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82 Cards in this Set

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Organization, classification and Naming of living things
Taxonomy
The science of common ancestors
Phylogenetics
What is the order of organization of life?
Domain>Kingdom>Phylum/Division>Class>Order>Family>Genus>Species
What are the 3 domains?
Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukaryota
Single celled organisms with No Nucleus and live in places with extreme environments
Archaea
Unicellular organisms with no nucleus. Can be beneficial, pathogenic or infectious
Bacteria
Organisms with a "true nucleus" and organelles, who's cells are organized into complex structures enclosed within membranes.
Eukaryota
Kingdoms of interest in the Domain Eukaryota
Animalia, Fungi, Protista, Plantae
The study of parasites
Parasitology
Unlike organisms that live together.
Can be beneficial or harmful
Symbiosis
Biological interaction between individuals of two different species, where both individuals derive a fitness benefit
Mutualism
A symbiotic relationship where the parasite benefits, but the host is harmed
Parasitism
A parasite that lives on the skin, but is not within the body.
Ectoparasite
Parasite that eventually kills the host
Parasitoid
Parasites that live inside the body
Endoparasites
Phylum of Flat Worms
Platyhelminthes
worms that have no respiratory or circulatory systems present
Platyhelminthes
Classes of Platyhelminthes
Trematodes and Cestodes
Flukes
Trematoda
Tape Worms
Cestodes
Long, extremely dorso-ventrally flattened, hermaphroditic parasites.
Do not have intestines, use diffusion to absorb nutrients. Commonly assoc. with fleas
Tape Worms
Three regions of the body of adult tapeworm
Scolex, Neck and Strobilia
The "head" and attachment organ of the parasite
The Scolex
The area of proliferation of the parasite, from which the proglottids (sex organs) of the strobila grow
Neck
a series of proglottids each containing a complete set of male and female reproductive organs
Strobila
Dipylidium caninum
Common dog tapeworm
Platyhelminthes commonly spread via injestion of infected fleas.
Dipylidium caninum OR common dog tapeworm
Rat Tapeworm
Taenia Taeniaeformis
Parasite typically diagnosed when owner observes segments near the anus or on feces.
Tapeworm
Phylum of Round worms
Nematoda
Non-segmented round worms with complete digestive tract with oral and anal openings.
Nematoda
Is the class Ascaridida from the Phylum Nematoda, Platyhelminthes or Arthropoda?
Ascaridida are from the Phylum Nematoda
Which of the following is not from the Class Ascaridida:
Toxocara canis
Toxocara cati
Uncinaria stenocephala
Toxascaris leonina
Uncinaria stenocephala
The larvae of these parasites migrate from the intestines to the liver, where they develop into 3rd stage larvae and then move on to the heart and carried to the lungs and the rest of the respiratory tract. Often coughed up and swallowed and begin the cycle over again.
Ascarids
Dog Roundworm
Toxocara Canis
This parasite causes abdominal distension, intermittent diarrhea, dull coat, and occasional vomiting and is one of the most common canine parasites.
Toxocara Canis
Cat Roundworm
Toxocara cati
Intestinal infection with roundworms that is usually asymptomatic and transmitted via ingestion of egg, paratenic host, larvae or passed in the milk of queen.
Toxocara cati
Common name for Ancylostoma genus:
Hookworms
Which is not a hookworm:
Ancylostoma caninum
Ancylostoma spp.,
Ancylostoma braziliense,
Trichuris Vulpis
Uncinaria stenocephala
Trichuris Vulpis (Whipworm)
These parasites use sharp teeth to attach themselves to the mucosal lining of the intestines and feast on the blood and cells lining the guts.
Hookworms or Ancylostoma Genus
Females can produce up to 20, 000 eggs/day
Ancystoma spp. or Hookworms
Eggs wait for host in soil. Larvae penetrate unbroken skin and migrate into the capillary>vessel>heart>lungs then is coughed up and swallowed into intestines. They then attach to the lining of the sm. intestines to feed.
Ancystoma spp. or Hookworms
Eggs appear in either 4 cell or 8 cell phase of development. Egg wall is thin, transparent and smooth. The egg shape is oval.
Ancystoma spp. or Hookworm
Trichuris vulpis
Whipworms
Attach to the lining of the guts and obtain nutrition from the host's tissues. There is no lung migration. Require an embryonation period in the soil which may last from 2 wks to several months. Require a warm, moist environment.
Trichuris vulpis
The eggs are oval in shape and contain 2 operculums
Trichuris vulpis
A hatch where turgor pressure releases the larva when mature
Operculum
Phylum of hexapods with jointed legs
Arthropoda
Strongyloides stercoralis
threadworms
Dirofilaria immitis
Heartworm
Parasite transmitted via mosquitoes, most commonly seen in dogs.
Only transmitted via mosquitoes, not trans-mammary
Dirofilaria immitis
Adult worms reside in the right ventricle and pulmonary artery of the dog while unsheathed microfilariae circulate in the blood
Dirofilaria immitis
Medications for this parasite also prevent roundworm, hookworm and whipworm
preventative medication for Dirofilaria immitis
Kingdom in which we find Giardia spp, Coccidia spp., and Toxoplasmosis
Protista
Protozoan gut parasite that attaches itself to the lumen of the sm. intestines for nutrition. Commonly found in stagnant water. Their life cycle involves oocysts, not eggs. (no sexual reproduction, undergo mitosis)
Giardia spp.
This parasite sabotages the body's absorption of fats and carbohydrates. Symptoms can include: Diarrhea greasy in appearance, Sulfuric smelling gas, mild fever. Symptoms can last 5-7 days then stop and recur in 2 wks
Giardia spp.
What is the diagnostic test used for Giardia?
Direct (fecal) Smear,
ELISA Test
or Fancy Smancy Microscopy
Isospora spp.
Coccidia
Commonly associated with drinking contaminated water. Lives in epithelial cells of the intestines. Birds are often involved in the life cycle of this organism.
Isospora spp.
Why is it common for animals to have both Coccidia and Giardia?
They are both waterborne parasites
Considered to be the third leading cause of death attributed to foodborne illness in the U.S.
Toxoplasmosis
An arthropod that invades the hair follicle. Part of the "normal flora" of the skin.
Infections occur in dogs with compromised immune systems.
Demodex canis
Cause of Demodectic mange
Demodex canis
Cause of Sarcoptic Mange
Sarcoptes scabei
Presents in animals with itchy skin and hair loss. Is contagious to other animals and people. It is NOT part of the normal skin flora.
Sarcoptes scabei
Dancing Dandruff
Cheyletiella
Ear Mites
Otodectes cynotis
Is this Biting Lice or Sucking Lice:
http://www.icb.usp.br/~marcelcp/Imagens/u11.jpg
Biting Lice
Is this Biting Lice or Sucking Lice:
http://waynesword.palomar.edu/images/louse2.jpg
Sucking Lice
Cuterebra
Bot Flies
Ixodes scapularis
American Deer Tick
Which tick carries Lyme Disease?
Ixodes scapularis or American Deer Tick
Dermacentor variabilis
American Dog Tick
Which tick carries Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever?
Dermacentor variabilis or American Dog Tick
Gross characteristics of Feces
Consistency, color and presence of blood, mucus, or adult parasites
What does a fecal float usually test for?
Parasite eggs
How much feces should be used for a fecal float?
1 gram or more
How long should the slide cover be left on top of the meniscus?
10 min.
What are Direct Smears used to detect?
Protozoans in the feces
How is a direct smear test performed?
A small drop of saline is place on a microscope slide. An equally small piece of feces is added to the saline and mixed together. Add stain, place cover slip on top. Evaluate using either blue lens or O.I.L.
How long should the centrifuge tube stay in the centrifuge?
5-10 min. at 1200-1500 rpm