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87 Cards in this Set

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What causes a bicornuate uterus?
incomplete fusion of
Paramesonepheric ducts
Dx:

abnormal opening of penile urethra on inferior side of penis

Cause?
Hypospadias

cause:
failure of Urethral folds to close

[Hypospadias in Inferior - can see w/ penis held HI]
Dx:

abnormal opening of penile urethra on superior side of penis

Cause?
what is it assoc with?
Epispadias

cause:
bad positioning of Genital Tubercle

assoc w/: Extrophy of bladder

[Epispadias = Extrophy]
genotypic and gonadal female (XX) with ovaries but external genitalia is virilized or ambiguous

cause?
Female Pseudohermaphrodite

cause:
extra exposure to androgens during early gestation
genotypic and gonadal male (XY) with testis but external genitalia is female or ambiguous
(vagina that ends in blind pouch)

cause?
Male Pseudohermaphrodite

cause:
loss of androgen receptor function
Another name for Male pseudohermaphrodism
Androgen Insensitivity syndrome
Definition:

Both ovary and testicular tissue present (47,XXY)
True Hermaphrodite
Dx:

Ambiguous genitalia until puberty, when increase in testosterone causes masculinization
5-alpha reductase deficiency
Dx:

tight foreskin that is difficult to retract over glans penis
Phimosis
Definition:

subcutaneous fibrosis of the dorsum of the penis in older men
Peyronie Dz
Dx:

painless chancre
Syphillis
Definition:

a single erythematous plaque most often on the shaft of the penis or scrotum
Bowen Dz
Definition:

a single erythematous plaque most often on the glans penis or the prepuce
Erythroplasia of Queyrat
Dx:

Multiple wart-like lesions that histologically resemble Bowens and Queyrat
Bowenoid Papulosis
Dx:

developmental failure of the testis to descend into the scrotum
Cryptorchidism
where does the fluid of a Hydrocele fill?
Tunica Vaginalis
Definition:

malignant germ cell tumor presenting as painless enlargement of testis in 35 yo men; radiosensitive and poss Inc hCG
Seminoma
which testicular tumor is similar to a seminoma but at a younger age of onset?
Embryonal CA
Definition:

malignant germ cell tumor of testis that has a peak in infancy and early childhood; Inc alpha-fetoprotein
Enodermal sinus (Yolk Sac) tumor
difference b/t immature and mature teratoma
Immature:
resembles fetal tissue

Mature:
resembles adult tissue
Definition:

benign testicluar stromal tumor that can produce androgens and estrogens, contains Reinke crystals

seen in precocious puberty or gynecomastia
Leydig cell Tumor
Definition:

benign testicular stromal tumor that forms cord-like structures with minor endocrine abnormalities
Sertoli cell tumor
Definition:

testicular tumor w/ trophoblastic cells and villous structures resembling a placenta, malignant, hemorrhagic and Inc b-hCG
Choriocarcinoma
where in the prostate does Adenocarcinoma occur?
Peripheral zone (Posterior lobe) only
Dx:

pruitis and leukoplakia in the vulvar region
(name benign and precancerous)
Lichen Sclerosis
(benign)

Atypical hyperplastic dystrophy
(pre-CA)
Dx:

Benign papilloma caused by HPV; koilocytes

which HPV types?
Condyloma Acuminatum

(HPV 6 and 11)
Squamous cell CA on penis, vulva, cervix is assoc w/ which HPV?
(4)
16, 18, 31, 33
Dx:

in children younger then 5 yo, a "bunch of grapes" protruding from the vulva
Sarcoma Botryoides
Dx:

menstrual-related onset of pain in the entire pelvic area
Endometriosis
what amniotic fluid abnormality is a cause of anencephaly?
Polyhydraminos

(due to esophageal/duodenal atresia)
MC Uterine tumor

what is its size related to?
Leiomyoma

(Fibroid)

size: Estrogen secretion
(more at Preg, less at Menopause)
Dx:

abnormal endometrial gland proliferation due to excess estrogen; manifests as vaginal bleeding
Endometrial Hyperplasia
What do HPV viral proteins E6 and E7 bind to?
E6 = p53

E7 = Rb
Definition:

swelling of chorionic villi and proliferation of chorionic epithelium (trophoblast); high b-hCG; "honeycomb uterus" or "cluster of grapes" appearance
Hydatidiform mole
Dx:

46,XX and completely Paternal; without fetus
Complete Hydatidiform mole
Dx:

69,XXY (or tetraploidy); may contain fetal parts
Partial Hydatidiform mole
Dx:

pregnancy-induced HTN, proteinuria, and edema; HA, blurred vision, hyperreflexia, thrombocytopenia
Preeclampsia
Dx:

pregnancy-induced HTN, proteinuria, edema and seizures; HA, blurred vision, hyperreflexia, thrombocytopenia
Eclampsia
What pregnancy Dx presents as RUQ pain and HTN in 50% of patients?
HELLP syndrome
Tx for Eclampsia
(2)
IV magnesium sulfate

and

Diazepam
Dx:

premature separation of placenta w/ painful uterine bleeding (usu in 3rd trimester); fetal death; may be assoc w/ DIC
Abruptio Placentae
Dx:

defective decidual layer allows placenta to attach directly to myometrium; possibly due to previous c-section; may have massive hemorrhage post-delivery
Placenta Acreta
Dx:

attachment of placenta to lower uterine segment; may occlude cervical os; Painless bleeding in any trimester
Placenta Previa
Which CIN is considered carcinoma in situ?
CIN-3
what type of CA is assoc w/ cervix?

