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407 Cards in this Set

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Three cell types with regard to cell cycle
Permanent, Stable, Labile
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum rich cells
-Mucus-secreting goblet cells of small intestine
-Antibody-secreting plasma cells
(ie lost of secretory protein)
Cell cycle: Permanent cells
Remain in G0. If they regenerate, they regenerate from stem cells.
Cell cycle: Stable cells
Enter G1 from G0 when stimulated
Cell cycle: Labile cells
Never go to G0, divide rapidly with a short G1
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum: Functions
-Steroid synthesis
-Detoxification of drugs and poisons
Permanent cells: cell types
-Neurons
-Skeletal and cardiac muscle
-RBCs (regenerate from stem cells)
Stable cells: cell types
-Hepatocytes
-Lymphocytes
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum rich cells
-Liver hepatocytes
-Steroid hormone-producing cells of the adrenal cortex
Labile cells: cell types
-Bone marrow
-Gut epithelium
-Skin
-Hair follicles
(think about chemotherapy side effects)
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum: Functions
-Synthesis of secretory (exported) proteins
-N-linked oligosaccharide addition to many proteins
Neurons: name of Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum and its function
Nissl bodies sytnhesize enzymes (eg ChAT) and peptide neurotransmitters.
Golgi apparatus
What organelle is this?
6 functions of Golgi apparatus
1. Distribution center
--Input: Proteins and lipids from endoplasmic reticulum
--Output: Plasma membrane, lysosomes, secretory vesicles
2. Modifies N-oligosaccharides on asparagine
3. Adds O-oligosaccharides to serine and threonine residues (on protein)
4. Addition of mannose-6-phosphate to proteins designated for lysosome
5. Proteoglycan assembly from core proteins
6. Sulfation of sugars in proteoglycans and of selected tyrosine on proteins
B
Which letter marks the cis-face?
I-cell disease: Problem
In Golgi apparatus, failure to add mannose-6-phosphate to intralysosomal designated proteins leads to their improper export
A
Which letter marks the trans-face?
I-cell disease: Presentation
-coarse facial features
-clouded corneas
-restricted joint movement
-high plasma levels of lysosomal enzymes
-fatal in childhood
3 types of vesicular trafficking proteins
COPI, COPII, and Clathrin
COPI: Function
Retrograde Intracellular transport: cis-Golgi to RER
COPII: Function
Anterograde Intracellular transport: RER to cis-Golgi
Clathrin: Function
Extracellular/lysosomal transport:
-lysosome: trans-Golgi to lysosome
-trans-Golgi to plasma membrane to endosomes (for receptor mediated endocytosis)
Microtubules: Diameter
24 nm
Microtubules: Structure
13 dimers of alpha/beta tubulin per circumference (each dimer bound to GTP), repeated in helical configuration
Microtubules: Found in ?
-Flagella
-Cilia
-Mitotic spindles
-Slow neuronal axoplasmic transport
Microtubules: Speed of growth and collapse
Grows slowly and collapses quickly
Microtubules: Affected by which drugs?
-Mebendazole/thiabendazole (antihelminthic)
-Taxol (anti-breast cancer)
-Griseofulvin (anti-fungal)
-Vincristine/Vinblastine (anti-cancer)
-Colchicine (anti-gout)
Microtubule polymerization defects: Found in what syndrome
Chediak-Higashi syndrome
Chediak-Higashi syndrome
Microtubule polymerization defect resulting in decreased phagocytosis
Cilia: Structure
-9+2 arrangement of microtubule doublets
-The 9 peripheral doublets are linked by dynein atpase
Cilia: Mechanism
The 9 peripheral doublets are linked by dynein atpase, which causes bending of cilium by differential sliding of doublets
Molecular motors and direction of transport in cell
Dynein: retrograde (DIES back towards nucleus)
Kinesin: anterograde (MOVES kinetically forward)
Kartagener's syndrome: Defect
Dynein arm defect causing immotile cilia
What is phosphatidylcholine also known as?
lecithin
Kartagener's syndrome: Presentation
-Male infertility (immotile sperm)
-Female infertility (immotile fallopian cilia)
-Bronchiectasis and recurrent sinusitis (bacteria and particles not pushed out)
-Situs inversus
What syndrome is situs inversus associated with?
Kartagener's
Plasma membrane: composition
-Cholesterol (~50%)
-Phospholipids (~50%)
-Sphingolipids
-Glycolipids
-Proteins
What is lecithin also known as?
phosphatidylcholine
Plasma membrane: melting temperature association
High cholesterol or long saturated fatty acid content means increased melting temperature
Where is phosphatidylcholine found?
Major component of:
1. RBC membranes
2. myelin
3. bile
4. surfactant (DPPC- dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine)
Drugs that inhibit the sodium-potassium pump
-Ouabain
-Cardiac glycosides (digoxin, digitoxin)
Ouabain: Mechanism
Inhibits Na-K atpase by binding to K site.
What process uses phosphatidylcholine?
Esterification of cholesterol with LCAT (lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase)
Cardiac glycosides: Mechanism
Inhibits Na-K atpase, increasing cardiac contractility
True or False: Collagen is not the most abundant protein in the body?
False, it is. (25% of all protein in the human body is collagen)
True or False: Collagen is the most abundant protein in the body?
True. (25% of all protein in the human body is collagen)
Collagen types and their primary locations
Be (So Totally) Cool, Read Books
1. (90% of all collagen) Bone, Skin, Tendon (bONE)
2. Cartilage (carTWOlage)
3. (Reticulin)-blood vessels
4. Basement membrane
Collagen Type I locations
Be (So Totally) cool, read books

