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54 Cards in this Set

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The term: diaspora (in Greek, διασπορά – "a scattering or sowing of seeds") is used (without capitalization) to refer to any people or ethnic population forced or induced to leave their traditional ethnic homelands; being dispersed throughout other parts of the world, and the ensuing developments in their dispersal and culture.
Tanakh (Hebrew: תנ״ך‎) (also Tanach, IPA: [taˈnax] or [təˈnax], or Tenak, is an acronym that identifies the Hebrew Bible. The acronym is based on the initial Hebrew letters of each of the text's three parts:
Torah (תּוֹרָה) is a Hebrew word meaning "teaching," "instruction," or "law". It refers primarily to the Five Books of Moses, also known as the Law of Mose
Babylonian Exile
The Babylonian captivity, or Babylonian exile, is the name generally given to the deportation and exile of the Jews of the ancient Kingdom of Judah to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar.
The Adversary
Satan, from the Hebrew word for "accuser" (Standard Hebrew: שָׂטָן, Satan; Tiberian Hebrew Śāṭān; Koine Greek: Σατανάς, Satanás; Aramaic: סטנא, Saṭänä; Arabic: شيطان, Šayṭān, Ge'ez: ሳይጣን Sāyṭān), is a term with its origins in the Abrahamic faiths which is traditionally applied to an angel. Ha-Satan is the accuser, a member of the divine council, who challenged the religious faith of humans, especially in the books of Job and Zechariah. Religious belief systems other than Judaism relate this term to a demon, a rebellious fallen angel, devil, minor god and idolatry, or as an allegory for evil.
Abraham (Hebrew: אַבְרָהָם, Standard Avraham Ashkenazi Avrohom or Avruhom Tiberian ʾAḇrāhām ; Arabic: ابراهيم, Ibrāhīm ; Ge'ez: አብርሃም, ʾAbrəham) is regarded as the founding patriarch of the Israelites and of the Nabataean people in Jewish, Christian and Islamic tradition. In that tradition, Abraham is the great spiritual father of many peoples. Abraham was the son of Terah and the grandson of Nahor. Abraham's older brothers were named Nahor and Haran. (The city of Haran was not named after this brother, but is spelled differently in Hebrew.) Abraham was brought by God from Mesopotamia to the land of Canaan. There he entered into a covenant: in exchange for sole recognition of Yahweh as supreme universal authority, Abraham will be blessed through innumerable progeny. His life as narrated in the book of Genesis (chapters 11–25) may reflect various traditions.
The story of Hagar is found in Genesis 16 and 21. The narrative states that Hagar was an Egyptian servant belonging to Sarah, who, being barren, gave Hagar to her husband Abraham as a concubine, so that he might still have children. Because Sarah treated her poorly, Hagar fled from the dwelling of Abraham, but an angel of the Lord, finding her in the wilderness, commanded her to return. She obeyed this voice and submitted to Sarah, and was delivered of a son, whom she named Ishmael.
Book of Job
The subject is the trial of Job, its occasion, nature, endurance, and issue. It consists of

1. A historical introduction in prose (ch. 1,2).
2. The controversy and its solution, in poetry (ch. 3-42:6). Job's desponding lamentation (ch. 3) is the occasion of the controversy which is carried on in three courses of dialogues between Job and his three friends. The first course gives the commencement of the controversy (ch. 4-14); the second the growth of the controversy (15-21); and the third the height of the controversy (22-27). Job puts God on trial through an "Oath of Innocence" (Job 27-31). This is followed by a resolution of the controversy in the refreshingly original concepts incorporated in the speeches of Elihu preparing the way for the address of God. Accounts split after this. The normative conception holds that Job humbly confesses (42:1-6) his own fault and folly. Job's repentance is pivotal to the story as being the ultimate purpose for the entire ordeal, with restoration by God's great mercy and compassion being the crowning climax. An alternative interpretation concludes just the opposite: Job refuses to repent or acknowledge his error, holding God accountable for His injustice and standing in radical countertestimony to the normative belief in an omnibenevolent God. The former account is more popularly held, but the latter has the advantage of being in accord with the original Hebrew.[1]
3. The third division is the historical conclusion, in prose (42:7-15).
A biblical canon is a list published by a religious authority of those books of the Bible that are considered inspired by God. Biblical works excluded from a particular canon are considered apocryphal; however, many disputed works considered "apocryphal" by some Churches are considered 'deuterocanonical', or fully canonical, by others. There are differences between the Jewish and Christian canons, and between the canons of different Christian traditions. The differing criteria and processes of canonization dictate what the communities regard as the inspired books.
Gospel literally translated, means "good news" deriving from the Old English "god-spell" translated from Greek εὐαγγέλιον (euangelion, later evangelion) used in the New Testament (see "Etymology" below).

