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180 Cards in this Set

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Derived from what germ cell layer: Aorticopulmonary septum
Neural crest
Derived from what germ cell layer: Astrocytes
Neuroectoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Autonomic ganglia
Neural crest
Derived from what germ cell layer: Choroid plexus cells
Neuroectoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Cornea
Ectoderm:(Anterior epithelium), Mesoderm:(Substantia propria and endothelium)
Derived from what germ cell layer: Eye
Ectoderm:(lens, anterior epithelium of cornea),Neuroectoderm:(iris, dilatory/sphincter pupillae muscles),Mesoderm:(extraocular muscles, sclera, substantia propria of cornea, corneal endothelium, ciliary muscle of eye, choroid)
Derived from what germ cell layer: Oligodendrocytes
Neuroectoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Utricle
Ectoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Acinar and islet cells of pancreas
Endoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Acinar cells of mammary gland
Ectoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Acinar cells of sublingual gland
Endoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Acinar cells of submandibular gland
Endoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Acinar cells of the parotid gland
Ectoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Adenohypophysis
Ectoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Adrenal cortex
Mesoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Ameloblasts (columnar epithelium of enamel inner layer)
Ectoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Anterior epithelium of the cornea
Ectoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Arachnoid Mater
Neural crest
Derived from what germ cell layer: Blood vessel endothelium
Mesoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Bone
Mesoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Bones of neurocranium
Neural crest
Derived from what germ cell layer: Cardiac muscle
Mesoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Cartilage
Mesoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Choroid of eye
Mesoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla
Neural crest
Derived from what germ cell layer: Ciliary body
Neuroectoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Ciliary muscle of eye
Mesoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: CN I
Ectoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: CN II
Neuroectoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: CNS neurons
Neuroectoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Cochlear duct
Ectoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Connective tissue
Mesoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Corneal endothelium
Mesoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Cranial ganglion
Neural crest
Derived from what germ cell layer: Dermis of skin
Mesoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Dilator pupilae muscles
Neuroectoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Dorsal root ganglion
Neural crest
Derived from what germ cell layer: Dura Mater
Mesoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Ependymocytes
Neuroectoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Epidermis
Ectoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Epithelial lining of auditory tube
Endoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Epithelial lining of biliary apparatus
Endoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Epithelial lining of bronchi
Endoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Epithelial lining of crypts of palatine tonsils
Endoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Epithelial lining of distal part of male urethra
Ectoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Epithelial lining of external auditory meatus
Ectoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Epithelial lining of female urethra
Endoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Epithelial lining of GI tract
Endoderm (except lower anal canal: Ectoderm)
Derived from what germ cell layer: Epithelial lining of lower anal canal
Ectoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Epithelial lining of lungs
Endoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Epithelial lining of middle ear cavity
Endoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Epithelial lining of proximal majority of male urethra
Endoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Epithelial lining of trachea
Endoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Epithelial lining of urinary bladder
Endoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Epithelial lining of vagina
Endoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Epithelial lining of male urethra
Ectoderm:(Distal part),Endoderm:(Most of male urethra)
None
Derived from what germ cell layer: Epithelial reticular cells off thymus
Endoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Extraocular muscles
Mesoderm (Preotic Somites)
None
Derived from what germ cell layer: Hair
Ectoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Hepatocytes
Endoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Iris
Neuroectoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Kidney
Mesoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Kupffer cells
Mesoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Laryngeal cartilages
Mesoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Lens of eye
Ectoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Lymph vessel endothelium
Mesoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Melanocytes
Neural crest
Derived from what germ cell layer: Meninges
Neural crest:(Pia and arachnoid),Mesoderm:(Dura)
Derived from what germ cell layer: Microglia
Mesoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Muscles of tongue (occipital somites)
Mesoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Nails
Ectoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Neurohypophysis
Neuroectoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Odontoblasts
Neural crest
Derived from what germ cell layer: Olfactory placodes
Ectoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Optic chiasm
Neuroectoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Optic tract
Neuroectoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Oxyphil cells of parathyroid
Endoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Parafollicular C cells of thyroid
Neural crest
Derived from what germ cell layer: Pharyngeal arch muscles
Mesoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Pharyngeal arch skeletal components
Neural crest
Derived from what germ cell layer: Pia Mater
Neural crest
Derived from what germ cell layer: Pineal gland
Neuroectoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Pituitary gland
Ectoderm:(Anterior pituitary),Neuroectoderm:(Posterior pituitary)
Derived from what germ cell layer: Principle cells of parathyroid
Endoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Red Blood Cells
Mesoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Retina
Neuroectoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Saccule
Ectoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Salivary gland acini
Ectoderm:(Parotid),Endoderm:(Submandibular,Sublingual)
Derived from what germ cell layer: Schwann cells
Neural crest
Derived from what germ cell layer: Sclera of eye
Mesoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Sebaceous glands
Ectoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Semicircular ducts
Ectoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Skeletal muscle
Mesoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Smooth muscle
Mesoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Sphincter pupilae muscles
Neuroectoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Spiral ganglion of CN VIII
Ectoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Spleen
Mesoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Substantia propria of cornea
Mesoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Sweat glands
Ectoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Tanycytes
Neuroectoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Testes/Ovaries
Mesoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Thyroid follicular cells
Endoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: Tooth
Ectoderm:(Ameloblast),Neural Crest:(Odontoblast)
Derived from what germ cell layer: Vestibular ganglion of CN VIII
Ectoderm
Derived from what germ cell layer: White Blood Cells
Mesoderm
Fetal landmark, Day 2
Zygote
Fetal landmark, Day 3
Morula
Fetal landmark, Day 5
Blastocyst
Fetal landmark, Day 6
Implantation of blastocyst
Fetal landmark, Within week 2
RULE OF 2S: Bilaminar disk:(epiblast,hypoblast),2 cavities:(amniotic cavity,yolk sac),2 placental components:(cyto/syncytiotrophoblast)
Fetal landmark, Within week 3
RULE OF 3S: Gastrulation:(Ectoderm, Mesoderm, Endoderm),New structures(Primitive streak,notochord,neural plate)
Ectoderm comes from what?
Epiblast
Epiblast becomes what?
Ectoderm
Invagination of epiblast is called what?
Primitive streak
Cells from the primitive streak give rise to what?
Intraembryonic mesoderm and endoderm
Fetal landmark: Weeks 3-8
Neural tube formed, Organogenesis, extreme susceptibility to teratogens
Neural plate becomes what?
Neural tube and neural crest
Neural crest comes from what?
Edge of neural plate
Neural tube comes from what?
Invaginated/closed neural plate
Fetal landmark, Week 4
Heart begins to beat (4 chambers on week 4), Upper and lower limb buds begin to form
Fetal landmark, Week 8
Fetal movement, fetus looks like a baby
Fetal landmark, Week 10
Genitalia have male/female characteristics
Alar plate vs Basal plate
A: Sensory, B: Motor
Mesodermal defects
VACTERL (Vertebral, Anal atresia, Cardiac, Tracheo-Esophageal fistula, Renal, Limb)
Most common congenital malformations
Heart defects, Hypospadias, Cleft lip, Congenital hip dislocation, Spina bifida, Anencephaly, Pyloric stenosis
None
Teratogen categories
Recreational drugs (Alcohol, Cocaine, Tobacco), Medications (ACE inhibitors, 13-cis-retinoic acid, Thalidomide, Warfarin, anticonvulsants), Other (Diethylbestrol [DES], Iodide, x-rays)
Recreational drug teratogens
Alcohol, cocaine, tobacco
Teratogen effects: Alcohol
Leading cause of birth defects and mental retardation, Fetal alcohol syndrome
Teratogen effects: ACE inhibitors
Renal damage
Teratogen effects: Cocaine
Abnormal fetal development, fetal addiction
Teratogen effects: Diethylbestrol [DES]
Vaginal clear cell adenocarcinoma
Teratogen effects: Iodide
Congenital goiter/hypothyroidism
Teratogen effects: 13-cis-retinoic acid
Extremely high risk for birth defects
Teratogen effects: Thalidomide
flipper limbs
Leading cause of birth defects and mental retardation
Alcohol
Teratogen effects: Tobacco
Preterm labor, placental problems, ADHD
Teratogen most commonly associated with: Renal damage
ACE inhibitors
Teratogen most commonly associated with: Abnormal fetal development
Cocaine
Teratogen most commonly associated with: Vaginal clear cell adenocarcinoma
DES (Diethylbestrol)
Teratogen most commonly associated with: Congenital hypothyroidism
Iodide
Teratogen most commonly associated with: flipper limbs
Thalidomide
Teratogen most commonly associated with: Preterm labor
Tobacco
Teratogen most commonly associated with: ADHD
Tobacco
Teratogen most commonly associated with: Congenital goiter
Iodide
Teratogen most commonly associated with: Placental problems
Tobacco
Monozygotic twins: # of placentas, amniotic sacs and chorions
1 placenta, 2 amniotic sacs, 1 chorion (or 2 placentas, 2 amniotic sacs, 2 chorions)
Dizygotic twins: # of placentas, amniotic sacs and chorions
2 placentas, 2 amniotic sacs, 2 chorions
Contents of the umbilical cord
2 umbilical arteries (deoxy from fetal iliacs), 1 umbilical vein (oxy to fetus), Allantoic duct (functions like fetal urethra) all floating in Wharton's jelly and surrounded by amniotic epithelium
How many umbilical arteries are normally present and what happens if the wrong number is present?