-Bone (bONE)
-Skin
-Tendon
-dentin
-fascia
-cornea
-late wound repair
Collagen Type II locations
be (so totally) COOL, read books

-Cartilage (carTWOlage)
-vitreous body
-nucleus pulposus
Collagen Type III locations
be (so totally) cool, READ books

(Reticulin)
-blood vessels
-skin
-uterus
-fetal tissue
-granulation tissue
Collagen Type IV locations
be (so totally) cool, read BOOKS

-basement membrane or basal lamina
(four under the floor)
Collagen synthesis: list of events and locations
Intracellular
1. Synthesis (Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum)
2. Hydroxylation (Endoplasmic Reticulum)
3. Glycosylation (Golgi)
4. Exocytosis
Extracellular
5. Proteolytic processing
6. Cross-linking
Collagen production step 1: Synthesis
-In rough endoplasmic reticulum
-translation of collagen alpha chains (aka preprocollagen)
Composition and other name of collagen alpha-chains
-Gly-X-Y (where X and Y are proline, hydroxyproline, or hydroxylysine)
-aka preprocollagen
Composition and other name of preprocollagen
-Gly-X-Y (where X and Y are proline, hydroxyproline, or hydroxylysine)
-aka collagen alpha-chains
Collagen production step 2: Hydroxylation
-In endoplasmic reticulum
-Hydroxylation of specific proline and lysine residues (using vitamin C)
Collagen production step for which vitamin C is required
Hydroxylation of Gly-X-Y chains to form hydroxyproline or hydroxylysine
Collagen production step 3: Glycosylation
-In Golgi apparatus
-Glycosylation of preprocollagen lysine residues and formation of procollagen (triple helix of three collagen alpha chains)
Composition of procollagen
Triple helix of three collagen alpha chains (aka three preprocollagen chains)
Osteogenesis Imperfecta: Pathophysiology
Cannot take glycosylated alpha-chains and form procollagen (triple helix)
Collagen production step 4: Exocytosis
Exocytosis of procollagen
Collagen production step 5: Proteolytic processing
Cleavage of terminal regions of procollagen, transforming it into insoluble tropocollagen
Composition of tropocollagen
Procollagen (triple-helix) with terminal regions cleaved
Collagen production step 6: Cross-linking
Reinforcement of many staggered tropocollagen molecules by covalent lysine-hydroxylysine cross-linkage to make collagen fibrils
Enzyme which performs collagen cross-linking (final step)
Lysyl oxidase
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome: Pathophysiology
Nonfunctioning lysyl oxidase resulting in lack of collagen fibrils (linked tropocollagen molecules)
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome: Presentation
-Hyperextensible skin
-Tendency to bleed/easy bruising
-Hypermobile joints
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome: # of types
10
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome: Inheritance
Varies
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome: Most frequently affected collagen type and result
Type III collagen resulting in blood vessel instability
Osteogenesis Imperfecta: Types
-Abnormal collagen type I (bONE)
--Most common
--Autosomal-dominant
-Type II
--Fatal in utero or neonatal period
Osteogenesis Imperfecta: Presentation
1. Brittle bone disease: Multiple fractures with minimal trauma (often during birth)
2. Blue sclearae (due to translucency of connective tissue over the choroid)
3. Hearing loss (abnormal middle ear bones)
4. Dental imperfections due to lack of dentition
Multiple fractures in a child: Differential Diagnosis
-Child abuse
-Osteogenesis Imperfecta
Osteogenesis Imperfecta: Incidence
1:10,000
Immunohistochemical stain for: Connective tissue
Vimentin
Immunohistochemical stain for: Muscle
Desmin
Immunohistochemical stain for: Epithelial cells
Cytokeratin
Immunohistochemical stain for: Neuroglia
GFAP (Glial fibrillary acid proteins)
Immunohistochemical stain for: Neurons
Neurofilaments
Vimentin stains for:
Connective tissue
Desmin stains for:
Muscle
Cytokeratin stains for:
Epithelial cells
GFAP (Glial fibrillary acid proteins) stains for:
Neuroglia
Neurofilaments stain for:
Neurons
Elastin: Description and Location
Stretchy protein within lungs, large arteries, elastic ligaments
Elastin and Collagen: Peptide composition difference
Both: Proline and lysine rich
Collagen: Hydroxylated forms
Elastin: Non-hydroxylated forms
Elastin: Structure
Tropoelastin with fibrillin scaffolding (fibrillin defect in Marfan's syndrome)
Elastin: Conformations
Relaxed and stretched
Elastase: function
Break down elastin
Elastase inhibitor
alpha-1-antitrypsin
Elastase excess: Found where
Found in emphysema
Association of emphysema with elastase
Excess elastase activity can cause emphysema
Apoptosis: Characteristics
1. Cell shrinkage
2. Chromatin condensation
3. Membrane blebbing
4. Formation of apoptotic bodies which are then phagocytosed
Apoptosis: Events which initiate it
-Embryogenesis
-Hormone induction (menstruation)
-Immune cell-mediated death
-Injurious stimuli (eg radiation, hypoxia)
-Atrophy
Necrosis: Definition
Enzymatic degradation of a cell resulting from exogenous injury
Necrosis: Characteristics
1. Enzymatic digestion
2. Protein denaturation
3. Release of intracellular components
4. Inflammatory process.
Necrosis: Types and where they are found
1. Coagulative (heart, liver, kidney)
2. Liquefactive (brain)
3. Caseous (Tuberculosis)
4. Fat (Pancreas)
5. Fibrinoid (blood vessels)
6. Gangrenous (limbs, GI tract)
Reversible or irreversible cell injury: Cellular swelling
Reversible
Reversible or irreversible cell injury: Nuclear chromatin clumping
Reversible
Reversible or irreversible cell injury: Decreased ATP synthesis
Reversible
Reversible or irreversible cell injury: Ribosomal detachment
Reversible
Reversible or irreversible cell injury: Glycogen depletion
Reversible
Reversible or irreversible cell injury: Plasma membrane damage
Irreversible
Reversible or irreversible cell injury: Lysosomal rupture
Irreversible
Reversible or irreversible cell injury: Calcium influx leading to oxidative phosphorylation
Irreversible
Reversible or irreversible cell injury: Nuclear pyknosis
Irreversible
Reversible or irreversible cell injury: Karyolysis
Irreversible
Reversible or irreversible cell injury: Karyorrhexis
Irreversible
Reversible or irreversible cell injury: Mitochondrial permeability
Irreversible
Inflammation: Classic signs
-Rubor (redness)
-Dolor (pain)
-Calor (heat)
-Tumor (Swelling)
-Functio lassa (Loss of function)
Characteristics of Inflammation: Fluid exudation
1. Increased vascular permeability
2. Vasodilation
3. Endothelial injury
Characteristics of Inflammation: Leukocyte activation
1. Emigration
2. Chemotaxis
3. Phagocytosis and killing
Characteristics of Inflammation: Fibrosis
1. Fibroblast emigration and proliferation
2. Deposition of extracellular material
Characteristics of Acute Inflammation
Mediated by:
1. Neutrophils
2. Eosinophils
3. Antibodies
Characteristics of Chronic Inflammation
Mediated by mononuclear cells:
-Characterized by persistant destruction and repair
-Granulomas: nodular collections of macrophages and giant cells
Characteristics of Inflammation: Resolution
1. Restoration of normal structure
2. Granulation tissue
3. Abscess
4. Fistula
5. Scarring
Granulation tissue: histologic characteristics
-highly vascularized
-fibrotic
Abscess: histologic characteristics
fibrosis surrounding pus
Fistula: characteristics
abnormal communication
Scarring: histologic characteristics
Collagen deposition resulting in altered structure and function
Steps in leukocyte emigration
1. Rolling
2. Tight binding
3. Diapedisis
4. Migration