In Christianity, the term "gospel" can be used to mean different things, including:

* to denote the proclamation of God's saving activity in Jesus of Nazareth, or to denote the agape message proclaimed by Jesus of Nazareth: this is the original New Testament usage (for example Mark 1:14-15 or 1 Corinthians 15:1-9; see also Strong's G2098);

* more popularly, the four canonical Gospels, which are attributed to the Four Evangelists: (Gospel of Matthew, Gospel of Mark, Gospel of Luke and Gospel of John): the term "a reading from the Gospel" can refer to any of the 4 books;

* other non-canonical works of antiquity that purport to quote Jesus (e.g., Gospel of Thomas);

* a genre of Early Christian literature (cf. Peter Stuhlmacher, ed., Das Evangelium und die Evangelien, Tübingen 1983, also in English: The Gospel and the Gospels).

The expression "gospel" was used by Paul, probably before the literary Gospels of the New Testament canon had been produced, when he reminded the people of the church at Corinth "of the gospel I preached to you" (1 Corinthians 15.1) through which, Paul averred, they were being saved, and he characterized it in the simplest terms, emphasizing Christ's appearances after the Resurrection (15.3 – 8):
Synoptic Gospels
The Synoptic Gospels are Matthew, Mark, and Luke of the New Testament in the Bible. The synoptic gospels often recount the same stories about Jesus, though sometimes with different details and lengths, but mostly following the same sequence and to a large extent using the same or similar words. The term synoptic is derived from a combination of the Greek words συν (syn = together) and οψις (opsis = seeing) to indicate this relationship. The similarities among these three books are great enough that scholars have labeled the question of their textual relationship the "synoptic problem". The more common view among scholars is the two-source hypothesis, which holds that Luke and Matthew derive partially from the earlier Mark, and partially from a hypothetical source which they call the "Q document". There is, however, no consensus, and some scholars favor Matthew as the source for Mark (see Augustinian hypothesis).
Messianic Secret
The Messianic Secret is a phrase that refers to Jesus having commanded his followers not to reveal to others that he is the Messiah in certain passages of the New Testament, notably in the Gospel of Mark. New Testament scholars, starting notably with Wilhelm Wrede's groundbreaking research published in The Messianic Secret in the Gospels (1901), have made various attempts to explain why this should be so.
Pax Romana
Pax Romana (27 BCE-180 CE), Latin for "the Roman peace", was the long period of relative peace experienced by the Roman Empire. The term stems from the fact that Roman rule and its legal system pacified regions, sometimes forcefully, which had suffered from the quarrels between rival leaders. It was Augustus Caesar who led Rome into the Pax Romana.
Jesus Movement
The movement that originated around Jesus must have suffered a traumatic setback with his death. Not so much that a Messiah couldn't die, but that nothing happened. The kingdom didn't arrive immediately as they might have expected. For a while we don't know what happened to the followers of Jesus. They apparently scattered, but not too long thereafter it seems that they came to the conviction that something had happened. Something that did change their perspective on who Jesus was and what he would mean for the future of the movement, and this is what we know as the resurrection. Now it's not clear what happened in the resurrection. We don't know exactly how it occurred but what we do know that the followers of Jesus were absolutely convinced that he had been raised from the dead and had been taken away into heaven as a vindication of his messianic identity. He was the crucified and risen Lord.... The resurrection story brings a different perspective to the understanding of Jesus. If he thought of himself as a prophet, as a messenger of God, that changes when he himself is raised by God from the dead. He is now someone vindicated, and it's really the belief in the resurrection experience that leads the disciples to come to think of Jesus as somehow more than just a prophet. As the Messiah himself. He is the one who has been vindicated by God by being exalted into heaven as son of God.
In some Christian churches, the diocese is an administrative territorial unit administrated by a bishop, hence also referred to as a bishopric or Episcopal Area (as in United Methodism) or episcopal see, though more often the term episcopal see means the office held by the bishop. The diocese is the key unit of authority in the form of church governance known as episcopal polity. In the Roman Catholic Church, an important diocese is called an archdiocese (usually due to size, historical significance, or both), which is governed by an Archbishop, who may in the Catholic hierarchy either be exempt from or have Metropolitan authority over the other ('suffragan') dioceses within a wider jurisdiction called ecclesiastical province. As of 2003, there are approximately 569 Roman Catholic archdioceses and 2014 dioceses.
Gaius Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[2] (27 February ca.280[1]–22 May 337), commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or (among Eastern Christians of Byzantine tradition)[3] Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor, proclaimed Augustus by his troops on July 25, 306 and who ruled an ever-growing portion of the Roman Empire until his death.

Constantine is best remembered in modern times for the Edict of Milan in 313, which bestowed imperial favor on Christianity in the Empire for the first time. He was not, however, the first to legalize the practice of Christianity in the Empire. Galerius was the first emperor to issue an edict of toleration for all religious creeds including Christianity in April of 311.[4]

In 324 Constantine announced his decision to transform Byzantium into Nova Roma and in 330 he officially proclaimed the city (thereby known as Constantinople, i.e. The City of Constantine) as the new capital of the Roman Empire.

Constantine is also remembered for the Council of Nicaea in 325; these actions are considered major factors in the spreading of the Christian religion. His reputation as the "first Christian Emperor" has been promulgated by historians from Lactantius and Eusebius of Caesarea to the present day, although there has been debate over the veracity of his faith. This debate stems from his continued support for pagan deities.[5]
City of God
The City of God (Latin: De Civitate Dei, also known as De Civitate Dei contra Paganos: The City of God against the Pagans) is a book written in Latin by Augustine of Hippo in the early 5th century, dealing with issues concerning God, martyrdom, Jews, and other Christian philosophies.

