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73 Cards in this Set

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benign vs. malignant?
-benign: localized, not invasive, wont metastisize, well differentiated
-malignant: ill-defined, invasive, can metastasize, poorly differentiated
benign vs. malignant
-cytomorpholgy?
-benign: round nuclei, normal mitosis, normal N:C ratio, normal chromatin
-malignant: irregular nuclei, inc. mitosis, inc N:C ratio, hyperchromasia
epithelial tumors
-types?
-squamous cell (mechanical)
-glandular cell (secrete/absorb)
-transitional cell (expansion of tissue)
squamous epithelium
-benign tumor?
-malignant?
-squamous papilloma
-squamous carcinoma
glandular epithelium
-benign tumor?
-malignant tumor?
-adenoma
-adenocarcinoma
transitional epithelium
-benign tumor?
-malignant tumor?
-transitional papilloma
-transitional carcinoma
bone tumor
-b?
-m?
-osteoma
-osteosarcoma
cartilage tumor
-b?
-m?
-chondroma
-chondrosarcoma
fat tumor
-b?
-m?
-lipoma
-lipsarcoma
smooth muscle tumor
-b?
-m?
-leiomyoma
-leiomyosarcoma
skeletal muscle tumor
-b?
-m?
-rhabdomyoma
-rhabdomyosarcoma
blood vessel tumor
-b?
-m?
-angioma
-angiosarcoma
fibrous tissue tumor
-b?
-m?
-firbroma
-fibrosarcoma
christoma
-definition?
-ectopic rest of normal tissue, not a neoplasm
hamartoma
-definition?
-mass of disorganized, mature tissue located where that tissue normally found
pleomorphism
-defintion?
-different sizes of nuclei
hyperchromasia
-definiton?
-dark nuclei
paraneoplastic syndromes
-definition?
-caused by remote tumor/metastisis w/ ectopic production of hormones or chemicals
TNM pathologic stage
-definition?
-T: tumor size/invasion, N: positive lymph nodes for metastatic tumor, M: metastisis
solitary (unicarmeral) bone cyst
-definition?
-location/onset
-unilocular intramedullary cavity w/clear or sanguinous fluid
-metaphysis, often in young males
solitary (unicarmeral) bone cyst
-sx?
-path?
-asymptomatic, sometimes swelling
-fibrous tissue w/giant cells, foam cells
aneurysmal bone cyst
-definition?
-sx?
-behign hemorrhagic cavity, presents as expansile, destructive, muclticystic lesion
-swelling, pain, tenderness
aneurysmal bone cyst
-radiographic?
-1st: small, w/permeative growth pattern, 2nd: destructive, w/lysis of bone, 3rd: expanded circumscribed zone of rarefaction
aneurysmal bone cyst
-path?
-cavernous spaces w/walls
osteoma
-definition?
-sx?
-tumor-like mass of dense bone, in sinuses of skull
-asymptomatic, may have nasal obstruction
osteoma
-path?
-resemble dense, cortical bone, no medullary component
osteoid osteoma
-definition?
-onset?
-sx?
-benign, vascular, sharply defined osteoblastic proliferation, <2cm
-usually in young adults
-progressive pain, worse at night; aspririn helps
osteoid osteoma
-radiographic?
-path?
-marked sclerosis around radiolucency
-central: packed o.blasts, woven bone
osteoblastoma
-definition?
-sx?
-benign osteoblastic neoplasm, simliar to ost. osteoma, but >1cm, growth
-dujll pain, tenderness
osteoblastoma
-radiographic?
-lacks sclerosis around radiolucent zone, granular mottled calcifications incenter
osteosarcoma
-definition?
-sx?
-malignant, focal osteoid production by neoplastic cells
-pain, swelling of soft tissue
osteosarcoma
-radiographic?
-hallmark sign?
-infiltrating metaphyseal lesion in medullary bone, erodes through cortex to soft tissue
-Codman's triangle
osteosarcoma
-path?
-often penetrates through cortical bone, abnormal cells produce osteoid material
osteochondroma
-definition?
-sx?
-onset?
-outgrowth of medullary and cortical bone, cover w/cartilaginous cap, projects from cortical surface
-hard mass, sometimes pain
-knee, men
osteochondroma
-radiographic?
-path?
-projecting fragment of bone, MRI can see cart.
-mushroom shape
chondroma
-definition?
-sx?
-benign composed of mature cartilage
-swelling, pain, tenderness
chondroma
-radiographic?
-path?
-lucent, vary powder to dense granular aggregates
-sometimes have yellow foci
chondrosarcoma
-definition?
-sx?
-malignant tumor forming chondroid (not osteoid) material
-pain, mass
chondrosarcoma
-radiographic?
-path?
-ill-defined, lytic mass, splotchy calcification
-hyaline cart. w/translucent appearance, yellow deposits
metaphyseal fibrous defect and non-ossifying fibromas
-definition?
-sx?