2 (1 umbilical artery is associated with congenital and chromosomal abnormalities)
What happens to the Zona Pellucida before implantation?
It degenerates prior to implantation.
What is the most common site for an ectopic pregnancy?
Ampulla of uterine tube
What is the most common site for an ectopic abdominal pregnancy?
Rectouterine pouch (Pouch of Douglas)
When can hCG be assayed in maternal blood and urine?
Blood: 8 days
Urine: 10 days
What do very high levels of hCG indicate?
Hydatidiform moles or Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (aka choriocarcinoma)
What are oncofetal antigens?
Cell surface antigens that normally only appear on embryonic cells.
What is Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and what is it associated with?
-Oncofetal antigen
-Associated with Colorectal carcinoma
What is alpha-Fetoprotein and what is it associated with?
-Oncofetal antigen
-associated with hepatoma and germ cell tumors
What is the Hox complex?
-Family of genes which encode transcription factors which control segmentation of the human embryo in a craniocaudal direction.
What does mesoderm give rise to?
-Paraxial mesoderm (somitomeres and 35 pairs of somites)
-Intermediate mesoderm
-Lateral mesoderm
Sacrococcygeal teratoma: What does it arise from?
Remnants of the primitive streak
Sacrococcygeal teratoma: What population?
Female infants
Sacrococcygeal teratoma: Timetable and therapy
-Malignant during infancy
-Must be removed by 6 months of age
Chordoma: What does it arise from?
Remnants of the notochord
Chordoma: Where on the body is it found?
-Intracranially
-Sacral region
Chordoma: What population?
Men over age 50
Chordoma: Benign or malignant
Either
What is another name for caudal dysplasia?
Sirenomelia
What is another name for sirenomelia?
Caudal dysplasia
Caudal Dysplasia: How does it manifest?
A constellation of syndromes ranging from minor lesions of the lower vertebrae to complete fusion of the lower limbs
Caudal dysplasia: What causes it?
Abnormal gastrulation (disturbance of mesoderm migration)
Two components of the placenta
-Decidua Basalis (Maternal)
-Villous chorion (Fetal)
Decidua Basalis: What is it?
-Maternal component of the placenta
-A portion of endometrium
Villous Chorion: What is it?
-Fetal component of the placenta
-Tertiary chorionic villi
Maternal Placenta: Afterbirth appearance
15-20 cotyledons imparting a cobblestone appearance. Dark red surface oozing blood (torn maternal vessels).
Fetal placenta: Afterbirth appearance
Chorionic blood vessels. Smooth and shiny as it is covered by amnion.
Velamentous placenta: Cause?
Umbilical vessels abnormally travel through the amniochorionic membrane before reaching the placenta proper.
Vasa previa: What is it?
Velamentous placenta which crosses the internal os.
Vasa previa: What is the danger?
If one of the umbilical vessels ruptures during pregnancy, labor, or delivery, the fetus will bleed to death.
Why does the mother not reject the placenta as an allograft?
Syncytiotrophoblast cells lack MHC antigens and decidual cells in the endometrium secrete PGE2 to inhibit T cells.