Augustine wrote the treatise to explain Christianity's relationship with competing religions and philosophies, and to the Roman government with which it was increasingly intertwined. It was written soon after Rome was sacked by the Visigoths in 410. This event left Romans in a deep state of shock, and many saw it as punishment for abandoning their pagan religion. It was in this atmosphere that Augustine set out to provide a consolation of Christianity, writing that it was the City of God that would ultimately triumph — symbolically, Augustine's eyes were fixed on heaven, a theme repeated in many Late Antiquity Christian art forms.
Council of Nicea
The First Council of Nicaea, held in Nicea in Bithynia (in present-day Turkey), convoked by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in 325, was the first ecumenical[1] conference of bishops of the Catholic Church, and most significantly resulted in the first uniform Christian doctrine, called the Nicene Creed. With the creation of the creed, a precedent was established for subsequent 'general (ecumenical) councils of Bishops' (Synods) to create statements of belief and canons of doctrinal orthodoxy— the intent being to define unity of beliefs for the whole of Christendom.

The purpose of the council was to resolve disagreements in the Church of Alexandria over the nature of Jesus in relationship to the Father; in particular, whether Jesus was of the same substance as God the Father or merely of similar substance. St. Alexander of Alexandria and Athanasius took the first position; the popular presbyter Arius, from whom the term Arian controversy comes, took the second. The council decided against the Arians overwhelmingly (of the estimated 250-318 attendees, all but 2 voted against Arius). Another result of the council was an agreement on the date of the Christian Passover (Pascha in Greek; Easter in modern English), the most important feast of the ecclesiastical calendar. The council decided in favour of celebrating the resurrection on the first Sunday after the first full moon following the vernal equinox, independently of the Bible's Hebrew Calendar (see also Quartodecimanism), and authorized the Bishop of Alexandria (presumably using the Alexandrian calendar) to announce annually the exact date to his fellow bishops.
Council of Hippo
Council of Hippo

Main article: Synod of Hippo

Three councils were held at Hippo (393, 394, 426) and more synods - also in 397 (two sessions), June and September and 401, all under Aurelius.

The synods of the Ancient (North) African church were held, with but few exceptions (e.g. Hippo, 393; Milevum, 402) at Carthage. We know from the letters of St. Cyprian that, except in time of persecution, the African bishops met at least once a year, in the springtime, and sometimes again in the autumn. Six or seven synods, for instance, were held under St. Cyprian's presidency during the decade of his administration (249-258), and more than fifteen under Aurelius (391-429). The Synod of Hippo of 393 ordered a general meeting yearly, but this was found too onerous for the bishops, and in the Synod of Carthage (407) it was decided to hold a general synod only when necessary for the needs of all Africa, and it was to be held at a place most convenient for the purpose. Not all the bishops of the country were required to assist at the general synod. At the Synod of Hippo (393) it was ordered that "dignities" should be sent from each ecclesiastical province. Only one was required from Tripoli, because of the poverty of the bishops of that province. At the Synod of Hippo (393), and again at the Synod of 397 at Carthage, a list of the books of Holy Scripture was drawn up. It is the Catholic canon (i.e. including the books classed by Protestants as "Apocrypha").
Monica (saint monica of hippo)
Saint Monica of Hippo (331 – 387) is a Christian saint and mother of Saint Augustine.
"St Augustine and Monica" (1846), by Ary Scheffer.
"St Augustine and Monica" (1846), by Ary Scheffer.

Saint Monica was of a Berber descent[1]. She was born at Tagaste (located in modern-day Souk Ahras, Algeria) Her parents brought her up as Christian and married her to an older, pagan man named Patricius. He was a man with a great deal of energy, but also a man given to violent tempers and adultery. Augustine reports that despite the prevalence of domestic abuse at the time, because of her obedience to him, Patricius never beat St. Monica. Furthermore, her mother-in-law was against her and put her into great troubles.

However, St. Monica attended church daily and found patience. She would say to other women who had bad marriages, "If you can master your tongue, not only do you run less risk of being beaten, but perhaps you may even, one day, make your husband better." She won the favor of her mother-in-law in a short time. Eventually, she converted Patricius to Christianity and calmed his violence.

St. Monica bore three children, among them Saint Augustine. Augustine made her very happy with his successes as a scholar and teacher, but he also made her very ashamed with his debauchery. For ten years, Augustine lived with his mistress and subscribed to Manichaeism. St. Monica sent Augustine to a bishop to be convinced of his errors. The bishop, however, was unable to prevail, and he advised St. Monica simply to continue to pray for her son. He told her, "It is impossible that the son of so many tears should perish." At the age of 28, Augustine received grace, according to his Confessions, and came to orthodox Christianity.
Manichaeism (in Modern Persian آیین مانی Āyin e Māni) was one of the major ancient religions of Iranian origin. Though its organized form is mostly extinct today, a revival has been attempted under the name of Neo-Manichaeism. However, most of the writings of the founding prophet Mani (Syriac, ܡܐܢܝ, c. 210–276 CE) have been lost. Some scholars argue that its influence subtly continues in Western Christian thought via Saint Augustine of Hippo, who converted to Christianity from Manichaeism, which he passionately denounced in his writings. Those writings continue to be enormously influential among Catholic and Protestant theologians.

