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50 Cards in this Set

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What are the basic ideals that organized Ancient Greek society?
1. arete
2. xenia
3. reciprocity
4. ergon
arete
excellence and virtue especially in character
xenia
hospitality and being guest-friendly
reciprocity
people helping one another (eg. loans and repaying them)
ergon
good hard work
why was it important for Greeks to share similar ideals?
1. if all Greeks have similar values, then they will treat each other as equals

2. allowed traveling Greeks to feel at home wherever they were
Athens vs. Sparta: government
A: democracy
S: monarchy; 2 kings and 28 other leaders
Athens vs. Sparta: citizens and government
A: people serve as jurors
S: people in military forever
Athens vs. Sparta: education
A: focus on learning, get ready for government
S: courage, endurance and obedience - prepare for military
Athens vs. Sparta: ideal citizens
A: confident, male, assertive, intelligent
S: soldier, married, educated, brave
How did geography affect politics in Greece?
Athens: part of the mainland, so it was difficult to defend
Sparta: an island, isolated, easier to defend
How did geography affect Greek economic structure?
1. the tarde from island to island
2. hard to travel with the high mountians to trade
Homer
a blind poet who traveled from village to village and he inspired European writers and artists
Democracy
government by the people
Socrates
A man who came up with a theory and a method to gain more knowledge
Socratic method
he would walk up to a group and say a random a question and listen to the other people's opinions and that would create the theory of gaining knowledge
How were the values and beliefs of the Greeks reflected in their arts?
their art was based on the stories of the gods and the different values
the "classical ideal" in the arts
1.Portraits
2.Interior Décor
3.The Classical Nude
4.Glassblowing
5.Gems
6.Wreaths
Lords
landowner
vassals
person who receives land from lord
knights
men who defended their lords' land
serfs
people who could not leave the place they were born
fief
granted land
manor
the lord's estate
tithe
church tax
sacraments
sacred rites
excommunication
christians that disobeyed the church
hierarchy
the different ranks that people had
stained glass
windows that were illustrated the stories from the Bible (not many people knew how to read)
Gothic Architecture
a cathedral that reached "up to the heavens"
The Plague
A DEADLY DISEASE!!!! it killed 1/3 of Europe's population
Pope Urban II
a person who convinced everyone to go into war
Flying buttress
arks that transferred weight to the exterior walls
feudal contract
an agreement when the lord would give land to the vassal in exchange for protection
decentralization
land that was spread from 1 King to many different Lords; grandsons fightin and invasions
Individualism
an idea that allows individual thinking
Humanism
intelectual movement focused on human potential achievements
Secular
concerned with worldly rather than spiritual matters
Renaissance
a time period that changed the culture, art, learning and views of the world
vernacular
the language that was spoken everyday
William Shakespeare
he was a Famous English play writer (plays about emotion)
Michelangelo
1475-1564 Italian sculpture, painter, poet, and architect
Erasmus
dutch scholar, leading humanist, a writer
Machiavelli
1469-1527 Itlian Politician and author wrote ( The Prince ) supported a moral
prespective
artistic technique that created the appearance of 3-D on a flat surface
Predestination
the doctrine that God has decided all things before hand, including which people will be eternally saved
the Council of Trent
a meeting of Roman Catholic leaders, called by Pope Paul III to rule on doctrines criticized by to Protestant reformers
Catholic Reformation
a 16th-century movement in which the Roman Catholic Church sought to make changes in response to the Protestant Reformation
Anglican Church
relating to the churh of England
Reformation
a 16th century movement for religios reform, leading to the founding of Christian churches that rejected the pope's authority