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9 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Renal Adenoma
Small, cortical based lesion
Papillary architecture
Commonly found at autopsy (15%)
Composed of vessels, smooth muscle and fat
Can occur outside of the kidneys as well
NOT ENCAPSULATED (may appear malignant)
1/3 of cases due to TUBEROUS SCLEROSIS
(aut. dominant syndrome assoc. w/ hamartomas of brain, heart, etc.)
(Mental retardation is a major problem)
(2 genes --> Tuberin and Hamartin)
Wilms Tumor
Large, solitary, well-circumscribed mass
Peak incidence in 2nd yr of life (75% by age 5)
Symptoms: mass, pain, anorexia, N/V
10% bilateral or multifocal
Histology is most important for prognosis
Blastema shows abortive glomeruli and tubules
Loss of tumor suppressor genes WT-1 or WT-2
Renal Cell Carcinoma
More frequent in males
Classic Triad: back pain, hematuria, abdominal mass
Polycythemia and hypertension due to renin
Mets present at Dx 25-30% of time
(lung, bone, adrenal and regional LNs, brain)
Risk factors include occupations, TOBACCO, obesity
Related to Von-Hippel-Lindau Syndrome
Highly Vascular
Long-term survival despite metastases
Stages of RCC
I - Non-invasive
II - Locally invasive
III - Locally metastatic
IV - Distant metastases
Transitional Cell Carcinoma
Males > Females
Most common bladder cancer [90%](industrialized > developing)
Risk factors: TOBACCO, Occup. hazards, Cyclophosphamide exposure
Also, Schistoma Hematobium (Egypt, Sudan)
Low grade lesions recur about 50% of the time (papillary)
High grade lesions typically non-papillary (40% 10-yr)
Squamous Cell Bladder Carcinoma
5-10% of bladder carcinomas
Occurs in setting of chronic inflammation:
(S. Hematobium, chronic indwelling cathethers)
Hematuria is common
Poor outcome 5-yr is < 25%
Often widespread at time of diagnosis
Adenocarcinoma of Bladder
Less common that SCC (~2%)
Arises in areas of glandular metaplasia
Dome and Trigone area
Generally POOR outcome
Really an adrenal tumor, not renal
Genetics: double minute that encode many copies of N-MYC
Small round blue cells
Homer Wright Rosettes (pathognomonic)