- center for grape growing: eastern Washington
- center for wine making: western Washington near Seattle
- this causes an issue with transporting grapes
- no large production of bulk wine; starts at mid-range ($9.00)

*** Good Washington wineries
- Chateau St. Michelle
- Leonetti (hard to find)
- Woodward Canyon
WASHINGTON

Location
Climate
Soil
Varietals
WASHINGTON

Location
- Pacific northwest

Climate
Two distinct zones
1. Western Washington
----- wet and humid
----- coastal influence
*** Cascade Mountain
----- creates rainshadow effect
2. Eastern Washington
----- Continental and arid

Soil
- Clay
- Sand
- Volcanic

Varietals:
- Merlot (better acidity)
- Cabernet Sauvignon (Excellent)
- Syrah
- Riesling (Best)
- Chardonnay
WASHINGTON

Viticulture
Vinification
WASHINGTON

Viticulture:
- Ungrafted vines (pre-Phylloxera)
- Protection from frost (spraying, wind turbines, heaters)
- Irrigation from Columbia River (needed for Eastern Washington) though this is not enough
- Have reservoir that produces and vineyard can access based on size lf land owned

Vinification:
- Extremely modern
- Need to account for transportation cost
- Oak aging
WASHINGTON - Most important AVA's
WASHINGTON - Most important AVA's

Columbia Valley AVA (largest)
---- Yakima Valley AVA
---- Red Mountain AVA
---- Horse Heaven Hills AVA
---- Rattlesnake Hills AVA

Columbia Gorge AVA
---- shared with Oregon
---- towards the coast

Puget Sound AVA
---- covers most of coastal area
---- shares climatic conditions with British Columbia
WASHINGTON - Food
WASHINGTON - Food

None covered in class
CALIFORNIA - Overview
CALIFORNIA - Overview

• best wines
• growing industry
• 1/3 of bottles sold in U.S. are from California
• range of quality (a lot of ultra premium wines)
CALIFORNIA

Location
Climate
Soil
Varietals
CALIFORNIA

Location:
West coast of U.S.A

Climate:
• largely Mediterranean
• fog and oceanic influences
• mountain influence

Soil:
• Small patches of soil variations
---- Alluvial (poor in organic matter)
---- Volcanic
---- Granitic
---- Loam
---- Sandstone

Varietals:
- Cabernet Sauvignon
- Merlot (good quality)
- Zinfandel
- Syrah
- Pinot Noir
- Chardonnay
- Sauvignon Blanc

World 85% of varietal listed on label
USA 75% of varietal listed on label
USA 95% of varietal listed on label if it is Vintage

Before May 2006
--- AVA was 85% varietal

Changed May 2006
--- AVA Large producers 75% varietal
--- AVA Small producers 85% varietal
CALIFORNIA

Viticulture
Vinification
CALIFORNIA

Viticulture:
• lower vine density
--- no need for density as it is a better growing region
--- can do more
--- quality from climate
• several different training systems – no restrictions
• irrigation
• hand harvesting for top producers
• Phylloxera and Pierce’s Disease are a threat

Vinification:
• very modern (awesome technology)
• best equipment
• due to influence of U.C. – Davis
• oak Aging
• vines have a lifespan and must be pulled after a period of time.


Phylloxera – mistake by U.C. Davis
1. AXR-1 is name of a rootstock from U.C. Davis (70’s to 80’s)
2. Thought to be immune to Phylloxera and cheaper
3. This was a mistake (not resistant)
CALIFORNIA - Most important AVA's
CALIFORNIA - Most important AVA's

Lodi / Woodbridge AVA (Gallo, entry level Mondavi)
- Highly productive
- Warm dry area
- High Yield

Napa Valley
- 30 miles long
- considerably warmer in the north
- San Pablo Bay
- known for Cabernet Sauvignon (high quality)
- valley floor heavily planted
- sub-Regions (Still AVA’s but smaller)
----- 1. Oakville AVA
--------- extremely concentrated
--------- middle of the Napa valley
--------- muscular wine
----- 2. Rutherford AVA
--------- distinct minerality than others
----- 3.Howell Mountain AVA
--------- higher altitude
--------- fairly tannic
----- 4. Stags Leap AVA
--------- slower ripening (cooler climate)
--------- herbal Distinctive
----- 5. Carneros AVA
--------- overlaps Sonoma/Napa County
--------- fog and wine (liked by Pinot Noir and Chardonnay)
--------- cooler
--------- sparking
--------- pick early