Leukocyte emigration step characteristics: Rolling
Binding between:
-E-selectin on vascular endothelium
-Sialyl-LewisX on the leukocyte
Leukocyte emigration step characteristics: Tight binding
binding between:
-ICAM-1 on vascular endothelium
-LFA-1 on leukocyte
Leukocyte emigration step characteristics: Diapedesis
leukocyte travels between endothelial cells and exits blood vessel
Leukocyte emigration step characteristics: Migration
Leukocyte travels through interstitium to the site of injury or infection guided by chemotactic signals
Chemotactic signals
1. Bacterial products
2. Complement
3. Chemokines
Free radical injury: Initiated by what?
1. Radiation exposure
2. Metabolism of drugs (phase I)
3. Redox reactions
4. Nitric oxide
5. Transition metals
6. Leukocyte oxidative burst
Free radical injury: Mechanism
-Membrane lipid peroxidation
-Protein modification
-DNA breakage
Free radical injury: Stopped by what?
-Spontaneous decay
-Antioxidants
--Vitamin E
--Vitamin A
-Enzymes
--Catalase
--Superoxide dismutase
--Glutathione peroxidase
Major cause of injury after thrombolytic therapy
Free-radical production induced by reperfusion after anoxia
Hyperplasia: definition
reversible increase in number of cells
Metaplasia: definition
Reversible substitution of one cell type for another.
Metaplasia: When found?
Often secondary to irritation and/or environmental exposure (eg squamous metaplasia in trachea and bronchi of smokers)
Dysplasia: definition
Reversible abnormal growth with loss of cellular orientation, shape and size in comparison to normal tissue maturation
Dysplasia: When found?
In paraneoplastic syndromes
Anaplasia: definition
abnormal cells lacking differentiation, like primitive cells of same tissue.
Anaplasia: When found?
Undifferentiated malignancies
Neoplasia: Definition
A clonal proliferation of cells that is uncontrolled and excessive
Difference between hyperplasia and dysplasia
Can occur together
1. hyperplasia - increase in number
2. dysplasia - abnormal proliferation of cells with loss of size, shape, and orientation
Appearance of cancerous cells
-High nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio
-Clumped chromatin
How does carcinoma invade a basement membrane?
-Collagenases
-Hydrolases
Seed and soil theory of metastasis
Seed: Tumor embolus
Soil: Target organ
Tumor grade: definition
Degree of cellular differentiation based on histologic appearance of tumor
Tumor stage: definition
Degree of localization/spread based on site and size of primary lesion, spread to regional lymph nodes, and presence of metastases
Tumor grade vs stage: Quick characterization
grade: character of tumor itself
stage: spread of tumor in a specific patient (Stage=Spread)
Tumor grade vs stage: Which has more prognostic value?
Stage
TNM staging system
Tumor size
Node involvement
Metastases
Benign tumors of cell type: Blood cells
Does not exist. The malignant blood cells are automatically metastasizing.
Benign tumors of cell type: Blood vessels
Hemangioma
Benign tumors of cell type: Smooth muscle
Leiomyoma
Benign tumors of cell type: Skeletal muscle
Rhabdomyoma
Benign tumors of cell type: Bone
Osteoma
Benign tumors of cell type: Fat
Lipoma
Benign tumors of cell type: >1 cell type
Mature teratoma (women)
Benign tumors of cell type: Epithelium
-Adenoma
-Papilloma
Malignant tumor of cell type: Epithelium
-Adenocarcinoma
-Papillary carcinoma
Malignant tumor of cell type: Blood cells
-Leukemia
-Lymphoma
Malignant tumor of cell type: Blood vessels
Angiosarcoma
Malignant tumor of cell type: Smooth muscle
Leiomyosarcoma
Malignant tumor of cell type: Skeletal muscle
Rhabdomyosarcoma
Malignant tumor of cell type: Bone
Osteosarcoma
Malignant tumor of cell type: Fat
Liposarcoma
Malignant tumor of cell type: >1 cell type
Immature teratoma, Mature teratoma (men only)
Name the cell type: Adenoma
Epithelium
Name the cell type: Papilloma
Epithelium
Name the cell type: Adenocarcinoma
Epithelium
Name the cell type: Papillary carcinoma
Epithelium
Name the cell type: Leukemia
Blood cells
Name the cell type: Lymphoma
Blood cells
Name the cell type: Hemangioma
Blood vessels
Name the cell type: Angiosarcoma
Blood vessels
Name the cell type: Leiomyoma
Smooth muscle
Name the cell type: Leiomyosarcoma
Smooth muscle
Name the cell type: Rhabdomyoma
Skeletal muscle
Name the cell type: Rhabdomyosarcoma
Skeletal muscle
Name the cell type: Osteoma
Bone
Name the cell type: Osteosarcoma
Bone
Name the cell type: Lipoma
Fat
Name the cell type: Liposarcoma
Fat
Name the cell type: Teratoma
>1 cell type
Neoplasm associated with: Down syndrome
ALL (we ALL fall Down), AML
Neoplasm associated with: Xeroderma pigmentosum
Melanoma and basal/squamous cell carcinomas of the skin
Neoplasm associated with: albinism
Melanoma and basal/squamous cell carcinomas of the skin
Neoplasm associated with: Chronic atrophic gastritis
Gastric adenocarcinoma
Neoplasm associated with: Pernicious anemia
Gastric adenocarcinoma
Neoplasm associated with: Post surgical gastric remnants
Gastric adenocarcinoma
Neoplasm associated with: Tuberous sclerosis (facial angiofibroma, seizures, mental retardation)
Astrocytoma and cardiac rhabdomyoma
Neoplasm associated with: Actinic Keratosis
Squamous Cell Carcinoma of skin
Neoplasm associated with: Barrett's esophagus
Esophageal adenocarcinoma
Neoplasm associated with: Plummer-Vinson syndrome (atrophic glossitis, esophageal webs, anemia; all due to iron deficiency)
Squamous Cell carcinoma of the esophagus
Neoplasm associated with: Cirrhosis (alcoholic, hepatitis B and C)
Hepatocellular carcinoma
Neoplasm associated with: Ulcerative colitis
Colonic adenocarcinoma
Neoplasm associated with: Paget's disease of bone
Secondary osteosarcoma and fibrosarcoma
Neoplasm associated with: Immunodeficiency states
Malignant lymphomas
Neoplasm associated with: AIDS
Aggressive malignant lymphomas (non-Hodgkin's) and Kaposi's sarcoma
Neoplasm associated with: Autoimmune diseases
Benign/malignant thymomas
Neoplasm associated with: Acanthosis nigricans (hyperpigmentation and epidermal thickening)
Visceral malignancy (stomach, lung, breast, uterus)
Neoplasm associated with: Dysplastic nevus
Malignant melanoma
Condition associated with: ALL
Down syndrome (we ALL fall Down)
Condition associated with: AML
Down syndrome
Condition associated with: Melanoma
Xeroderma pigmentosum and albinism
If malignant, dysplastic nevus
Condition associated with: Basal cell carcinoma of skin
Xeroderma pigmentosum and albinism
Condition associated with: Squamous cell carcinoma of skin
Actinic keratosis, Xeroderma pigmentosum and albinism
Condition associated with: Gastric adenocarcinoma
1. Chronic atrophic gastritis
2. Pernicious anemia
3. Postsurgical gastric remnants
Condition associated with: Astrocytoma
Tuberous sclerosis (facial angiofibroma, seizures, mental retardation)
Condition associated with: Cardiac rhabdomyoma
Tuberous sclerosis (facial angiofibroma, seizures, mental retardation)
Condition associated with: Esophageal adenocarcinoma
Barrett's esophagus
Condition associated with: Squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus
Plummer-Vinson syndrome
Plummer-Vinson syndrome: Presentation
-Atrophic glossitis
-Esophageal webs
-Anemia
Plummer-Vinson syndrome: Cause
Iron deficiency
Condition associated with: Hepatocellular carcinoma
Cirrhosis due to:
1) alcohol
2) hepatitis B or C
Condition associated with: Colonic adenocarcinoma
Ulcerative colitis
Condition associated with: Secondary osteosarcoma
Paget's disease of bone
Condition associated with: Fibrosarcoma