-non-neoplastic intracortical prolif. of fibrous tissue/histiocytes
-MFD asymptomatic, NOF asymp. or pain due to fracture
metaphyseal fibrous defect
-radiographic?
-path?
-radiolucent w/erosion of cortex
-foamy histiocytes, giant cells
fibrous dysplasia
-definition?
-sx?
-benign, monostotic/polystotic prolif. of fibrous tissue/bone
-vary w/site of lesion (albright disease)
fibrous dysplasia
-radiographic?
-path?
-radiolucent/dense than other bone, ground glass
-woven bone
giant cell tumors
-definition?
sx?
-benign, agressive, large numbers osteoclast-like giant cells, plump epithelioid
-pain, mass/swelling
giant cell tumors
-radiographic?
-path?
-well defined borders
-giant cells
ewing sarcoma
-definition?
-sx?
-onset?
-primary osseous, small round, uniform cells, no bone matrix production
-pain, mass
-median age 13 y/o
ewings sarcoma
-radiographic?
-path?
-"onionskin" or "sunburst"
-firm, gray-white mass in medullary cavity; broad sheets of small, uniform cells
primitive neuroectodermal tumor of bone
-definition?
-sx?
-primary malignant, similar to ES
-pain, mass, metastisis
PNET
-path?
-rosette formation
lipoma
-type?
-definition?
-path?
-adiopose tissue
-benign composed of adipocytes w/uniform nuclei
-circumscribed mass, encapsulated
liposarcoma
-type?
-definition?
-path?
-adipose tissue
-malignant, arise in soft tissues
-round cell, myxoid, well diff., pleomorphic
fibrous connective tissue lesions?
-scar tissue
-keloid
scar tissue
-definition?
-wound repair in tissues, fibrosis replaces skin
keloid
-definition?
-overgrowth of granulation tissue (collagen 3), replaced by collagen 1, extend to surrounding areas
nodular fasciitis
-definition?
-path?
-sx?
-benign, non-neoplastic
-fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, inflammation
-lump, assoc. with site of trauma
fibromatosis
-type?
-definition?
-types?
-fibrous connective tissue lesion
-benign, soft tissue consist: proliferating, well diff fibroblasts
-superficial: small/less agressive; deep: larger/agressive
fibromatosis
-path?
-plantar fib.?
-hand fib?
-penile fib.?
-ill defined lesion, fibroblasts, fibrosis
-ledderhose's dx
-dupuytren's contracture
-peyronie's dx
fibrosarcoma
-type?
-definition?
-fibrous connective tisue lesion
-malignant spindle cell, fibroblastic diff. w/out production of osseous/chondroid matrix
fibrosarcoma
-path?
ill-defined, fibroblasts (herringbone pattern)
benign fibrous histiocytoma
-definition?
-sx?
-path?
-tumor of fibroblasts/mononuclear/multinucleate cells resemble histiocytes
-mass, can be painful
-well circumscribed, fibroblasts/histiocyte cells
benign fibrous histiocytoma
-gross path/radiologic?
-sharply defined margins, tissue yellow, grey, white
malignant fibrous histiocytoma
-definition?
-sx?
-sarcoma of fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, cells resembling histiocyte
-mass, may be painful
malignant fibrous histiocytoma
-radiographic?
-path?
-ill-defined, most in epiphysis
-brown, grey, yellow, margins infiltrate medullary cavity
leiomyoma
-definition?
-sx?
-path?
-benign tumor of smooth muscle cells (uterine)
-mass, uterine bleeding
-smoot muscle, well circumscribed
leiomyosarcoma
-definition?
-sx?
-path?
-malignant, smooth muscle (uterus)
-mass, uterine bleeding
rhabdomyoma
-definition?
-sx?
-path?
-benign tumor of skeletal muscle
-lesion?
-well circumscribed
rhabdomyosarcoma
-definition?
-types?
-path?
-malignant tumor skeletal muscle
-embryonal, alveolar, pleomorphic
-em: 6-8wk embryo; alv: 10-12 wk embryo; pleo: pleomorphic mature skeletal muscle
hemangioma
-definition?
-sx?
-path?
-benign proliferation b. vessels in skin/organs
-skin: red/purple lesion
-well circumscribed, multiple vessels in one area
kaposi sarcoma
-definition?
-cause?
-endothelial proliferation w/vasoformative spindle growth
-often after human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8)
kaposi sarcoma
-sx?
-path?
-nodules (red, purple, brown), papular
-ill-defined, spindle cells w/irregular blood vessels
angiosarcoma
-definition?
-types?
-malignant from blood/lymphatic vessels
-b. vessel: hemangiosarcoma; l. vessel: lymphangiosarcoma
angiosarcoma
-sx?
-path?
-macular, red, purple, brown
-ill-defined, invasion, extravasated RBCs
synovial sarcoma
-definition?
-types of cells?
-path?
-soft tissue sarcoma - cells resemble synovium
-spindle cell sarcomatous, glandular epithelial looking
-spindle cell or glandular looking