Sonoma County AVA
- covers entire county

Sonoma Valley AVA
- best wines from higher elevations
- great Zinfandel
- Sonoma has more wine variants than Napa

Russian River Valley AVA
- Pinot Noir
- Zinfandels
- Redwood trees and fog

Dry Creek AVA
- Zinfandel (spicy)

Central Coast
- Granite ridges east to west
- Cold ocean current and fog
- Low temperature
• Santa Barbara AVA (cold / Pinot Noir)
• Santa Maria AVA
• Santa Ynez AVA
CALIFORNIA - Food
CALIFORNIA - Food

• land/water
• produce
• many cultures
• local foods
• fusion cuisine (California cuisine)
• replacement of flavor (not high-fat content)
---- citrus
---- herbs
What is the European vine specie?
Vitis Vinifera
What vine species is native to the Eastern U.S.?
Vitis Labrusca
What vine species is native to to the Southerna and Western U.S.?
Vitis Rupestris
What is the vine louse that eats its roots causing the vine to die?
Phylloxera
What vine disease is spread by the Glassy-Winged Sharpshooter
Pierce's Disease
What is the name of the plant that is grafted on top of a rootstock?
Scion
Who brought vines to the Western U.S.?
Spanish missionaries
What is the most important institution for viticulture
U.C. - Davis
What are the main impediments in the modern history of North America?
1. Prohibition (Dry Law)
2. Three-tier distitribution system
Importer
Distributor
Retailer
What governs areas of wine production in the U.S. ?
AVA - Approved Viticultural Area
What are the main varietals of Hungary?
Furmint
Harslevelu
What region in Hungary is famous for its dessert wine?
Tokaji (Northern Hungary)
What is the highest quality Tokay made in Hungary
Tokay Essencia
What are the styles of Tokay?
1. Szamordni
2. Aszu
3. Essence
4. Essencia
What is used the measure of sweetness that is added during Tokay production?
Puttonyos
What is the name of the barrel/cask used in Hungary
Gonc (Gonci) = 136 liters
What wine is Switzerland famous for?
FENDANT wine (Chasselas grape)

- good with Fondue
What is the most important made in Austria?
Gruner Veltliner
What are the most important wine regions in Austria?
1. Wien (Vienna)
2. Wachau
3. Kremstal
4. Kamptal
5. Burgenland
Where and when did growers get caught illegally added "antifreeze" chemical to wine to make it sweeter in hopes of reducing production costs?
1985 Austrian Wine Scandal
What country used the "Pyramid of Ripeness" to categorize wines.
Germany
What is the name used for the unit of weight of the sugar content in German wine?
Oechsle
Which category levels in Germany can be Dry, Medium Dry or Sweet?
Starting with Tafelwein to Auslese
What category levels in Germany do now allow Chaptalization.
The QMP category which is from Kabinett to TBA.
What are the five category levels in QMP rating for German wines?
Ascending Order for QMP levels.

1. Kabinett
2. Spatlese
3. Auslese
4. Beerenauslese (BA)
5. Trockenbeerenauslese (TBA)
What is the meaning of Spatlese?
Late Harvest
What is the meaning of Auslese?
Select picking of bunches
What is the meaning of Beerenauslese?
Berries select picking
What is the meaning of Trokenbeerenauslese
Dry berries before picking
What is Anbaugebiete?
1 of 13 regions defined by German wine law
What is Bereich?
Large area inside an Anbaugebiete.
What is a Gemeinde?
Commune or village
What is a Grosellage?
Collection of vineyards
What is an Einzellage
A single vineyard
What does Trocken mean?
Dry
What does Halbtrocken mean?
Half Dry
These two German words refer to the same thing. What does these mean?

Gutsabfullung
Erzeugerabfullung
Estate bottled
What is a Weingut?
Wine estate
What is a Weinkellerei?
Wine cellar or Winery
What does the "AP Nr" mean on a German wine label?
This is the offical testing number.