Paget's disease of bone
Condition associated with: Malignant lymphomas
Immunodeficiency states
Condition associated with: aggressive malignant non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
AIDS
Condition associated with: Kaposi's sarcoma
AIDS
Condition associated with: Benign thymoma
Autoimmune diseases (eg Hashimoto's thyroiditis, myasthenia gravis)
Condition associated with: Malignant thymoma
Autoimmune diseases (eg Hashimoto's thyroiditis, myasthenia gravis)
Condition associated with: Visceral malignancy
Acanthosis nigricans
Acanthosis nigricans: Presentation
-Hyperpigmentation
-Epidermal thickening
Tumor associated with this gene: abl
CML
Tumor associated with this gene: c-myc
Burkitt's lymphoma
Tumor associated with this gene: bcl-2
Follicular and undifferentiated lymphomas (inhibits apoptosis)
Tumor associated with this gene: erb-B2
Breast, ovarian, and gastric carcinomas
Tumor associated with this gene: ras
Colon carcinoma
Tumor associated with this gene: L-myc
Lung tumor (L for Lung)
Tumor associated with this gene: N-myc
Neuroblastoma (N for Neuroblastoma)
Tumor associated with this gene: ret
Multiple endocrine neoplasia types II and III
Gene associated with this tumor: CML
oncogene abl (philadelphia chromosome)
Gene associated with this tumor: Burkitt's lymphoma
oncogene c-myc
Gene associated with this tumor: Follicular lymphoma
oncogene bcl-2 (inhibits apoptosis)
Gene associated with this tumor: Undifferentiated lymphoma
oncogene bcl-2 (inhibits apoptosis)
Gene associated with this tumor: Breast carcinoma
oncogene erb-B2
Gene associated with this tumor: Ovarian carcinoma
oncogene erb-B2
Gene associated with this tumor: Gastric carcinoma
oncogene erb-B2
Gene associated with this tumor: Colon carcinoma
oncogene ras
Gene associated with this tumor: Lung tumor
oncogene L-myc (L for Lung)
Gene associated with this tumor: Neuroblastoma
oncogene N-myc (N for neuroblastoma)
Gene associated with this tumor: Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type I
oncogene MEN1 encoding menin on chromosome 11q
Gene associated with this tumor: Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type II
oncogene ret
Gene associated with this tumor: Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type III
oncogene ret
Chromosome and tumor associated with this gene (what type of gene): Rb
Tumor suppressor gene on 13q: Retinoblastoma, osteosarcoma
Chromosome and tumor associated with this gene (what type of gene): BRCA1
Tumor suppressor gene on 17q: Breast and ovarian cancer
Chromosome and tumor associated with this gene (what type of gene): BRCA2
Tumor suppressor gene on 13q: Breast and ovarian cancer
Chromosome and tumor associated with this gene (what type of gene): p53
Tumor suppressor gene on 17p: Most human cancers and Li-Fraumeni Syndrome
Chromosome and tumor associated with this gene (what type of gene): p16
Tumor suppressor gene on 9p: Melanoma
Chromosome and tumor associated with this gene (what type of gene): APC
Tumor suppressor gene on 5q: Colorectal cancer
Chromosome and tumor associated with this gene (what type of gene): WT1
Tumor suppressor gene on 11q: Wilm's tumor
Chromosome and tumor associated with this gene (what type of gene): NF1
Tumor suppressor gene on 17q: Neurofibromatosis type 1
Chromosome and tumor associated with this gene (what type of gene): NF2
Tumor suppressor gene on 22q: Neurofibromatosis type 2
Chromosome and tumor associated with this gene (what type of gene): DPC
Tumor suppressor gene on 18q: Pancreatic cancer
Chromosome and tumor associated with this gene (what type of gene): DCC
Tumor suppressor gene on 18q: Colon cancer
Gene and associated tumor on chromosome: 5q
Tumor suppressor gene APC: Colorectal cancer
Gene and associated tumor on chromosome: 9p
Tumor suppressor gene p16: melanoma
Gene and associated tumor on chromosome: 11q
Tumor suppressor gene WT1: Wilm's tumor
Gene and associated tumor on chromosome: 13q
Tumor suppressor genes Rb (Retinoblastoma, Osteosarcoma) and BRCA2 (Breast and Ovarian cancer)
Gene and associated tumor on chromosome: 17p
Tumor suppressor gene p53: Most human cancers and Li-Fraumeni syndrome
Gene and associated tumor on chromosome: 17q
Tumor suppressor genes BRCA1 (Breast and ovarian cancer) and NF1 (Neurofibromatosis type 1)
Gene and associated tumor on chromosome: 18q
Tumor suppressor genes DPC (Pancreatic cancer) and DCC (Colon cancer)
Gene and associated tumor on chromosome: 22q
Tumor suppressor gene NF2: Neurofibromatosis type 2
Gene and matching chromosome associated with: Retinoblastoma
Tumor suppressor gene Rb on chromosome 13q
Gene and matching chromosome associated with: Osteosarcoma
Tumor suppressor gene Rb on chromosome 13q
Gene and matching chromosome associated with: Breast cancer
Tumor suppressor genes BRCA1 (17q) and BRCA2 (13q)
Gene and matching chromosome associated with: Ovarian cancer
Tumor suppressor genes BRCA1 (17q) and BRCA2 (13q)
Gene and matching chromosome associated with: Most human cancers
Tumor suppressor gene p53 on chromosome 17p
Gene and matching chromosome associated with: Li-Fraumeni syndrome
Tumor suppressor gene p53 on chromosome 17p
Gene and matching chromosome associated with: Melanoma
Tumor suppressor gene p16 on chromosome 9p
Gene and matching chromosome associated with: Colorectal cancer
Tumor suppressor gene APC on chromosome 5q
Gene and matching chromosome associated with: Wilms' tumor
Tumor suppressor gene WT1 on chromosome 11q
Gene and matching chromosome associated with: Neurofibromatosis type 1
Tumor suppressor gene NF1 on chromosome 17q
Gene and matching chromosome associated with: Neurofibromatosis type 2
Tumor suppressor gene NF2 on chromosome 22q
Gene and matching chromosome associated with: Pancreatic cancer
Tumor suppressor gene DPC on chromosome 18q
Gene and matching chromosome associated with: Colon cancer
Tumor suppressor gene DCC on chromosome 18q
Oncogenes: gain or loss of function QUICK
onco: gain
tumor suppressor genes: gain or loss of function QUICK
tumor suppressor: loss
Oncogenes: one or two alleles need to be damaged QUICK
One (gain of function)
Tumor suppressor genes: one or two alleles need to be damaged QUICK
Two (loss of function)
Association for tumor marker: PSA
Screening for Prostatic Carcinoma
Association for tumor marker: CEA
-Carcinoembryonic antigen.
-In ~70% of colorrectal and pancreatic cancers
-Also produced by gastric and breast carcinomas
-Very nonspecific
Association for tumor marker: alpha-fetoprotein
-Hepatocellular carcinomas
-Nonseminomatous germ cell tumors of the testis (eg yolk sac tumor)
Association for tumor marker: beta-hCG
-Hydatidiform moles
-Choriocarcinomas
-Gestational trophoblastic tumors
Association for tumor marker: CA-125
-Ovarian malignant epithelial tumors
Association for tumor marker: S-100
-Melanoma
-Neural tumors
-Astrocytomas
Association for tumor marker: Alkaline phosphatase
-Metastases to bone
-Obstructive biliary disease
-Paget's disease of bone
Association for tumor marker: Bombesin
-Neuroblastoma
-Lung cancer
-Gastric cancer
Association for tumor marker: TRAP
-Tartrate-resistance acid phosphatase
-Found in hairy cell leukemia
What type of cell is found in hairy cell leukemia?
B-cells
Association for tumor marker: CA-19-9
Pancreatic adenocarcinoma
Tumor marker for: Prostatic carcinoma
-PSA
-Prostatic acid phosphatase
Tumor marker for: Colorectal cancer
CEA - Carcinoembryonic antigen
-Produced by 70% of colorectal cancers
Tumor marker for: Pancreatic cancer
CEA - Carcinoembryonic antigen
-Produced by 70% of pancreatic cancers