Manichaeism originated in 3rd Century Babylon (a province of Persia at the time), and reached, over the span of the next ten centuries, from North Africa in the west, to China in the East. The original texts of Manichaeism were composed in Syriac-Aramaic. As they spread to the east, the writings of the religion passed through Middle Persian, Parthian, Sogdian, and ultimately Uyghur Turkish and Chinese translations. As they spread to the west, they were translated into Greek, Coptic, and Latin. As Manichaeism passed through time, location, and language, it also adapted new religious deities from the surrounding religions into the Manichaean
Saint Ambrose, (Latin: Sanctus Ambrosius, "Ambrosius episcopus Mediolanensis"; Italian: Sant'Ambrogio; Lombard: Sant'Ambroeus) (c. 340 – 4 April 397), bishop of Milan (Mediolanum in Latin), was one of the most eminent bishops of the 4th century. Together with Augustine of Hippo, Jerome, and Gregory I, he is counted as one of the four doctors of the West of antique church history.
It was at Milan that Augustine's life changed. While still at Carthage, he had begun to move away from Manichaeism, in part because of a disappointing meeting with a key exponent of Manichaean theology. At Milan, this movement continued. His mother Monica pressured him to become a Catholic, but it was the bishop of Milan, Ambrose, who had most influence over Augustine. Ambrose was a master of rhetoric like Augustine himself, but older and more experienced. Prompted in part by Ambrose's sermons, and partly by his own studies, in which he steadfastly pursued a quest for ultimate truth, Augustine renounced Manichaeism. He did not immediately return to Catholicism, however. After a flirtation with skepticism, he became an enthusiastic student of Neoplatonism, and for a time believed he was making real progress in his
The Kaaba (Arabic: الكعبة al-Ka‘bah /'kæʕbæ/) , also known as al-Kaʿbatu l-Mušarrafah (الكعبة المشرًّفة), al-Baytu l-ʿAtīq ( البيت العتيق‎ "The Primordial House"), or al-Baytu l-Ḥarām (البيت الحرام "The Sacred House"), is a large cuboidal building located inside the mosque known as al-Masjid al-Haram in Mecca. The mosque was built around the original Kaaba.
Muslim pilgrims around the Kaaba performing Umrah (lesser pilgrimage)
Muslim pilgrims around the Kaaba performing Umrah (lesser pilgrimage)

The Kaaba is the holiest place in Islam. [1] The qibla, the direction Muslims face during prayer, is the direction from their location on Earth towards the Kaaba. It is around the Kaaba that ritual circumambulation is performed by Muslims during the Hajj (pilgrimage) season as well as during the Umrah (lesser pilgrimage
Islam (Arabic: الإسلام; al-'islām (help·info)) is a monotheistic religion originating with the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. It is the second-largest religion in the world today, with an estimated 1.4 billion adherents, spread across the globe, known as Muslims.[1] Linguistically, Islam means "submission", referring to the total surrender of one's self to God (Arabic: الله, Allāh), and a Muslim is "one who submits (to God)".[2]

Muslims believe that God revealed the Qur'an to Muhammad and that Muhammad is God's final prophet. The Qur'an and the traditions of Muhammad in the Sunnah are regarded as the fundamental sources of Islam.[3][4] Muslims do not regard Muhammad as the founder of a new religion but as the restorer of the original monotheistic faith of Adam, Ibrahim and other prophets whose messages had become corrupted over time (or according to some authorities only misinterpreted).[5][6][7] Like Judaism, Christianity, and the Bahá'í Faith, Islam is an Abrahamic religion.[8]
Five Pillars
1) Shahada: Testifying to God's One-ness:

* The declaration "There is no God but Allah and Muhammad is His prophet."

2) Salat: Prayer.

General Features of Islamic Prayer
+ Five prayer times each day:
# early morning
# noon
# mid-afternoon
# sunset
# evening
+ Raq'ah: Bowing and prostration. Represents submission to God.

3) Zakat: Giving charity.

* Originally a free-will donation (what is no called Sadaqah).
* Now largely compulsory.
* General rate: 2 1/2% of income annually.
* Given only to needy Muslims, or for religious purposes, etc
4) Sawm: Fast

* In memory of the revelation of the Qur'an.

* During month of Ramadan, daylight hours.

* Those who have medical exemptions etc. should fast at another time.

* 'Id al-Fitr, Feast of Fast-breaking: at beginning of next month.

5) Hajj: Pilgrimage.

