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107 Cards in this Set

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Mohammad
Founded Islam
Qur'ran means...
(Islam) "Recitation"
Islam: How to win salvation?
Submission to god thru Five Pillars of Islam (confession of faithm prayer 5 times/day, charity, fasting during Ramadan, and Mecca pilgrimage)
Location of Mecca
Arabian Desert (modern Saudi Arabia); NOTE: crossroads of trade routes between Mediterranean & Indian ocean
Medina
Where Mohammad & friends fled to after conflict with leaders of Mecca; known as the hijra
Hijra
622 CE; flight from Mecca to Medina by Muslims (w/ Mohammad)
Ka'ba
The only Meccan pagan shrine that Mohammad did not destroy in Mecca after returning from Medina
After death of Mohammad...
Four people succeeded him in the Ummayad Dynasty, until Ali (#4) came around, then they split into Sunni/Shiite
Abu Bakr
First caliph; appointed after Mohammad's death
Caliph
(Islam) Head of state, military commander, chief judge, and religious leader; THEOCRACY!!
Which came first: Umayyad Dynasty or Abbasid?
Umayyad (these were the 1st two dynasties of Islamic Empires)
Ummayad Dynasty: Where did the capital move to?
Damascus, Syria (Mecca remained spiritual center, however)
Shiite (Shia) Islam
Mohammad's son-in-law, Ali, was the rightful heir to the empire
Sunnis
Ali was NOT the rightful heir to the empire (MAJORITY)
Which is the majority: Sunni or Shia?
Sunni
Dome of the Rock
Jerusalem; In high regard in both Judaism and Islam
Abbasid Dynasty
Had a golden age ~800 CE; built Baghdad
Who built Baghdad?
Abbasid Dynasty
Islamic Empire was built around what?
TRADE
Mohammad al-Razi
Published medical encyclopedia (omg); during golden age of Abbasid Dynasty
How did the Ummayad dynasty feel about other religions in conquered peoples?
It was OK, but taxed those that didn't convert (this allowed them to spread more easily; see: Romans)
The only successful Islamic Crusade...
...
Sufis
Islamic mystics (missionaries); worked really well b/c they allowed people to worship Allah in their own way
What happened to women's role in society after Qur'ran was published?
Gave them MANY more rights; however, they remained subservient to men; more dignity for them
Men, wives, and Islam
1 man = 4 wives
Fall of Islamic Empire
Darn Mongols! (later reunited under Ottoman Turks)
Middle Ages
After fall of Rome, before Renaissance
Differences between Rome & Byzantine
Byzantine used Greek lang, distinct architecture, culture more similar to Persia's, and it had its own new branch of Christianity: Orthodox
Justinian: 2 great things
(1) Justinian Code; (2) Arts & sciences flourished under him (note Hagia Sophia, a cathedral still standing today)
In Byzantium, who headed the church?
(Orthodox Christianity) Secular rulers
Caesaropapism
"concept of combining the power of secular government with, or making it supreme to, the spiritual authority of the Christian Church"
Vladimir
Russian prince from Kiev; converted from pagan religion to Christianity
St. Cyril
Orthodox Christian; created Slavic alphabet (still used today) and converted Slavic ppl
Franks: where, what, and under who?
W Europe where Roman Empire had fallen; Successful Germanic tribe (modern Germany thru France); King Clovis
King Clovis
Created Frankish empire; Roman Catholic; created Paris, France
Frankish Empire: What happened after leader's death?
After Clovis dies, it splits into pieces and loses influence
Charles Martel
Charles the Hammer; Holds back Muslim invasions (beat them at Battle of Tours); founded Carolingian Dynasty; his son: Pepin
Pepin
Carolingian Dynasty; his succession of Charles Martel is CONFIRMED by the Catholic church (omg)
Carolingian Dynasty: Rulers
Charles Martel -> Pipin -> Charlemagne (after death, Treaty of Verdun)
Charlemagne
Charles the Great; Carolingian Dynasty (aka Holy Roman Empire); Son of Pepin; Focused on arts/education w/ a religious bent
Holy Roman Empire: Centralized or no?
Eh, not really. Fuedalism; Charlemagne didn't levy taxes, local lords rarely communicated with him
Treaty of Verdun
Holy Roman Empire divided by Charlemagne's kids
Fuedalism: overview
King -> Nobles -> Vassals -> Peasants
Estates granted to vassals in fuedalism were called...
feifs (aka MANORS)
Three-field system
Rotation of 3 fields: one for fall harvest, one for spring harvest, and one not-seeded (to replenish nutrients)
Code of Chivalry
Honor system used by lords (in fuedal system; helped resolve disputes between them) and knights
Primogeniture
Tradition of inheritance to eldest son (see fuedalism)
Women in fuedalism
Very very little rights (limited education, couldn't rule land, etc)
Contrast: Fuedalism in Europe vs Islamic Empire
Europe: Centered around rural monasteries; Islam: Baghdad is where it's at, yo
Burghers
Middle-class merchants
Hanseatic League
Controlled trade throughout N Europe
Architectural development in Middle Ages
Cathedrals
Crusades
1000-1300; tried to convert Muslims and non-Christian in the Holy Land to Christianity
The questioning of organized religion
heresy
Universities founded when?