First two digits = test station

Next two digits = year of the test
These two German words mean the same thing. What do these words mean?

Winzergenossenschaft
Winzerverein
Wine grower’s co-op
What word should be on a German wine label to tell you that it is sourced from Germany in other words a QBA?
Deutscher
What is the name of the bottle used in the Franken region of Germany?
Bocksbeutel
GERMANY

Location
Climate
Soil
Varietals
GERMANY

Location:
Northern Europe

Climate:
Cold Continental

Soil:
Slate - heat retentionq
Sandstone

Varietals:
1. Riesling
2. Silvaner (German for Pinot Gris)
3. Pinot Gris (Rulander, Grauburgunder)
4. Pinot Noir (Spatburgunder)
5. Weissburgunder (Pinot Blanc)
6. Muller Thurgau
7. Gewurztraminer
GERMANY

Viticulture
Vinification
Viticulture:
- grapes struggle to ripen
- frost is an issue
- staked on slopes
- following are needed for draining and ripening
---- Must be southern facing
---- Must be on hillside
- double cordon training (heart-shaped)
---- allows for maximum sun exposure
- issue with high yields

Vinification:
- mostly white wines
- Chaptalization forbidden Kabinett and above categories
- Sweet wines
- Sussreserve
---- Ferment all sugars (9% to 10% ABV)
---- Then blend back in fresh grape juice (added for sweeteness)
GERMANY

Food
Germany Food

Pork
Sauerkraut
Full flavored
Sausage
Schnitzel
Goose
Cheese
-- Limberger
-- Munster
-- Cambozola = Gorgonzola + Camembert
GERMANY

Important Regions
Anbaugebiete (13 Regions) Best Riesling
1. Mosel-Saar-Ruwer (impt)
2. Ahr
3. Mittelrhein
4. Rheingau (impt)
5. Rheinhessen
6. Nahe (impt)
7. Pfalz (impt)
8. Baden
9. Wurttemberg
10. Franken
11. Hessische Bergstrasse
12. Saale-Unstrut
13. Sachsen
What treaty gave preferential tax breaks for imports between Portugal Britain?
Methuen Treaty of 1703
What at are the Wine Law levels for Portugal.
Portugal Wine Law:

1. Vinho de Mesa (VDM)
2. Vinho Regional (VR)
3. Indicação de Proveniencia Regulamentada (IPR)
4. Denominação de Origem Controlada (DOC)
PORTUGAL

Location
Climate
Soil
Varietals
PORTUGAL

Location
- Borders Spain in the east

Climate
1. Coastal – Maritime
2. Inland – Hot and Dry

Soil
- Granitic
- Sandy
- Schist (combo soil mixture)

Varietals
- Mainly indigenous varietals
1. Alvarinho
2. Encruzado
3. Touriga Nacional (used for Port)
4. Tinto Toriz (Tempranillo)
5. Baga
6. Periquita
PORTUGAL

Viticulture
Vinification
PORTUGAL

Viticulture:
- lot of steep terraced hillside
- hand harvesting
- hazard: erosion; skilled labor

Vinification
- wide variety
- dry crisp white
- dry tannic reds
- fortified sweet wines
- slightly sparkling and slightly sweet Roses
PORTUGAL

Most important DOC's.
Portugal - Most Important DOC

1. Vinho Verde DOC (Alvarinho)
2. Duoro DOC (Port wines)
3. Dão DOC (Red-Touriga;Whites - Encruzado)
4. Bairrada (Baga)
SPAIN - Wine Law Levels
Spain Wine Law Levels
1. Vino de Mesa
2. Vino de la Tierra
3. Denominacion de Origen (DO)
4. Denominacion de Origen Califada (DOC or DOCa)
What does DO de Page in Spain mean?
DO de Pago - single estate appellation
What is the name of the local controlling body for each wine region in Spain?
Consejo Regulador
What does Sin Crianza mean in Spanish wine?
Sin Crianza mean no wood aging and is intended for early consumption
What Spanish wine category includes the following:

- sold after 2 years at winery
- 6 months minimum wood aging for reds
Crianza
What Spanish wine category includes the following:

- good wines made from good vintages
- sold after minimum 3 years at winery
- 1 year oak + 2 years bottle for reds
Reserva
What Spanish wine category includes the following:

- best wines made from exceptional vintages
- sold after minimum 5 years at winery
- 2 year oak + 3 years bottle for reds
Gran Reserva
What is the VERY BEST Spanish wine?
Vega Sicilia (Unico)
- principal grape is Tempranillo
What are the DOCa regions in Spain?
DOCa in Spain
1. Rioja - Tempranillo
2. Priorat - Grenache
3. Ribera del Duero (Tempranillo)
SPAIN

Location
Climate
Soil
Varietals
SPAIN

Location
- North borders France
- West borders Portugal

Climate
- Very diverse climate
- Mostly Mediterranean
- Some Maritime
- Some Alpine: higher elevation, cooler
- Some Continental
- Many regions are arid

Soil
- Limestone (excellent for drainage)
- Patches of clay
- Granite
- Sand (course) “Phylloxera hates sand”

Varietals

WHITE
1. Albariño
2. Palomino (used in Sherry)
3. Macabeo (Viura) used in Cava
4. Verdejo
5. Various Muscat varietals
6. International Varietals
a. Sauvignon Blanc
b. Chardonnay

RED
1. Garnacha (Grenache in France, Cannonau in Italy, Sicily and Sardinia)
2. Tempranillo
a. King of Spain
b. Other names depending on region
Cencibel
Tinto Fino
Tinto del Pais
3. Mazuelo (Cariñena)
4. Graciano
5. Cabernet Sauvignon (more used)
6. Merlot
7. Syrah
SPAIN

Viticulture
Vinification
SPAIN

Viticulture:
- Largest area under vine due to limited water supply (low density planting )
- Gobelet/Bush wine training (en vaso)Little lollipop trees close to the ground
- High average age of vines
- Since 1996 irrigation is legal
- Crop coverage is done in a lot of places
--- Regenerates the soil
--- Plant something else
--- Helps pollination
--- Grasses, different weeds, floral (specific by region)

Vinification:
- Long periods of oak aging – both red and white
- Usually American oak is favored
- Modern style
--- More fruit driven
--- Less oak
--- Less tannins
--- Less acid
--- Higher use of French Oak
SPAIN - Most important Regions
SPAIN - Most important regions

1. Rias Briaxas DO
2. Toro DO
3. Ribera del Duero DOCa
4. Rueda DO
5. Rioja DOCa - Most impt wine region
6. Navarra DO
7. Penedes DO - Most impt Cava area
8. Priorat DOCa
9. La Mancha DO
10. Valdpeñas
11. Jerez – Fortified wines - Sherry
12. Malaga - Fortified wines
13. Montilla-Moriles - Fortified wines
SPAIN

Food
Spain

FOOD
Hardy and savory
Olive oil
Anchovies
Ham/sausages
Tapas
Paella
Suckling Pig
Manchego
What are the wine levels in ITALY?
Italy wine levels:

1. Vino da Tavola (Table Wine)
2. IGT – Indicazione Geographica Tipica (like VDP)
3. DOC – Denominazione di Origine Controllata (Regional Designation - like AOC)
4. DOCG - Denominazione di Origine Controllata Garantita
ITALY

Location
Climate
Soil
Varietals
ITALY

Location:
- Borders Switzerland and Austria in the north
- Northwest border is France

Climate:
- Primarily Mediterranean
- Some maritime
- Some warm continental
- Some mountains / oceans
- Restricted micro climates

Varietals:
Hundreds of varietals
Most important – Reds
1. Sangiovese
2. Nebbiolo (superb quality)
3. Grenache (Cannonau – grown in Sardinia)

Most important – Whites
1. Trebbiano
2. Malvasia

Increased plantings of international varietals
1. Syrah
2. Merlot
3. Ohters
ITALY

Viticulture
Vinification
ITALY

Viticulture:
- Central / Northeast regions
---- Low density vines
---- High yielding
- Southern / Island
---- Higher density
---- Lower yields

Vinification:

Traditional
- Long maceration for red wines
- Restricted to local varietals (over 1,000 indigenous varietals)
- Large Slovenian oak barrels

Modern
- Small barrels
- Shorter maceration
- More fruit, more concentrated