* Every Muslim man and woman (if physically and economically able) should try to make the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in their life-time.
* Egalitarian atmosphere, Ihram:
o donning of simple white garments.

o Refraining from sex, haircuts, jewelry, arguing, etc.
* Importance of the Ka'ba, associations with Abraham, Hagar Ishmael and Muhammad.
Hijrah, as an Arabic word meaning migration (also romanised as hijrah, hejira and hegira) (cf. Hebrew הגירה hagirah for emigration) may refer to:

* The Hijra (Islam) (هجرة) is the emigration of Muhammad and his followers to the city of Medina in 622, marking the first year of the Islamic calendar, 1 AH (anno higirae).
Sura (sometimes spelt "Surah" سورة sūrah, plural "Suwar" سوار) is an Arabic term literally meaning "something enclosed or surrounded by a fence or wall." The term is commonly used to mean a "chapter" of the Qur'an, which are traditionally ordered in roughly reverse order of length. Each sura is named after a word or name, mentioned in an ayah in that 'Sura', which surprised or was unusual for the Muslims at the time of 'Revelation'. For example, the elevated status of Mary - considered to be a Jewess or the mother of a Christian Jesus at the time of the 'Revelation' - mentioned in Sura 19 "Maryam/Mary". Each sura is divided into ayat.
Jihad, sometimes spelled Jahad, Jehad, Jihaad, Jiaad, Djihad, or Cihad, (Arabic: جهاد‎ ǧihād) as an Islamic term, literally means struggle in the way of God or "striving hard in God's cause" and is sometimes referred to as the sixth pillar of Islam, although it occupies no official status as such in Sunni Islam.[1] In Twelver Shi'a Islam, however, Jihad (Holy Struggle) is one of the 10 Practices of the Religion. Within the realms of Islamic jurisprudence, jihad usually refers to military exertion against non-Muslim combatants.[2][3] In broader usage and interpretation, the term has accrued both violent and non-violent meanings. It can refer to striving to live a moral and virtuous life, to spreading and defending Islam, and to fighting injustice and oppression, among other usages.[4]

Jihad is also used in the meaning of struggle for or defence of Islam.[1] The primary aim of jihad is not the conversion of non-Muslims to Islam by force, but rather the expansion and defense of the Islamic state. In the classical manuals of Islamic jurisprudence, the rules associated with armed warfare are covered at great length.[3] Such rules include not killing women, children and non-combatants, as well as not damaging cultivated or residential areas.[5] More recently, modern Muslims have tried to re-interpret the Islamic sources, stressing that Jihad is essentially defensive warfare aimed at protecting Muslims and Islam.[3] Although some Islamic scholars have differered on the implementation
Allah is the Arabic language word for "God." However, it should be noted that the word literally means "The One to be worshipped"[1][2]. It is best known in the West for its use in the Muslim holy book, the Qur'an, which is an Arabic work. However, the word is the common term for God used by all Arabic speakers, whatever their religion, including Arab Christians and Jews. Consequently, the word is used in Arabic translations of Tanakh and the Gospels, as well as in Indonesian and old Turkish translations of the Bible. Arabic speakers of all faiths use the word "Allah" to mean "God".
Muhammad (Arabic: محمد‎ Muḥammad; also Mohammed, Muhammed, Mohamet, and other variants)[1][2] was the historical founder of the religion of Islam, considered by Muslims to be the last messenger and prophet of God (Arabic: ألله Allah[3]).

Sources on Muhammad’s life concur that he was born ca. 570 AD in the city of Mecca in Arabia[4], was orphaned at a young age, was brought up by his uncle, worked mostly as a merchant, and was married by age 26. At some point, discontent with life in Mecca, he would retreat to a cave in the surrounding mountains for meditation and reflection. According to Islamic tradition, it was here at age 40, in the month of Ramadan, where he received his first revelation from God. Three years after this event, Muhammad started preaching these revelations publicly, proclaiming that "God is One", that complete "surrender" to Him (lit. islām[5]) is man's religion (dīn), and that he was a prophet and messenger of God, in the same vein as Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and other prophets.[6][7][8]
The Crusades were a series of military conflicts of a religious character waged by Christians from 1095-1291, usually sanctioned by the Pope in the name of Christendom,[1] with the goal of recapturing Jerusalem and the sacred "Holy Land" from Muslim rule and originally launched in response to a call from the Eastern Orthodox Byzantine Empire for help against the expansion of the Muslim Seljuq dynasty into Anatolia.[2][3]

The term is also used to describe contemporaneous and subsequent campaigns conducted through the 16th century in territories outside the Levant[4], usually against pagans[citation needed] and those considered by the Catholic Church to be heretics, for a mixture of religious, economic, and political reasons.[5] Rivalries among both Christian and Muslim powers led also to alliances between religious factions against their opponents, such as the Christian alliance with the Sultanate of Rum during the Fifth Crusade. The traditional numbering scheme for the Crusades includes the nine major expeditions to the Holy Land during the 11th to 13th centuries. Other unnumbered "crusades" continued into the 16th century, lasting until the political and religious climate of Europe was significantly changed during the Renaissance and Reformation.
Scholasticism comes from the Latin word scholasticus, which means "that [which] belongs to the school", and was a method of learning taught by the academics (or schoolmen) of medieval universities circa 1100–1500. Scholasticism originally began to reconcile the philosophy of the ancient classical philosophers with medieval Christian theology. It is not a philosophy or theology in itself, but a tool and method for learning which puts emphasis on dialectical reasoning. The primary purpose of scholasticism was to find the answer to a question or resolve a contradiction. It is most well known in its application in medieval theology, but was eventually applied to classical philosophy and many other fields of study.
In religion and spirituality, a pilgrimage is a long journey or search of great moral significance. Sometimes, it is a journey to a sacred place or shrine of importance to a person's beliefs and faith. Members of every major religion participate in pilgrimages. A person who makes such a journey is called a pilgrim.

