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6 Cards in this Set

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Biotin
Deficiency?
Function?
Deficiency: Dermatitis, enteritis. Caused by antibiotics use ingestion of >20 raw eggs.
Function: cogactor for carboxylations:
1. Pyruvate --> Oxaloacetate
2. Acetyl-CoA --> Malonyl-CoA
3. Proprionyl-CoA --> Methylmalonyl-CoA
Mnemonic: "AVIDin in egg whites AVIDly binds biotin."
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)
Deficiency?
Function?
Scurvy - swollen gums, bruising, anemia, poor wound healing.
Function: necessary for hydroxylation of proline and lysine in collagen synthesis. Facilitates iron absorption by keeping iron in Fe+2 reduced state (more absorbable)Necessary as a cofactor for Dopanine -->NE
Mnemonic: Vitamin C Cross-links Collagen. British sailors carried limes to prevent scurvy (origin of the word "limey")
Vitamin D
Types?
Deficiency?
Function?
Excess?
Mnemonic?
Types:
D2=ergocalciferol, consumed in milk
D3=cholecalciferol, formed in sun exposed skin
25-OH D3=storage form
1,25 (OH)2D3=active form
Deficiency: rickets in children (bending bones), osteomalacia in adults (soft bones), and hypocalcemic tetany.
Function: increased intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphate.
Excess: hypercalcemia, loss of apetite, stupor. Seen in sarcoidosis, a disease where the epitheliod macrophages convert vitamin D into its active form.
Mnemonic: Remember that drinking milk (fortified with vitamin D) is good for bones.
Vitamin E
Deficiency?
Function?
Mnemonic?
Deficiency: increased fragility of erythrocytes, neurodysfunction.
Function: Antioxidant (protects erythrocytes from hemolysis)
Mnemonic: Vitamin E is for Erythrocytes
Vitamin K
Deficiency?
Function?
Mnemonic?
Deficiency: neonatal hemorrhage with increased PT and increased aPTT but normal bleeding time, because neonates have sterile intestins and are unable to synthesize Vitamin K.
Function: catalyzes gamma-carboxylation of glutamic acid residues on various proteins concerned with blood clotting. Synthesized by intestinal flora. Therefore, vitamin K deficiency can occur after the prolonged use of broad-spectrum antibiotics.
Mnemonic: K for Koagulation. Note that vitamin K-dependent clotting factors are II, VII, IX, X and protein C and S. Warfarin is a vitamin K agonist.
Zinc deficiency:
Delayed wound healing, hypogonadism, decreased, decreased adult hair(axillary, facial) may predispose to ETOH cirrhosis.