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20 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Original Concept
of sacrifice..
an act that injured a private party was wrong and injured party can retaliate with same kind of wrongdoing

ex: cain killed abel
Vigilantism - Vigilante
- taking the law into your own hands.

- ex: Bernard Getz killed 4 kids who tried to rob him. he is a vigilante
Code of Hammurabi
- written code of conduct (1750 BC)
- attempt to replace blood feuds with system from state
- based on revenge and cruelty
- thieves had their hands cut off
- family of victim had responsibilty to take care of victim of criminal escaped
Indian Law
- tribes responded as groups
- an offense against a individual was considered offense on entire tribe
- could result in blood feud
- blood feud was not for moral restoration, it was for power restoration
Where and when did Victimolgy start?
Jerusalem, 1973

- published 5 volumes from meeting
Criminology defined
Victimology defined
Cri - study of causes of crime and perpretator

Vic - study of the victim within social structure of crime
tort law
- body of law
- provides remedies for wrongdoings
- that does not arise from contracts

*need to determine negligent of intentional
Problems with remedies to victim that do not make the victim whole
- victim might not know offendor
- can't afford to sue
- offender is poor so cant collect so much money from him
- civil action is long
Cesare Beccaria Essay on Crimes and Punishments
- 1764

- people are rational, intelligent, hedonistic (motivated by pleasure/pain), self-determining

- behavior is chosen based on pain/pleasure and cost/benefit.. crime is a choice

- to deter crime, increase pan/cost to where it overwhelms pleasure/benefit
Robert Merton Strain Theory

- must be a balance between aspirations (goals) and the accepted means by which to fulfill them (education, etc).

- there must be internal satisfaction that one is playing by the rules, as well as external satisfaction (achieving goals)

- Criminal skills transmitted from one delinquent child to another
Hirschi Control Thoery
- 1969

- contrasts Strain theory

- bonds people form with eachother gives control and keeps us in line
- delinquent childs can form bonds
Labeling theory
understanding crime is understanding the social audience that evaluates (labels) some behavior as criminal
Critical Criminology
- derived from labeling theory
- what causes behavior to be labeled as crime?

- excuses for war or self defense
Sellin Conflict theory
crime is the product of whoever wins the battle of labeling apparatus
Marxist theory
Crime is the product of capitalism.
- makes everyone greedy
Mendelsohns Six victim types:
1. Completely Innocent
- child
2. Victim with minor guilt
- woman who induces misscarriage and dies
3. Victim who is as guilty as offender
- assist others in crime
4. more guilty than offender
- provoker
5. most guilty victim
- victim is killed by other in self defense
6. imaginary victim
- mental disorder ex: paranoia
von Hentigs 13 typology of victim
1. young
- most dangerous period of life
2. female
- weak
3. old
- wealthy, weak
4. mentally defective
- insane, drug addict, alcochol
5. Immigrants
- feeling of helplessness
6. Minorities
7. Dull normals
8. Depressed
- lack of self preservation
9. Acquisitive
10. Wanton
11. Lonesome
12. Tormentor
- crazy father who torments kid and then kid grows up and kills him
13. Blocked
- self imposed helplessness
Steven Shafer Functional Responsibility
- Victims have responsibility
- typology:
- biologically weak (age)
- socially weak (minority)
- self-victimizing (involved in gambling, drugs, etc)
- political (opposed power)
Wolfgangs Study of Homicide
- studied victims and criminals seperately
- evaluated 588 victims and found 26% to have precipated the crime
Menachem Amir
- analyzed rape in philadelphia
- 19% were victim precipated
- alcochol was involved