CA-19-9
-Produced in pancreatic adenocarcinoma
Tumor marker for: Gastric carcinoma
-CEA - Carcinoembryonic antigen
-Bombesin
Tumor marker for: Breast carcinoma
CEA - Carcinoembryonic antigen
Tumor marker for: Hepatocellular carcinoma
alpha-fetoprotein
Tumor marker for: Nonseminomatous germ cell tumors of the testis
alpha-fetoprotein
Tumor marker for: Hydatidiform moles
beta-hCG
Tumor marker for: Choriocarcinoma
beta-hCG
Tumor marker for: Gestational Trophoblastic tumors
beta-hCG
Tumor marker for: Malignant ovarian epithelial tumors
CA-125
Tumor marker for: Melanoma
S-100
Tumor marker for: Neural tumors
General: S-100
Neuroblastoma: Bombesin
Tumor marker for: Astrocytomas
S-100
Tumor marker for: Metastases to bone
Alkaline phosphatase
Tumor marker for: Obstructive biliary disease
Alkaline phosphatase
Tumor marker for: Paget's disease of bone
Alkaline phosphatase
Tumor marker for: Neuroblastoma
Bombesin
Tumor marker for: Lung cancer
Bombesin
Tumor marker for: Hairy cell leukemia
TRAP (Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase)
Tumor marker for: Pancreatic adenocarcinoma
CA-19-9
Cancer associated with: HTLV-1
HTLV=Human T-Lymphotropic Virus

