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50 Cards in this Set

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chemical equation
a condensed notation to show what happens in a chemical reaction
word equation
verbal description of the chemical reaction, using formal names of substances and verbs to indicate what is going on

"Hydrogen gas combines with nitrogen gas yielding ammonia gas plus heat energy."
skeleton equation
shows only the fomulas of reactants and products
balanced equation
takes into account the ratios of atoms or molecules used during the reaction.

Atoms of all elements on both sides of the arrow must be equal.
subscript
number which indicates how many atoms of an element are in a molecule ("2" in water)
coefficient
number which indicates how many molecules are in a compound in an equation (comes before the compound)
reactants
chemicals put into the reaction
products
chemical resulting from the reaction
sign indicating a reversible reaction
yields
chemical equation
a condensed notation to show what happens in a chemical reaction
word equation
verbal description of the chemical reaction, using formal names of substances and verbs to indicate what is going on

"Hydrogen gas combines with nitrogen gas yielding ammonia gas plus heat energy."
skeleton equation
shows only the fomulas of reactants and products
balanced equation
takes into account the ratios of atoms or molecules used during the reaction.

Atoms of all elements on both sides of the arrow must be equal.
subscript
number which indicates how many atoms of an element are in a molecule ("2" in water)
coefficient
number which indicates how many molecules are in a compound in an equation (comes before the compound)
reactants
chemicals put into the reaction
products
chemical resulting from the reaction
sign indicating a reversible reaction
yields
heat (added/subtracted in reaction--written over arrow for yield to represnt this)
synthesis/combination
chemical reaction where many individual substances combine to form one substance

A+B→AB

opposite of decomposition
decomposition
chemical reaction where one substance breaks up into the many substances which make up the original substance

AB→A+B

opposite of synthesis/combination
single replacement reaction
chemical reaction where part of one substance leaves that molecule and instead becomes part of the other substance

A+BC→AC+B
double replacement reaction
chemical reaction where part of one substance and part of the other substance trade places
combustion
chemical reaction where something is lit on fire and produces a gas and water

CxHy+O2→CO2(g)+H20(g)
stoichiometry
calculation of quantities in chemical reactions
limiting reagent
reactant which runs out first in a chemical reaction
excess reagent
reactant which leaves leftovers when the other reactant runs out
percent yield
percentage of the amount of product made in a reaction out of the amount possible for the equation

(Actual Yield/Theoretical Yield)*100
theoretical yield
the amount of product that should be produced in a reaction (according to equation and
actual yield
the amount of product experimentally produced in a reaction
phase
a state of matter with uniform properties
kinetic energy
energy of motion
temperature
a measure of average kinetic energy
solid
A state of matter with definite shape and volume. Particles are arranged in a set crystalline pattern and vibrate, but stay in place.
allotropes
two or more molecular forms of the same element in solid form

i.e., diamond, charcoal, and graphite (pencil "lead") are all carbon allotropes
unit cell
smallest group of particles in a crystal that retains the crystal's geometric shape
amorphous solids
supercooled liquids which appear to be solids, but lack crystalline structure

i.e., rubber and glass
melting
a phase change which occurs when particle vibrations in a solid become greater than the forces holding the particles together, causing the solid's crystal structure to come apart

solid to liquid
melting point
the specific temperature at which a solid's crystal structure comes apart and melts
sublimation
a phase change where particles of a solid break free of the crystal structure and become gas without first becoming liquid

solid to gas
liquid
A state of matter with indefinite shape but definite volume. Particles have no predictable pattern of arrangement and move constantly (movement, collision, change of direction) but still have strong forces of attraction.
gas
A state of matter with indefinite shape and volume. Particles move quite freely, rapidly, and randomly and have no attraction for one another.
surface tension
an inward force which keeps liquid from flying apart
vaporization
a phase change which occurs when fast moving liquid particles break free and become gas

liquid to gas
evaporization
surface vaporization: a phase change where fast moving liquid particles break free and become gas on the surface
boiling
deep vaporization: a phase change where fast moving liquid particles break free and become gas at the heat source
boiling point
the specific temperature at which a liquid's particles overcome surface tension and break free
vapor pressure
the force of the gaseous substance on the surface of a liquid