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163 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Primary Functions of respiratory system?
•Obtaining oxygen
•Removing carbon dioxide
Other Functions of respiratory system?
•Filtering particles from incoming air
•Controlling the temperature of the air
•Controlling water content of the air
•Producing sounds used in speech
•Sense of smell
•Regulation of pH
filter incoming air; transport from outside of body to lungs; gas exchange ?
Respiratory System
exchanging gas between atmosphere and body cells ?
Respiration
utilization of oxygen and production of carbon dioxide by cells ?
Cellular Respiration
Consists of:
- Bone and cartilage
- 2 nostrils for air to enter and leave
- hairs to stop particles
Nose
divides nasal cavity into right and left ?
Nasal Septum
Consists of:
-Hollow space behind nose
-Nasal Septum ?
Nasal Cavity
Consists of:
- Air filled spaces; reduce the weight of the skull
- Affect voice quality ?
Sinuses
Consists of:
i. Throat
-Passage for food from oral cavity to the esophagus
-Passage for air from the nasal cavity to the larynx
-Creates sounds of speech ?
Pharynx
-Enlargement of airway at the top of the trachea
-Passage for air and also stops particles ?
Larynx
second set, lower region, sound is produced?
true vocal cord
upper region, no sound produced, close larynx when swallowing ?
false vocal cord
slit between vocal cords
glottis
iv. glottis: slit between vocal cords flap to stop food and liquid from entering airway
epiglottis
“windpipe”
Trachea
tube with cartilage to prevent collapsing
Trachea
“branched airway from the trachea to micro air sacs”
Bronchial Tree
right and left; branch from the trachea
primary bronchi
finer tubes of bronchi branches
bronchioles
very thin tubes
alveolar ducts
microscopic air sacs that are at the end of the respiratory tubes
alveoli
-Soft, spongy organs
-Closed in by diaphragm and thoracic cage
Lungs
-Divides right and left with heart and mediastinum
Lungs
Inspiration ?
inhale
inhale does what (3) ?
-Atmospheric pressure pushes air into lungs
-Diaphragm muscles contract and go down
-Lungs fill with air
Expiration ?
exhale
exhale does what (2) ?
-Much elastic tissue
-Diaphragm goes up
500 cubic cm air enters and leaves
Tidal volume
forced inspiration is: tidal plus (+) forced amount
Inspiratory reserve
tidal amount plus (+) extra leave
Expiratory reserve
amount left even after forced out; remains in lungs at all times
Residual volume
inspiratory volume plus (+) tidal volume plus (+) expiratory reserve volume; maximum amount of air a person can exhale after their deepest breath
Vital capacity
Control of Breathing is ?
Rhythmic and involuntary
regulates depth and rhythm
Inflation Reflex
decrease blood carbon dioxide levels; breathe abnormally deep
Hyperventilation
from a compound in RBC
Hemoglobin
oxygen combines with hemoglobin in blood
Oxyhemoglobin
carbon dioxide and hemoglobin
Carbaminohemoglobin
carbon dioxide + water = carbonic acid (H2CO3)
Bicarbonate ion
enzyme to speed up reaction between carbon dioxide and water
Carbonic anhydrase
process in which food changes form so it can be absorbed
Digestion
organs that promote digestion
Digestive System
mouth to anus
Alimentary Canal
release secretions into canal
Accessory Organs
ALIMENTARY CANAL
30 feet long
4 layers of alimentary canal
i.Mucous Membrane
ii.Submucosa
iii.Muscular Layer
iv.Serous Layer
1.innermost layer
2.absorption and secretion
3.protects layers below
Mucous Membrane (mucosa)
1.nourish surrounding cells
2.carry away absorbed materials
Submucosa (loose connective tissue)
1.contracts tube
2.shortens tube
Muscular Layer (smooth muscle)
1.outermost layer
2.lubricates outer tube so it can rub
Serous Layer
serosa and also visceral peritoneum
Serous Layer
alimentary canal has two basic motor functions ?
