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25 Cards in this Set

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What are the two types of Vaccines used today?
Killed or inactivated
Live attenuated
What are live attenuated viral vaccines?
A live virus withreduced pathogenicity for immune competent people
Mutated so it has reduced ability to grow in human cells
Not pathogenic
How are live attenuated viral vaccines made?
Virus is isolated from a patient and grown in human culture
Cultured virus is then used to infect monkey cells
Virus acquires many mutations that allow it to grow well
Virus no longer grows well in human cells (attenuated) and can be used as a vaccine
Reduced Pathogenicity, SAME Antigenicity
What are some examples of Live Attenuated Vaccines?
Mumps, Sabin (Polio), Yellow Fever, Influenza, Varicella (Chicken Pox), Rotavirus, Measles
How is the Rotavirus administed?
A live attenuated vaccine delieved Orally
What are the advantages to Live Attenuated Vaccines?
Better immunity b/c actually produces a limited infection, some element of cell-mediated
Can spread the attenuated virus to contacts; ex. oral polio vaccine in babies can expose all who are around it
"Herd Immunity"
What is "Herd Immunity"?
An advantage to live attenuated viral vaccine where those people DO NOT have the immunity are largely protected b/c majority of population is
NOT excuse for mothers to not get their children vaccinated
What are the disadvantages to Live Attenuated Vaccines?
Can cause disease in immunocomprimised people
Reversion to wild type or pathogenic virus
Why is VAPP (polio vaccine) not given?
Because people who are immunocomprimised can then get sick if come in contact with babies who are given this oral vaccine
What is a disadvantage to Varicella vaccine?
Disease can be contracted in children treated w/corticosteroids, cancer, leukemia, etc.
DO NOT give to any pt. with a primary immunodeficiency
How are Killed viral vacine mades?
Viral particles are chemically treated )formalin) or heated or irradiated
What are examples of Killed viral vaccines?
Influenza
Rabbies
Sale Polio
What are advantages to Killed Viral Vaccines?
Safe
Does NOT cause disease
What are disadvantages to Killed Viral Vaccines?
Must produce large amounts of virus
Incomeplete inactivation
No replication of virus, therefor immunity may not be as "good"
What are Subunit vaccines, how are they made?
Purification of proteins from virus, usually an antigenic surface structure
Induce neutraling antibody, prevent infection
Usually made by recombinant techniques
What are some examples of Subunit Vaccines?
Hepatitis B
HPV 6, 11, 16, 18; Which helps protect against genital worts, precancerous cervical lesions and cervical cancer
What are examples of Live Attenuated Bacterial Vaccines?
Very Few
BCG for TB; efficacy varies NOT used in USA
Salmonella - defective in enzyme neccesary for LPS synthesis
What is an example of a Killed Bacterial Vaccine and what is a disadvantage?
Bordetella Pertussis (whopping cough)
When given with DPT vaccine the presence of the organism causes a stronger immune respone; like an Adjuvant
Bad Reactions can occur
What are Toxoid Vaccines are what are some examples?
Toxin activity destroyed (Formalin)
Tetanus, Diphtheria
Part of the DPT vaccine (other is Pertussis)
What are Capsular Vaccines, and what do they do/ how do they work?
Aim is to produce complement-fixing Anti-Capsular Antibody
Ab response is usually T-INdependent
Polysaccharide is usually CONJUGATED to a CARRIER PROTEIN - makes a T DEPENDENT response
Makes IgM & IgG instead of just IgM
What are examples of Capsular Vaccines?
Streptococcus Pnemoniae
Neisseria Meningitis
Hemophilus Influenzae
Reduce incidence and severity of chilhood meningitis and peneumonia
Why in Capsular Vaccines is Conjugating Polysacharide Vacine to a Carrie protein improve the vaccine?
More chance of class switching from IgM to IgG
Longer lasting immunity: memory
Higher Ab titers
More effective in children
What are Adjuvants and what do they do?
Gives a vaccine a boost
Causes a local inflammation at site of inoculation
Activate Macrophages
Increase expression of co-stimulators (if microbial)
Recruit Inflammatory cells
What vaccines are improved with an Adjuvant?
Purified Protein Vaccines b/c they are to pure
Substances that induce non-specific infalmmation
Cause soluble antigens to aggregate; clear slower, increase phagocytosis
What is the most frequent used Adjuvent and what does it do?
Alum plus Bordetella Pertussis
Delated release of antigen; enhanced uptake by macrophages; induces co-stimulators