Adult T-cell leukemia
Cancer associated with: HBV
Hepatocellular carcinoma
Cancer associated with: HCV
Hepatocellular carcinoma
Cancer associated with: EBV
-Burkitt's lymphoma
-Nasopharyngeal carcinoma
Cancer associated with: HPV
-Cervical carcinoma (with HPV 16,18)
-Penile/anal carcinoma
Cancer associated with: HHV-8
HHV-8 = Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus

-Kaposi's sarcoma
-body cavity fluid B-cell lymphoma
Oncogenic virus associated with: Adult T-cell leukemia
HTLV-1 (HTLV=Human T-Lymphotropic Virus)
Oncogenic virus associated with: Hepatocellular carcinoma
-HBV
-HCV
Oncogenic virus associated with: Burkitt's lymphoma
EBV
Oncogenic virus associated with: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma
EBV
Oncogenic virus associated with: Cervical carcinoma
HPV 16 and 18
Oncogenic virus associated with: Penile carcinoma
HPV
Oncogenic virus associated with: Anal carcinoma
HPV
Oncogenic virus associated with: Kaposi's sarcoma
HHV-8 (aka Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus)
Oncogenic virus associated with: body cavity fluid B-cell lymphoma
HHV-8 (Human Herpesvirus 8)
Organ affected by: Aflatoxins
Liver (hepatocellular carcinoma)
Organ affected by: Vinyl chloride
Liver (angiosarcoma)
Organ affected by and effects of: CCl4
Liver
-centrilobular necrosis
-fatty change
Organ affected by: Nitrosamines
-Esophagus
-Stomach
Organ affected by: Cigarette smoke
-Larynx
-Lung
Organ affected by: Asbestos
Lung
-Mesothelioma
-Bronchogenic carcinoma
Organ affected by: Arsenic
Skin (squamous cell carcinoma)
Organ affected by: Naphthalene (aniline) dyes
Bladder (transitional cell carcinoma)
Organ affected by: Alkylating agents
Blood (leukemia)
Carcinogen associated with: Hepatocellular carcinoma
Aflatoxins
Carcinogen associated with: Angiosarcoma
Vinyl chloride
Carcinogen associated with: Centrilobular necrosis of liver
CCl4
Carcinogen associated with: Fatty change of liver
CCl4
Carcinogen associated with: Liver
-Aflatoxins
-Vinyl chloride
-CCl4
Carcinogen associated with: Esophagus
Nitrosamines
Carcinogen associated with: Stomach
Nitrosamines
Carcinogen associated with: Larynx
Cigarette smoke
Carcinogen associated with: Lung
-Cigarette smoke
-Asbestos
Carcinogen associated with: Mesothelioma of lung
Asbestos
Carcinogen associated with: Bronchogenic carcinoma of lung
Asbestos
Carcinogen associated with: Skin
Arsenic (squamous cell carcinoma)
Carcinogen associated with: Bladder
Naphthalene dyes (transitional cell carcinoma)
Carcinogen associated with: Blood
Alkylating agents (leukemia)
Paraneoplastic effects: definition
Symptoms not directly related to tumor or hormones of tumor tissue
Name/effect and cause of paraneoplastic syndrome associated with: Small cell lung carcinoma
(with intracranial neoplasms)
-Cause: ADH
-Effect: SIADH