Buddhism offers four sites of pilgrimage: the Buddha's birthplace at Kapilavastu, the site where he attained Enlightenment Bodh Gaya, where he first preached at Benares, and where he achieved Parinirvana at Kusinagara.

In the kingdoms of Israel and Judah the visitation of certain ancient cult-centers was repressed in the 7th century BC, when the worship was restricted to Jahweh at the temple in Jerusalem. In Syria, the shrine of Astarte at the headwater spring of the river Adonis survived until it was destroyed by order of Emperor Constantine in the 4th century AD.
Thomistic synthesis
look in book
Five Ways (aquinas)
The Quinquae viae, or Five Ways, are five proofs of the existence of God summarized by St. Thomas Aquinas in his Summa Theologiae. These proofs take the form of philosophical arguments:

1. The argument of the unmoved mover (ex motu).
* Some things are moved.
* Everything that is moved is moved by a mover.
* An infinite regress of movers is impossible.
* Therefore, there is an unmoved mover from whom all motion proceeds.
2. The argument of the first cause (ex causa).
* Some things are caused.
* Everything that is caused is caused by something else.
* An infinite regress of causation is impossible.
* Therefore, there must be an uncaused cause of all caused things.
3. The argument of contingency (ex contingentia).
* Many things in the universe may either exist or not exist. Such things are called contingent beings.
* It is impossible for everything in the universe to be contingent.
* Therefore, there must be a necessary being whose existence is not contingent on any other being(s).
4. The argument of degree (ex gradu).
* Various perfections may be found in varying degrees throughout the universe.
* These degrees of perfections assume the existence of the perfections themselves.
5. The argument of design (ex fine).
* All designed things have a designer.
* The universe is designed.
* Therefore, the universe has a designer.
Natural Law
Natural law or the law of nature (Latin lex naturalis) is an ethical theory whose supporters include Aristotle, Thomas Aquinas and Catholic Church. It is a law whose content is set by nature, and that therefore has validity everywhere.[1] The phrase natural law is sometimes opposed to the positive law of a given political community, society, or nation-state, and can thus function as a standard by which to criticize that law. In natural law jurisprudence, on the other hand, the content of positive law cannot be known without some reference to the natural law (or something like it); natural law, used in this sense, can be evoked to criticize decisions about the statutes, but less so to criticize the law itself. Natural law can be used synonymously with natural justice or natural right (Latin ius naturale), although most contemporary political and legal theorists separate the two.
The term Romanesque, like many other stylistic designations of periods in architecture, was not a term contemporary with the art it describes, but an invention of modern scholarship to categorize a period. The term "Romanesque" dates from the early 18th century and attempts to link the architecture of the 11th and 12th centuries in medieval Europe to Roman Architecture, based on similarities of forms and materials. Romanesque is characterized by a use of round arches, barrel vaults, cruciform piers supporting vaults, and groin vaults. It is often referred to in Britain as Norman architecture.

The great carved portals of 12th century church facades (see Church of St. Trophime) parallel the architectural novelty of the period—monumental stone sculpture seems to have been reborn in the Romanesque.
In Roman Catholic theology, an indulgence is a pardon of the temporal punishment for particular sins. The indulgence is granted by the church after the sinner has confessed and received absolution.[1] Indulgences were a major point of contention when Martin Luther initiated the Reformation.
John Calvin
John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. In Geneva, he rejected Papal authority, established a new scheme of civic and ecclesiastical governance, and created a central hub from which Reformed theology was propagated. He is renowned for his teachings and writings and infamous for his role in the execution of Michael Servetus. He is commemorated as a renewer of the church by the Lutheran Church on May 27.
Council of Trent
The Council of Trent is the Nineteenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. It was convened three times between December 13, 1545 and December 4, 1563 in the city of Trent (modern Trento, Italy) as a response to the theological and ecclesiological challenges of the Protestant Reformation. It is considered one of the most important councils in the history of the Catholic Church, clearly specifying Catholic doctrines on salvation, the sacraments, the Biblical canon and standardizing the Mass throughout the church, largely by abolishing local variations. This became known as the "Tridentine Mass", from the city's Latin name Tridentum
The Order of Preachers (Ordo fratrum Praedicatorum), after 15th century more commonly known as the Dominican Order, or Dominicans is a Catholic religious order, created in the year 1215, when Saint Dominic established a religious community in Toulouse.

In England and some other countries the Dominicans are referred to as Blackfriars on account of the black cappa or cloak they wear over their white habits (for the same reason, Carmelites are known as "Whitefriars" and Franciscans as "Greyfriars"). In Paris, the Dominicans are known as Jacobins, because their first convent in Paris was on Rue Saint-Jacques in Paris, and Jacques is Jacobus in Latin.

