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45 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
hydrologic cycle
water cycle
describe the hydrologic/water cycle
solar energy (insolation) changes liquid or solid water to water water, and gravity pullls water down.
what is the ultimate source of most water on land
the evaporation of the oceans' water
what four things can happen to water when precipitation falls on it?
1. water retention
2. infiltrattion
3. tunoff
4. evapotranspiration
water retention
precipitation can be stored or retained on the land surface as ice or snow, or on the leaves of trees and other plants
infiltrate
precipitation sinks into the upper parts of earths lithosphere under the influence of gravity
subsurface water
all the water beneath earths surface
runoff
when precipitation flows over earths surface
evapotranspiration
precipitation is evaportated or transpired back into the atmosphere
how much precipitation is put back in the atmopshere by evaporation or transpiration
about 2/3
how is the other 1/3 returned?
by runoff
how does the slope of the land affect infiltration?
the stepper the slope of earths solid surface, the less infiltration or seepage
how does saturation affect infiltration?
the more saturated the loose materials at earths, the less infiltration
2 zones that earths surface is divided into
zone of saturation and the zone of aeration
zone os saturation
where the pores or openings between solid partiles are filled with water
zone of aeration
where the pores are partlyfilled with air and partly filled with water
which zone is on top
aeration
water table
the interface between the two zones
subsurface water below the water table
ground water
porosity
the percentage of open spaces in a material compared to its total volume
affect of porosity on infiltration
the greater the porosity, the greater the amount of infiltration that can occur
shape affect on porosity
rounded particles have greater porosity than other shapes
packing affect on porosity
the more closely packed the particles, the lower the pososity
sorted
if all the particles in a material are about the same size
unsorted
if the particles are mixed sizes
sorted/unsorted affect on porisity
the more unsorted the particles, the lower the porosity
affect of size alone on porosity
none; a material with large particles may have the same porosity as one with smalller particles if teh shape, packing,, and sorting of both particles sizes are about equal
permeability
the ability of a material to allow fluids such as water to pass through
permeability rate
the speed at which fluids will flow through a material
affects on permeability
how well connected the openings are
in loose particles, the large the particle size...(permeability rate and inflitration)
the faster the permeability rate and infiltration
why?
the size of the pores increases
capillarity
the attractive force between water molecules and the surrounding earth materials that stops some water from moving downward during infiltration
water that is stored in small openinings in the zone of aeration
capillary water
what causes water to move up from the water table, against gravity, towards earths surface in the zone of aeration
capillarity?
what is this upward movement of water called?
capillary action/migration
when the particle size gets smaller, capilarity and capilary migration...
becomes greater
when the size of particles increases and the size of pores increases, capillarity..
is reduced
how does vegetation affect infiltration
more vegetation=more infiltration
why?
vegetation intercepts falling precipitation
reduces speed of precipitation and gives the ground more time to absorb the water
when can surface runoff occur? (4)
1. the rate of precipitation exceeds the rate of infiltration
2. the pore space is saturated w/ water
3. the slope of a surface is too great to allow infiltration to occur
4. the water on the surface has not evaporated or sublimated into a gas
stream discharge
the volume of water flowing past a certain spot in a stream in a specific amount of time
the greater the runoff the ___the stream discharge
greater
what is the largest source of moisture for teh atmosphere?
ocean water
what is the primary source of water for the local water supplies?
precipitation