(without intracranial neoplasms)
-Cause:ACTH/ACTH-like peptide
-Effect: Cushing's

-Cause:Antibodies against presynaptic Ca2+ channels at neuromuscular junction
-Effect: Lambert-Eaton Syndrome (muscle weakness)
Name/effect and cause of paraneoplastic syndrome associated with: Squamous cell lung carcinoma
Causes:
-PTH-related peptide
-TGF-beta
-TNF-alpha
-IL-1
Effect: Hypercalcemia
Name/effect and cause of paraneoplastic syndrome associated with: Renal cell carcinoma
Cause: Erythropoietin
Effect: Polycythemia

Causes:
-PTH-related peptide
-TGF-beta
-TNF-alpha
-IL-1
Effect: Hypercalcemia
Name/effect and cause of paraneoplastic syndrome associated with: Breast carcinoma
Causes:
-PTH-related peptide
-TGF-beta
-TNF-alpha
-IL-1
Effect: Hypercalcemia
Name/effect and cause of paraneoplastic syndrome associated with: Multiple myeloma
Causes:
-PTH-related peptide
-TGF-beta
-TNF-alpha
-IL-1
Effect: Hypercalcemia
Name/effect and cause of paraneoplastic syndrome associated with: Bone metastasis (lysed bone)
(Though technically not a paraneoplastic syndrome)

Causes:
-PTH-related peptide
-TGF-beta
-TNF-alpha
-IL-1
Effect: Hypercalcemia
Name/effect and cause of paraneoplastic syndrome associated with: Hemangioblastoma
Cause: Erythropoietin
Effect: Polycythemia
Name/effect and cause of paraneoplastic syndrome associated with: Hepatocellular carcinoma
Cause: Erythropoietin
Effect: Polycythemia
Name/effect and cause of paraneoplastic syndrome associated with: Thymoma
-Cause:Antibodies against presynaptic Ca2+ channels at neuromuscular junction
-Effect: Lambert-Eaton Syndrome (muscle weakness)
Name/effect and cause of paraneoplastic syndrome associated with: Leukemia
Cause: Hypercalcemia due to excess nucleic acid turnover (ie, cytotoxic therapy)
Effects:
-Gout
-Urate nephropathy
Name/effect and cause of paraneoplastic syndrome associated with: Lymphoma
Cause: Hypercalcemia due to excess nucleic acid turnover (ie, cytotoxic therapy)
Effects:
-Gout
-Urate nephropathy
Paraneoplastic syndrome and neoplasm associated with: ACTH
Paraneoplastic syndrome: Cushing's syndrome

Neoplasm: Small cell lung carcinoma
Paraneoplastic syndrome and neoplasm associated with: ACTH-like peptide
Paraneoplastic syndrome: Cushing's syndrome

Neoplasm: Small cell lung carcinoma
Paraneoplastic syndrome and neoplasm associated with: ADH
Paraneoplastic syndrome: SIADH

Neoplasm: Small cell lung carcinoma with intracranial neoplasms
Paraneoplastic syndrome and neoplasm associated with: PTH-related peptide
Paraneoplastic syndrome: Hypercalcemia

Neoplasms:
-Squamous cell lung carcinoma
-Renal cell carcinoma
-Breast carcinoma
-Multiple myeloma
-Bone metastasis (lysed bone) (not really a paraneoplastic syndrome for this one)
Paraneoplastic syndrome and neoplasm associated with: TGF-beta
Paraneoplastic syndrome: Hypercalcemia

Neoplasms:
-Squamous cell lung carcinoma
-Renal cell carcinoma
-Breast carcinoma
-Multiple myeloma
-Bone metastasis (lysed bone) (not really a paraneoplastic syndrome for this one)
Paraneoplastic syndrome and neoplasm associated with: TNF-alpha
Paraneoplastic syndrome: Hypercalcemia

Neoplasms:
-Squamous cell lung carcinoma
-Renal cell carcinoma
-Breast carcinoma
-Multiple myeloma
-Bone metastasis (lysed bone) (not really a paraneoplastic syndrome for this one)
Paraneoplastic syndrome and neoplasm associated with: IL-1
Paraneoplastic syndrome: Hypercalcemia

Neoplasms:
-Squamous cell lung carcinoma
-Renal cell carcinoma
-Breast carcinoma
-Multiple myeloma
-Bone metastasis (lysed bone) (not really a paraneoplastic syndrome for this one)
Paraneoplastic syndrome and neoplasm associated with: Erythropoietin
Paraneoplastic syndrome: Polycythemia

Neoplasms:
-Renal cell carcinoma
-hemangioblastoma
-hepatocellular carcinoma
Paraneoplastic syndrome and neoplasm associated with: Antibodies against Ca2+ channels
Paraneoplastic syndrome: Lambert-Eaton syndrome (muscle weakness due to presynaptic channels being destroyed)

Neoplasms:
-Thymoma
-Small-cell lung cancer
Paraneoplastic syndrome and neoplasm associated with: Hyperuricemia due to excess nucleic acid turnover (ie cytotoxic therapy)
Paraneoplastic syndromes:
-Gout
-Urate nephropathy

Neoplasms:
-Leukemia
-Lymphoma
For the following paraneoplastic syndrome, give the causes and associated neoplasms: Cushing's syndrome
Cause: ACTH or ACTH-like peptide

Neoplasm: Small cell lung carcinoma
For the following paraneoplastic syndrome, give the causes and associated neoplasms: SIADH
Cause: ADH

Neoplasms: Small cell lung carcinoma with intracranial neoplasms
For the following paraneoplastic syndrome, give the causes and associated neoplasms: Hypercalcemia
Causes:
-PTH-related peptide
-TGF-beta
-TNF-alpha
-IL-1

Neoplasms:
-Squamous cell lung carcinoma
-Renal cell carcinoma
-Breast carcinoma
-Multiple myeloma
-Bone metastasis (lysed bone: technically not a paraneoplastic cause)
For the following paraneoplastic syndrome, give the causes and associated neoplasms: Polycythemia
Cause: Erythropoietin

Neoplasms:
-Renal cell carcinoma
-Hemangioblastoma
-Hepatocellular carcinoma
For the following paraneoplastic syndrome, give the causes and associated neoplasms: Lambert-Eaton syndrome (muscle weakness)
Cause: Antibodies against presynaptic Ca2+ channels at neuromuscular junction

Neoplasms:
-Thymoma
-Small cell lung carcinoma
For the following paraneoplastic syndrome, give the causes and associated neoplasms: Gout
Cause: Hyperuricemia due to excess nucleic acid turnover (ie cytotoxic therapy)

Neoplasms:
-Leukemias
-Lymphomas
For the following paraneoplastic syndrome, give the causes and associated neoplasms: Urate nephropathy
Cause: Hyperuricemia due to excess nucleic acid turnover (ie cytotoxic therapy)

Neoplasms:
-Leukemias
-Lymphomas
Primary tumors that metastasize to the brain
Lots of Bad Stuff Kills Glia

-Lung
-Breast
-Skin (melanoma)
-Kidney (renal cell carcinoma)
-GI
Primary tumors that metastasize to the liver
Cancer Sometimes Penetrates Benign Liver

By decreasing frequency:
-Colon
-Stomach
-Pancreas
-Breast
-Lung
Primary tumors that metastasize to bone
Primary Tumors Like Killing Bone

-Prostate (blastic)
-Thyroid/Testes
-Lung (Lytic)
-Kidney
-Breast (Both lytic and blastic)

Prostate and bone are most common
% of brain tumors from metastases
50%
% of liver tumors from metastases
Unspecified, but there are many more metastases than primary liver tumors
% of bone tumors from metastases
Unspecified, but there are many more metastases than primary bone tumors
Brain metastasis: Morphology
-Multiple
-Well circumscribed
-At gray/white border
Incidence and mortality in men of the following cancer: Prostate
Incidence: 32%
Mortality: 13%
Incidence in men of the following cancer: Lung
Incidence: 16%
Mortality: 33%
Incidence in men of the following cancer: Colon and rectum
Incidence: 12%
Mortality: Unspecified
Incidence and mortality in women of the following cancer: Breast
Incidence: 32%
Mortality: 18%
Incidence and mortality in women of the following cancer: Lung
Incidence: 13%
Mortality: 23%
Incidence and mortality in women of the following cancer: Colon and Rectum
Incidence: 13%
Mortality: Unspecified
Karyolysis (seen as nuclear fading indicating chromatin dissolution caused by action of DNAses and RNAses)
What process does the following cell demonstrate?
Pyknosis (nuclear shrinkage when DNA condenses into shrunken basophilic mass)
What process does the following cell demonstrate?
Karyorrhexis (nuclear fragmentation due to rupture of pyknotic nucleic membranes)
What process does the following cell demonstrate?
Normal cells, no hyperplasia or dysplasia
Stage of cancer progression
Hyperplasia, no dysplasia
Stage of cancer progression
Hyperplasia with mild dysplasia
Stage of cancer progression
Severe dysplasia AKA carcinoma in situ
Stage of cancer progression
Cancer, invasive
Stage of cancer progression
Type of necrosis found in: Heart
Coagulative
Type of necrosis found in: Liver
Coagulative
Type of necrosis found in: Kidney
Coagulative
Type of necrosis found in: Brain
Liquefactive
Type of necrosis found in: Tuberculosis
Caseous
Type of necrosis found in: Pancreas
Fat
Type of necrosis found in: Blood vessels
Fibrinoid
Type of necrosis found in: Limbs
Gangrenous
Type of necrosis found in: GI tract
Gangrenous