The Dominican Order was founded by Saint Dominic in the early 13th century under the Augustinian rule. The Dominican Order is one of the great orders of mendicant friars that revolutionized religious life in Europe during the High Middle Ages. Founded to preach the gospel and to combat heresy, the Order is famed for its intellectual tradition, having produced many leading theologians and philosophers. The Dominican Order is headed by the Master of the Order, who is currently Father Carlos Azpiroz Costa.
The term Franciscan is used to refer to those in Roman Catholic religious orders which follow a body of regulations known as "The rule of St. Francis",[1] or a member of one of these orders. There are also small Old Catholic and Protestant Franciscan communities.
The Augustinians, named after Saint Augustine of Hippo (died AD 430), are several Roman Catholic monastic orders and congregations of both men and women living according to a guide to religious life known as the Rule of Saint Augustine. Prominent Augustinians include the only English Pope Adrian IV[1], Italian Pope Eugene IV, mystic Thomas à Kempis, Dutch Christian humanist Desiderius Erasmus, the German Reformer Martin Luther, the Spanish navigator Andrés de Urdaneta, Italian composer Vittoria Aleotti, German mystic Anne Catherine Emmerich and the Czech geneticist Gregor Mendel. The order has made a very significant missionary contribution to Christianity as well as establishing educational and charitable institutions throughout the world.
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Tycho Brahe
Tycho Brahe, born Tyge Ottesen Brahe (December 14, 1546 – October 24, 1601), was a Danish nobleman from the region of Scania (in modern-day Sweden), best known today as an early astronomer, though in his lifetime he was also well known as an astrologer and alchemist.

The Latinized name Tycho Brahe is usually pronounced [ˌtai.ko ˌbrɑ.hi] or [ˌtai.ko ˌbrɑ.ə] in American English, and [ˌtʌɪ.kəʊ ˌbrɑː.hi] or [ˌtʌɪ.kəʊ ˌbrɑː.ə] in British English. The original Danish name Tyge Ottesen Brahe is pronounced in Modern Standard Danish as [ˈtˢyː.y ˈʌ.d̥ə.sn̩ ˈb̥ʁɑː.ʊ].

Tycho Brahe was granted an estate on the island of Hven and the funding to build the Uraniborg, an early research institute, where he built large astronomical instruments and took many careful measurements. As an astronomer, Tycho worked to combine what he saw as the geometrical benefits of the Copernican system with the philosophical benefits of the Ptolemaic system into his own model of the universe, the Tychonic system. From 1600 until his death in 1601, he was assisted by Johannes Kepler, who would later use Tycho's astronomical information to develop his own theories of astronomy. He is universally referred to as "Tycho" rather than by his surname "Brahe", as was common in Scandinavia.

He is credited with the most accurate astronomical observations of his time, and the data were used by his assistant Kepler to derive the laws of planetary motion. No one before Tycho had attempted to make so many redundant observations, and the mathematical tools to take advantage of them had not yet been developed. He did what others before him were unable or unwilling to do — to catalogue the planets and stars with enough accuracy so as to determine whether the Ptolemaic or Copernican system was more valid in describing the heavens.
johannes kepler
Johannes Kepler (December 27, 1571 – November 15, 1630) was a German Lutheran mathematician, astronomer and astrologer, and a key figure in the 17th century astronomical revolution. He is best known for his laws of planetary motion, based on his works Astronomia nova, Harmonice Mundi, and Epitome of Copernican Astronomy. Before Kepler, planets' paths were computed by combinations of the circular motions of the celestial orbs. After Kepler, astronomers shifted their attention from orbs to orbits—paths that could be represented mathematically as an ellipse.[1][2] Kepler's laws also provided one of the foundations of Isaac Newton's theory of universal gravitation.

During his career Kepler was a mathematics teacher at a Graz seminary school (later the University of Graz, Austria), an assistant to Tycho Brahe, court mathematician to Emperor Rudolf II, mathematics teacher in Linz, Austria, and adviser to General Wallenstein. He also did fundamental work in the field of optics and helped to legitimize the telescopic discoveries of his contemporary Galileo Galilei.

Kepler lived in an era when there was no clear distinction between astronomy and astrology, while there was a strong division between astronomy (a branch of mathematics within the liberal arts) and physics (a branch of the more prestigious discipline of philosophy); Kepler also incorporated religious arguments and reasoning into his work, motivated by the religious conviction that God had created the world according to an intelligible plan which was accessible through the natural light of reason.[3] Kepler described his new astronomy as "celestial physics,"[4] as "an excursion into Aristotle's Metaphysics,"[5] and as "a supplement to Aristotle's On the Heavens,"[6] transforming the ancient tradition of physical cosmology by treating astronomy as part of a universal mathematical physics.[7]
Ptolemaic universe
In astronomy, the geocentric model of the universe is the theory that the Earth is at the center of the universe and the Sun and other objects go around it.

Belief in this system was common in ancient Greece. It was embraced by both Aristotle and Ptolemy, and most Greek philosophers assumed that the Sun, Moon, stars, and naked eye planets circle the Earth. Similar ideas were held in ancient China.[citation needed] Aristarchus of Samos proposed a heliocentric model of the solar system.