1.Mixing
2.Propelling
when stomach is full
Mixing
push contents ahead
Propelling
propelling to move and push food through
Peristalis
Receives food; prepares for digestion
THE MOUTH
between the palate and the tongue
Oral Cavity
space between teeth, cheek, and lip
Vestibule
1. ____ have muscle for expression and chewing
2. ___ are for temperature and texture detection of food
3. ____ are red due to blood vessels close to the surface
1. Cheeks
2. Lips
3. Lips
Fills the oral cavity
Tongue
skin on the bottom of the tongue to hold it in the oral cavity
Frenulum
on surface for friction and taste buds
Papillae
posterior part of the tongue anchors to hyoid bone
Roof
lymphatic tissue at the base of the tongue
Linguinal tonsils
Forms roof of the oral cavity
Palate
hard palate:
soft palate:
anterior portion
posterior portion
hanging projection
Uvula
help protect against infection
Palatine tonsils
(adenoids) posterior wall of pharynx; above soft palate
Pharyngeal tonsils
infected and inflamed
Tonsilitis
a.first set
b.6 months to 2 ½ years old
c.20 total teeth
deciduous (primary)
a.second set
b.32 total teeth
permanent (secondary)
front teeth; to bite off (8 total)
Incisors (8 total)
canines; grasp and tear food
Cuspids (4 total)
grinding
Bicuspids (8 total)
grinding
Molars (12 total)
where crown and root meet
Neck
projects out of gum
Crown
anchors tooth to alveolar bone of jaw
Root
-white color of crown; made of Calcium salts
1.hardest part of the human body
2.cannot replace itself
Enamel
thin layer of cementum and periodontal ligament
Root:
decay of tooth enamel and dentine cavity
Dental caries
tooth under the enamel
Dentine
-Function to secrete saliva
-Moistens food and binds it together
-Begins carbohydrate digestion
SALIVARY GLANDS
-Dissolves food chemicals
-Cleanses the mouth and teeth
-Salivary Secretions
SALIVARY GLANDS
produce digestive enzyme amylase
Serous Cells
splits starch and glycogen from carbohydrates
Amylase
secrete mucous that binds food and lubricates to swallow
Mucous Cells
largest; fluid rich in amylase
Parotid Glands
more viscous fluid
Submandibular Glands
smallest; secrete thick and stringy fluid
Sublingual Glands
Connects nasal and oral cavities with larynx and esophagus
Pharynx
passage for air during breathing
Nasopharynx
passage for food from mouth
Oropharynx
opens into larynx
Laryngopharynx
Swallowing Mechanism-3 stages
List First :
1.chew food
2.mix with saliva
3.push into pharynx with tongue
Swallowing Mechanism-3 stages
List Second:
1.start swallowing reflex
2.peristallic wave push food into esophagus
Swallowing Mechanism-3 stages
List Third:
1.food enters esophagus
2.goes into stomach
-Passage from pharynx to stomach
-Muscles prevent regurgitation
-Mucous glands keep it lubricated
Esophagus
J shaped; pouch-like; rugae-thick folds; gastric juice
STOMACH
near esophageal opening; upper half of stomach
Cardiac Region
above cardiac region; temporary storage
Fundus
main part of stomach
Body
narrows body of stomach; lower half
Pyloric Region
approach to small intestine
Pyloric Canal
pylorus; muscle that acts in regurgitation of food
Pyloric sphincter
____ glands are secretory parts of the stomach
Gastric
near gastric pit; mucous
Mucous Cell
secretes digestive enzymes
Chief Cell
holds hydrochloric acid
Parietal Cell
a combination of secretions of all 3 gastric glands
Gastric juice
most important digestive enzyme; starts digestion
Pepsin
a hormone that increases gastric gland secretions
Gastrin
semi fluid paste of food and gastric juices
Chyme:
Stomach’s rate of emptying depends on:
1.fluid of chime
2.food present
Endocrine and exocrine; secretes digestive juice
Pancreas
Enzyme to digest carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and nucleic acids
Pancreatic Juice
carbohydrate-digesting
Pancreatic amylase:
fat digesting
Pancreatic lipase:
protein splitting
Proteinases:
breakdown nucleic acids into nucleotides
Nucleases:
Regulated by nerve action and hormones
Pancreas
released into blood from the duodenum and stimulates pancreatic juice releases; helps to neutralize digestion in intestine
Secretin:
from intestinal wall but increases digestive enzymes
Chylecystokinin:
-Largest gland in the body
-Carbohydrate metabolism to maintain blood glucose
Liver
1.form urea
2.blood protein (clotting)
3.amino acids changed to other amino acids
4. secretes bile
Protein metabolism
eat up bad red blood cells
macrophages:
alters toxic substances
detoxification:
Large right lobe; small left lobe
liver
hepatic cells that radiate out from the central vein
Hepatic lobules:
remove bacteria
Kupffer cells:
-Yellow-green liquid
-For digestion purposes
Bile
Sac on the ventral side of the liver
Gall Bladder
leads to the duodenum
Common bile duct
Three Parts of s. intestine:
-Duodenum: first part
-Jejunum: second part
-Ileum: third part
velvet lining
Intestinal villi:
breaks down proteins into amino acids
Peptidases:
Converts disaccharides (sucrase, maltase, lactase) into monosaccharides (sucrose, maltose, lactose)
small intestine
fats are converted into fatty acids + glycerol
Intestinal lipase:
sphincter muscle; where ileum joins the caecum
Ileocecal valve:
start of the large intestine
Caecum:
no digestive function; lymphatic tissue to resist infection
vermiform appendix:
caecum and above
Ascending colon:
goes left and across; longest part
Transverse:
goes down
Descending:
s-shape of descending portion
Sigmoid:
along sacrum curve; ends after the coccyx
Rectum
last 2.5 – 4.0 cm of the large intestine
Anal Canal
distal end; sphincter muscles
anus
occurs 2/3 times a day; push contents to the rectum
Mass movement:
hold breath, contract abdominal wall muscles
Defecation reflex:
materials that cannot be digested; 75% water
Feces:
process when food are taken in and used by the body
Nutrition:
food substances; essentials needed by the body
Nutrients:
-Sugars and Starches
-Supply energy
-Grains, vegetables, seafood, sugars
Carbohydrates
-Organic compounds
-Triglycerides such as fats and oils
-Meats, eggs, milk, lard, and nuts
-Has cholesterols
lipids
-Organic compounds that serve as structural materials in cells
-Regulate metabolic reactions
-Supply energy
protiens
examples of proteins
Meat, fish, poultry, cheese, nuts, milk, eggs, and cereal
Essential amino acids:
-___that cannot be made
-___need all 10
-___need 8
-10
-children
-adults
have adequate amounts of essential amino acids
Complete Proteins:
lack essential amino acid tryptophan, lysine, and gelatin; results in the inability to support tissue maintenance and growth
Incomplete Proteins:
lack essential amino acids lysine; tend not to promote growth but will maintain life
Partially Complete Proteins: