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66 Cards in this Set

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MAJOR MINERALS: Calcium

Function?
The principal mineral of bones and teeth.

Also acts in normal muscle contraction and relaxation, nerve functioning, regulation of cell activities, blood clotting, blood pressure, and immune defenses.
MAJOR MINERALS: Calcium

Deficiency Symptoms?
Stunted growth in children; adult bone loss (osteoporosis).
MAJOR MINERALS: Calcium

Toxicity Symptoms?
Constipation; urinary tract stone formation; kidney dysfunction; interference w/ absorption of other minerals.
MAJOR MINERALS: Calcium

Significant Sources?
Milk and milk products, oysters, small fish (with bones), calcium-set tofu (bean curd), certain leafy greens, broccoli, legumes
MAJOR MINERALS: Phosphorus

Function?
Mineralization of bones and teeth; important in cells’ genetic material, in cell membranes as phospholipids, in energy transfer, and in buffering systems.
MAJOR MINERALS: Phosphorus

Deficiency Symptoms?
Appetite loss, bone pain, muscle weakness, impaired growth, and rickets in infants.
MAJOR MINERALS: Phosphorus

Toxicity Symptoms?
Calcification of non-skeletal tissues, particularly the kidney
MAJOR MINERALS: Phosphorus

Significant Sources?
Foods from animal sources, some legumes.
MAJOR MINERALS: Magnesium

Function?
A factor involved in bone mineralization, the building of protein, enzyme action, normal muscular function, transmission of nerve impulses, proper immune function and maintenance of teeth.
MAJOR MINERALS: Magnesium

Deficiency Symptoms?
Weakness; muscle twitches; appetite loss; confusion;

if extreme: convulsions, bizarre movements (especially of eyes and face), hallucinations, and difficulty in swallowing

In children: growth failure
MAJOR MINERALS: Magnesium

Toxicity Symptoms?
Excess magnesium from abuse of laxatives (Epsom salts) causes diarrhea with fluid & electrolyte & pH imbalances
MAJOR MINERALS: Magnesium

Significant Sources?
Nuts, legumes, whole grains, dark green vegetables, seafoods, chocolate, cocoa
MAJOR MINERALS: Sodium

Function?
Sodium, chloride, and potassium (electrolytes) maintain normal fluid balance & acid-base balance in the body. Sodium is critical to nerve impulse transmission.
MAJOR MINERALS: Sodium

Deficiency Symptoms?
Muscle cramps, mental apathy, loss of appetite
MAJOR MINERALS: Sodium

Toxicity Symptoms?
Hypertension
MAJOR MINERALS: Sodium

Significant Sources?
Salt, soy sauce, seasoning mixes, processed foods, condiments, fast foods.
MAJOR MINERALS: Potassium

Function?
Facilitates reactions, including the making of protein; the maintenance of fluid & electrolyte balance; the support of cell integrity; the transmission of nerve impulses; and the contraction of muscles, including the heart.
MAJOR MINERALS: Potassium

Deficiency Symptoms?
Deficiency accompanies dehydration; causes muscular weakness, paralysis, and confusion; can cause death
MAJOR MINERALS: Potassium

Toxicity Symptoms?
Causes muscular weakness; triggers vomiting; if given into a vein, can stop the heart.
MAJOR MINERALS: Potassium

Significant Sources?
All whole foods: meats, milk, fruits, vegetables, grains, legumes
MAJOR MINERALS: Chloride

Function?
Chloride is part of the hydrochloric acid found in the stomach, necessary for proper digestion. Helps maintain normal fluid & electrolyte balance
MAJOR MINERALS: Chloride

Deficiency Symptoms?
Growth failure in children; muscle cramps, mental apathy, loss of appetite; can cause death (uncommon).
MAJOR MINERALS: Chloride

Toxicity Symptoms?
Normally harmless (the gas chlorine is a poison but evaporates from water); can cause vomiting.
MAJOR MINERALS: Chloride

Significant Sources?
Salt, soy sauce; moderate quantities in whole, unprocessed foods, large amounts in processed foods.
MAJOR MINERALS: Sulfate

Function?
A contributor of sulfur to many important compounds, such as a certain amino acids, antioxidants, and the vitamins biotin and thiamin; stabilizes protein shape by forming sulfur-sulfur bridges (see Fig. 6-10 in Ch. 6, p. 197).
MAJOR MINERALS: Sulfate

Deficiency Symptoms?
None known; protein deficiency would occur first.
MAJOR MINERALS: Sulfate

Toxicity Symptoms?
Would occur only if sulfur amino acids were eaten in excess; this (in animals) depresses growth
MAJOR MINERALS: Sulfate

Significant Sources?
All protein-containing foods.
TRACE MINERALS: Iodine

Function?
A component of the thyroid hormone thyroxine, which helps to regulate growth, development, and metabolic rate.
TRACE MINERALS: Iodine

Deficiency Symptoms?
Goiter, cretinism
MAJOR MINERALS: Chloride

Function?
Chloride is part of the hydrochloric acid found in the stomach, necessary for proper digestion. Helps maintain normal fluid & electrolyte balance
MAJOR MINERALS: Chloride

Deficiency Symptoms?
Growth failure in children; muscle cramps, mental apathy, loss of appetite; can cause death (uncommon).
MAJOR MINERALS: Chloride

Toxicity Symptoms?
Normally harmless (the gas chlorine is a poison but evaporates from water); can cause vomiting.
MAJOR MINERALS: Chloride

Significant Sources?
Salt, soy sauce; moderate quantities in whole, unprocessed foods, large amounts in processed foods.
MAJOR MINERALS: Sulfate

Function?
A contributor of sulfur to many important compounds, such as a certain amino acids, antioxidants, and the vitamins biotin and thiamin; stabilizes protein shape by forming sulfur-sulfur bridges (see Fig. 6-10 in Ch. 6, p. 197).
MAJOR MINERALS: Sulfate

Deficiency Symptoms?
None known; protein deficiency would occur first.
MAJOR MINERALS: Sulfate

Toxicity Symptoms?
Would occur only if sulfur amino acids were eaten in excess; this (in animals) depresses growth
MAJOR MINERALS: Sulfate

Significant Sources?
All protein-containing foods.
TRACE MINERALS: Iodine

Function?
A component of the thyroid hormone thyroxine, which helps to regulate growth, development, and metabolic rate.
TRACE MINERALS: Iodine

Deficiency Symptoms?
Goiter, cretinism
TRACE MINERALS: Iodine

Toxicity Symptoms?
Depressed thyroid activity; goiter-like thyroid enlargement
TRACE MINERALS: Iodine

Significant Sources?
Iodized salt; seafood; bread; plants grown in most parts of the country & animals fed those plants.
TRACE MINERALS: Iron

Function?
Part of the protein hemoglobin, which carries oxygen in the blood; part of the protein myoglobin in muscles, which makes oxygen available for muscle contraction; necessary for the use of energy.
TRACE MINERALS: Iron

Deficiency Symptoms?
Anemia: weakness, fatigue, pale skin & mucus membranes, pale concave nails, headaches, inability to concentrate, impaired cognitive function (children), lowered cold tolerance
TRACE MINERALS: Iron

Toxicity Symptoms?
Iron overload: fatigue, abdominal pain, infections, liver injury, joint pain, skin pigmentation, growth retardation in children, bloody stools, shock.
TRACE MINERALS: Iron

Significant Sources?
Red meats, fish, poultry, shellfish, eggs, legumes, green leafy vegetables, dried fruits.
TRACE MINERALS: Zinc

Function?
Associated with hormones; needed for many enzymes; involved in making genetic material & proteins, immune cell activation, transport of vitamin A, taste perception, wound healing, the making of sperm, and normal fetal development.
TRACE MINERALS: Zinc

Deficiency Symptoms?
Growth failure in children, dermatitis, sexual retardation, loss of taste, poor wound healing.
TRACE MINERALS: Zinc

Toxicity Symptoms?
Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, loss of appetite, headache, immune suppression, decreased HDL, reduced iron & copper status.
TRACE MINERALS: Zinc

Significant Sources?
Protein-containing foods: meats, fish, shellfish, poultry, grains, yogurt.
TRACE MINERALS: Selenium

Function?
Assists a group of enzymes that defend against oxidation.
TRACE MINERALS: Selenium

Deficiency Symptoms?
Predisposition to a form of heart disease characterized by fibrous cardiac tissue (uncommon).
TRACE MINERALS: Selenium

Toxicity Symptoms?
Nausea; abdominal pain; nail and hair changes; nerve, liver, and muscle damage
TRACE MINERALS: Selenium

Significant Sources?
Seafoods, organ meats; other meats, whole grains, and vegetables depending on soil content.
TRACE MINERALS: Fluoride

Function?
Helps form bones & teeth; confers decay resistance on teeth
TRACE MINERALS: Fluoride

Deficiency Symptoms?
Susceptibility to tooth decay.
TRACE MINERALS: Fluoride

Toxicity Symptoms?
Fluorosis (discoloration) of teeth, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, chest pain, itching.
TRACE MINERALS: Fluoride

Significant Sources?
Drinking water if fluoride-containing or fluoridated; tea; seafood.
TRACE MINERALS: Chromium

Function?
Associated w/ insulin; needed for energy release from glucose
TRACE MINERALS: Chromium

Deficiency Symptoms?
Abnormal glucose metabolism
TRACE MINERALS: Chromium

Toxicity Symptoms?
Possibly skin eruptions
TRACE MINERALS: Chromium

Significant Sources?
Meat, unrefined grains, vegetable oils
TRACE MINERALS: Copper

Function?
Helps form hemoglobin; part of several enzymes.
TRACE MINERALS: Copper

Deficiency Symptoms?
Anemia; bone abnormalities
TRACE MINERALS: Copper

Toxicity Symptoms?
Vomiting, diarrhea; liver damage
TRACE MINERALS: Copper

Significant Sources?
Organ meats, seafood, nuts, seeds, whole grains, drinking water.