The geocentric model was usually combined with a spherical Earth by ancient Greek and medieval philosophers. It is not the same as the older flat Earth model implied in some mythology. The ancient Greeks also believed that the motions of the planets were circular and not elliptical, a view that was not challenged in western culture before the 17th century.

The geocentric model held sway into the early modern age; from the late 16th century onward it was gradually replaced by the heliocentric model of Copernicus, Galileo and Kepler. Today, geocentric cosmology survives in the work of some creationist fundamentalist Protestant elements of Christianity, as well as literary treatments within alternate history science fiction.
Nicolaus Copernicus (February 19, 1473 – May 24, 1543) was the astronomer who formulated the first modern heliocentric theory of the solar system. His epochal book, De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres), is often conceived as the starting point of modern astronomy, as well as a central and defining epiphany in all the history of science.

Among the great polymaths of the Scientific Revolution, Copernicus was a mathematician, astronomer, jurist, physician, classical scholar, Catholic cleric, governor, administrator, military leader, diplomat and economist. Amid Copernicus' extensive responsibilities, astronomy figured as little more than an avocation.

While the heliocentric theory had been formulated by Indian and Muslim savants centuries before Copernicus, his reiteration that the sun (rather than the Earth) is at the center of the solar system is considered among the most important landmarks in the history of western science.
n astronomy, heliocentrism is the belief that the Sun is at the center of the Universe and/or the Solar System. The word is derived from the Greek (Helios = "Sun" and kentron = "Centre"). Historically, heliocentrism is opposed to geocentrism and currently to modern geocentrism, which places the earth at the center. (The distinction between the Solar System and the Universe was not clear until modern times, but extremely important relative to the controversy over cosmology and religion.) In the 16th and 17th centuries, when the theory was revived and defended by Copernicus, Galileo, and Kepler, it became the center of a major dispute.
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nquisition (capitalized I) is broadly used, to refer to things related to judgment of heresy by the Roman Catholic Church. It can mean an ecclesiastical tribunal or institution from the Roman Catholic Church for combating or suppressing heresy, a number of historical expurgation movements against heresy (orchestrated by the Roman Catholic Church), or the trial conducted against a heretic.
Generally, patronage is the support, encouragement, privilege and often financial aid given by a person or an organization. It can also refer to the right of bestowing offices or church benefices, the business given by a regular customer, and the guardianship of saints.

In some countries the term is often to describe the corrupt use of state resources to advance the interests of groups, families, ethnicities or races in exchange for electoral support. These patronage systems have different characteristics depending on the area in which they are practiced.
Look up patron, patronage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

The term derives from the Latin patronatus, the formal relationship between a Patronus and his Clientes.
Starry Messenger
Sidereus Nuncius (usually translated into English as Sidereal Messenger, although Starry Messenger and Sidereal Message are also seen) is a short treatise published in Latin by Galileo Galilei in March 1610. It was the first scientific treatise based on observations made through a telescope. It contains the results of Galileo's early observations of the Moon, the stars, and the moons of Jupiter.

In his observations of the Moon, Galileo observed that the line separating lunar day from night (the terminator) was smooth where it crossed the darker regions of the moon, but quite irregular where it crossed the brighter areas. From this observation, he deduced that the darker regions are flat, low-lying areas, while the brighter regions are rough and covered with mountains. Based on the distance of sunlit mountaintops from the terminator, he estimated that the lunar mountains were at least 4 miles in height. This contradicted Aristotelean cosmology, which held that since the heavens were more perfect than the earth, the heavenly bodies must be perfectly smooth spheres.

In observing the stars, Galileo reported that he saw at least 10 times as many stars through the telescope as with the naked eye, and he published star charts of the belt of Orion and the Pleiades showing some of the newly observed stars. Also, when he observed some of the "nebulous" stars in the Ptolemaic star catalogue, he saw that rather than being cloudy, they were made of many small stars. From this, he deduced that the nebulae, and the Milky Way itself, were collections of stars too small and close to be resolved into individual stars by the naked eye.

In the last portion of Sidereus Nuncius, Galileo reported his discovery of four objects that appeared to form a straight line of stars near Jupiter. He gave illustrations of the relative positions of Jupiter and its moons as they appeared nightly from late January through early March of 1610. From the fact that they changed their relative positions from night to night, but always appeared in the same straight line near Jupiter, he deduced that they were four bodies in orbit around Jupiter.

At the time of its publication, Galileo was a mathematician at the University of Padua, and he had recently received a lifetime contract for his work at building more powerful telescopes. He desired to return to Florence, and in hopes of gaining patronage there, he dedicated Sidereus Nuncius to Cosimo II de' Medici, fourth Grand Duke of Tuscany, and he named the four moons of Jupiter he had discovered the "Medicean stars." Since then, his effort at naming the moons has failed, for today they are referred to as the Galilean moons.
Heresy, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, is a "theological or religious opinion or doctrine maintained in opposition, or held to be contrary, to the Roman Catholic or Orthodox doctrine of the Christian Church, or, by extension, to that of any church, creed, or religious system, considered as orthodox. By extension, heresy is an opinion or doctrine in philosophy, politics, science, art, etc., at variance with those generally accepted as authoritative." The study of heresy is heresiology