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15 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is a major classification of Vitamins?
Fat soluble and water soluble
Name fat suluble vitamins
A - vision
D - bone calcification and Ca2+ homeostasis
K - clotting factors
E - antioxidant
Name water soluble vitamins
Metabolic: Thiamine (B1); Riboflavin (B2); Niacin (B3); Panthotenic acid; Biotin
Folate: Blood
and neural development
Cobalamin (B12) blood and CNS
Pyridoxine (B6)
Pyridoxal (B6)
Pyridoxamine (B6)
What are general characteristics of water soluble vitamins?
All wash out easily from body except B12 (stored in liver)
B complex deficiencies often result in dermatitis, glossitis and diarrhea
Name all B Vitamins
B1 Thiamine: TPP
B2 Riboflavin: FAD, FMN
B3 Niacin: NAD +
B5 Pantothenate: CoA
B6 Pyrodixine: PP
C Ascorbic acid
What are general characteristics of fat soluble vitamins?
Malabsorption syndromes (steatorhea), such as cystic fibrosis in and sprue, or mineral oil intake can cause fat soluble vitamin deficiencies.
How are fat soulble vitamins absorbed?
Are they toxic?
ADEK. Absorption dependent on gut (ileum) and pancreas. Toxicity more commone than for water soluble vitamins, because these accumulate in fat.
What are vitamin A Retinol:
Deficiency: Night blindess, dry skin.
Function: Constituent of visual pigment (retinal)
Excess: Arthralgias, fatigue, headaches, skin changes, sore throat, alopecia.
Mnemonic: Retinol is vitamin A, so think Retin-A (used topically for wrinkles and acne).
Found in leafy vegetables.
What are B1 Thiamnie:
Deficiencies: Beriberi and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Seen in alchoolism and malnutrition.
Function: in thiamine pyrophosphate, a cofactor for oxidative decarboxylation of alpha-keto acids (pyruvate, alpha ketoglutarate) and a cofactore for transketolase in the HMP shunt.
Mnemonic: Spell beriberi as Ber1Ber1. Dry beriberi - polyneuritis, muscle waisting
Wet beriberi - high output cardiac failure (dilated cardiomyopathy) edema.
Vitamin B2 Riboflavin:
Deficiency: angular stomatis, Cheilosis, Corneal vascularization.
Function: cofactor in oxidation and reduction (eg FADH2)
Mnemonic: The 2C's. FAD and FMN are derived from riboFlavin (B2=2ATP)
Vitamin B3 Niacin:
Pellagra can be caused by Hartnup disease (decrased Tryptophan absorption), malignant carcinoid syndrome (increased Tryptophan metabolism) and INH (decreased B6).
Function: constituent of NAD+, NADP+ (used in redox reactions) Derived from Tryptophan using B6.
Mnemonic: Pellagra's symptoms are the 3 D's: Diarrhea, Dermatitis, Dementia (also beefy glossitis)
NAD derived from Niacin (B3=3ATP)
Vitamin B5 Pantothenate:
Deficiency: Dermatitis, enteritis, alopecia, adrenal insufficiency.
Function: Constituent of CoA (cofactor for acyl transfers)and component of fatty acid synthase.
Mnemonic: Pantothen-A is in Co-A.
Vitamin B6 Pyridoxine:
Convusions,hyperirritability (deficiency inducible by INH and oral contraceptives) peripheral neuropathy.
Function: Converted to pyridoxal phosphate, a cofactor used in transamination (eg ALT and AST) decarboxylation and heme synthesis.
Vitamin B12 Cobalamin:
Deficiency: macrocytic, megaloblastic anemia; neurologic symptoms (optic neuropathy, subacute combined degeneration, parasthesia) glossitis.
Deficiency: cofactor for homocysteine methylation (trasnfers CH3 groups as methylcobalmin) and methylmalonyl-CoA handling. Stored primarily in the liver.
Very large reserve reserve pool (several years).
Synthesized only by microorganisms.
Genreal: Found only in animal products. Deficiency is ususally cause by malabsorption (sprue, enteritis, Diphyyllobothrium latum) lack of intrinsic factor (pernicious anemia) or abscence of terminal ileum (Crohn's disease) Use Schillin test to detect deficiency. Abnormal myelin seek in B12 deficiency, possibly due to decreased methionine or increased methylmalonic acid (from metabolism of accumulated methylmalonyl-CoA)
Folic acid
Deficiency: most common vitamin deficiency in the USA. Macrocytic, megaloblastic anemia (often no neurologic symptoms, as opposed to B6 deficiency.
Function: coenzyme (tetrahydrofolate0 for 1-Carbon transfer; involved in methylation reactions.
Important for the synthesis of nitrogenous bases in DNA and RNA.
Mnemonic: FOLate from FOLiage. Eat green leaves (because folic acid is not stored very long) supplemental folic acid in early pregnancy reduces neural tube defects.
Paba is the folic acid precursor in bacteria. Sulfa drugs and dapsone (antimicrobials) are PABA analogs.