Middle Ages
Pope Innocent III
Idiot. Launched 4th (unsuccessful) crusade
Inquisition
Interrogation and persecution of heretics, launched by Pope Gregory IX
Thomas Aquinas
Wrote on how REASON does not conflict with FAITH
Interregnum
a time between kings
William the Conqueror
Created strong monarchy in England
King John
Forced to sign Magna Carta by nobles
Magna Carta
Reinstated fuedal rights of nobles (and extended rights to burgher class)
Joan of Arc
Farm girl, led French in fight against English invasion
100 Years War
(1337-1453) England vs France; Outcome: England withdraws from France
Bourbons
Royal house of France, helped to unify the country
Queen Isabella
Married Fedinand, thereby uniting the two major Spanish kingdoms
Spanish Inquisition
Queen Isabella marries Fedinand, and they gain support of Catholic Church for support; made non-Christians convert or leave
Tatars were lead by...
Genghis Khan
Tatars took over...
(Mongols) Russia
Ivan III
Ivan the Great; ruled Russia after Mongol decline; expanded Muscovy territory
Third Rome
Moscow
"Three Romes"
Rome, Constantinople (Byzantine), Moscow
Ivan IV
Ivan the Terrible; ruthless leader in Russia
Tang Dynasty
China; expanded Chinese territory; collapsed after becoming much too large
Song Dynasty
Reuinted China after Tang dynasty fell; FOOT BINDING; prosperous, but eventually they fell to Mongols (Yuan)
Yuan Dynasty
Mongols
Succession of dynasties
Tang, Song, Yuan (Mongols)
Meritocracy vs Aristocracy
Earned vs Inherited
Women in China
Little rights; see footbinding; one Empress in China EVER: Wu Zhao
Shinto religion: what and where
"the way of the gods"; Japan; worshiped kami (all forces of nature)
Yamato Clan
400 CE, Japan, said that they were direct descendants from Sun goddess
522, Chinese influence in Japan...
increased. a lot. Buddhist missionaries entered Japan! NOTE: Many adopted Buddhism, but maintained their Shinto beliefs
Differences between China and Japan
Japan rejected Confucianism and civil service exam (why? birth > education)
Taika Reforms
Japan; bureaucratic and legal reforms modeled after successes in China
Fujiwara
Japan; this family led Japan into a sort of golden age, women had more power; started FEUDAL system!!
Shogun
Japan; chief general
Daimyo
Huge landowners in Japan; sumari; similar to Lords of Europe (remember: Japan was feudalistic now)
Code of Bushido
Stressed loyalty, courage, and honor (i.e. Japan's Code of Chivalry)
Women in Feudal Japan
No rights. None. At least in Feudal Europe, they were respected. Here? Nothin'
Delhi Sultanate
Kingdom in India estab. by Islamic invaders after defeating Hindus
Timur Lang (Tamerlane)
Mongol leader that massacred loads of people and destroyed Delhi sultanate in India (then we he went home)
Genghis Khan
Organized Mongols, led invasion of China
Kublai Khan
Mongol ruler in China (yuan); empire was relatively peaceful now (sometimes called Pax mongolica)
Mongel Empire: Golden age?
No. Mongols were illiterate, didn't really have a culture, but did achieve peace. The helped to spread other cultures, though.
Axum Empire
Africa; big traders in ivory and gold; converted to Christianity (and later Islam)
Ghana
West Africa; they had gold. lots of gold. Muslim merchants came, eventually a Holy War launched to convert them; Ghana prevailed, but declined
Mali
West Africa; Mostly Muslims by now; capital: Timbuktu
Mansa Musa
Led Mali African empire; estab Timbuktu; made *BIG* trip to Mecca (Muslim)
Sonni Ali
Africa; Created Songhai Empire (conquered Mali); made Timbuktu major cultural center (drew Muslim scholars from everywhere)
Biggest Mayan city
Tikal (>100,000 ppl)
Why did Mayans fight other groups?
Acquire slaves for ag production and building projects (NOT for territory)
Mayan Civilization
Slaves (didn't have lg animals), traditional ball game, temple at Chichen Itza, complex calendar, number system (w/ zero)
Aztecs
Previously the Mexica; warriors really important in society; built giant empire; let conq regions govern themselves (w/ taxes)
Compare: Aztecs and Romans
Both built roads, and let conquered people govern themselves
Inca Empire
Peru; City of Cuzco (300,000); Sun God very important; Temple of the Sun and temples of Machu Picchu; conquest important
quipu
Set of knotted strings for accounting of harvests in Inca empire
Which Chinese dynasty invented printing press?
Song