what is the Cause Of Death in 80% of patients?
Squamous cell CA

COD:
UREMIA due to local extension to compress ureters
Definition:

Endometriosis in the myometrium
Adenomyosis
MC GYN malignancy

what is presenting age range?
Endometrial CA

age: 55-65
Dx:

Bulky tumor w/ areas of necrosis and hemorrhage, typically arising de novo, may protrude from cervix and bleed
Leiomyosarcoma
Ovarian Cyst:

distention of unruptured graafian follicle; may be assoc w/ hyperestrinism and endometrial hyperplasia
Follicular cyst
Ovarian Cyst:

hemorrhage into persistent corpus luteum; mentrual irregularities
Corpus Luteum cyst
Ovarian Cyst:

bilateral, multiple, due to gonadotropin stimulation; can be assoc w/ choriocarcinoma or hydatidiform moles
Theca-Lutein cyst
Ovarian Cyst:

blood-containing cyst from ovarian endometriosis; varies w/ mentrual cycle
Chocolate cyst
Dx:

amenorrhea, infertility, obesity, hirsutism, multiple small follicular cysts

what hormone is in excess?
Polycystic Ovarian syndrome


Increased LH
Dx:

frequently bilateral, lined w/ fallopian tube-like epithelium, benign;
Serous Cystadenoma

(20% of ovarian tumors)
Dx:

frequently bilateral, malignant, w/ fallopian tube-like epithelium; 50% of ovarian tumors
Serous Cystadenocarcinoma
Dx:

multilocular cyst lined by mucus-secreting epithelium; benign
Mucinous Cystadenoma
Dx:

malignant tumor w/ mucus-secreting epithelium, can rupture producing multiple peritoneal tumor implants that produce mucinous material
Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma
Definition:

Rupture of a mucinous tumor that causes multiple peritoneal tumor implants, all producing large quantities of intraperitoneal mucinous material
Pseudomyxoma Peritonei
Dx:

benign ovarian tumor that resembles Bladder transitional epithelium
Brenner tumor

[Brenner = Bladder]
Dx:

Ovarian tumor w/ bundles of spindle-shaped fibroblasts

what cell does it originate from?
Ovarian Fibroma

(Thecal cell)
Dx:

Ovarian fibroma, ascites, hydrothorax
Meigs syndrome
Dx:

ovarian estrogen-secreting tumor causing precocious puberty in kids or endometrial hyperplasia in adults.

name and describe the characteristic cell
Granulosa cell tumor

Call-Exner bodies:
small follicles filled w/ eosinophilic secretions
Dx:

MC malignant germ cell tumor of the ovary; sheets of uniform cells w/ Inc hCG
Dysgerminoma


(Seminoma in man)
Dx:

aggressive malignancy in ovaries, produces alpha-fetoprotein, Schiller-Duval bodies
Endodermal Sinus (Yolk Sac) tumor
Dx:

rare, malignant ovarian tumor that can develop during pregnancy in mother or baby; large hyperchromatic syncytiotrophoblastic cells; high b-hCG
Choriocarcinoma
MC benign ovarian tumor

name and describe what it can contain?
Teratoma


Stuma Ovarii - functional thyroid tissue
In females, how does the Immature vs Mature teratoma differ from Males?
Females:

Immature - aggressively Malignant

Mature - Benign

(Men Mature are Malignant)
MC testicular CA in older men
Testicular lymphoma
Dx:

aggressive malignant neoplasm w/ Inc hCG and early spread to lungs; preceded by hydatidiform mole, abortion of ectopic or normal pregnancy
Gestational Choriocarcinoma

(more common then Ovarian type)
MC disorder of the breast b/t 25 - 50 yo

It may present w/ what characteristic?
Fibrocystic Dz


(Blue dome cyst)
Dx:

diffuse breast pain w/ fibrosis and multiple lesions bilaterally

what type has cellular atypia of small ducts w/ fibrosis?
Fibrocystic Dz

(Sclerosing Adenosis)
MC benign breast tumor in women < 25 yo
Fibroadenoma
Dx:

small, benign, firm, rubbery, painless, well-circuscribed lesion of breast
Fibroadenoma

(less then 25 yo)
Dx:

benign large bulky mass of connective tissue and cysts in breast; has "leaflike" projections
Cystosarcoma Phyllodes
Dx:

tumor of lactiferous duct, presenting w/ serous or bloody nipple discharge
Intraductal papilloma
What receptors are expressed in post-menopausal malignant CA of breast?
(2)
Overexpression of E2/P4 receptors

erb-B2 (HER-2)
MC place for Malignant breast CA
Upper, outer quadrant
Dx:

eczematous patches on nipple, characteristic large cells surrounded by clear halo area, invades epidermis, underlying ductal CA always present
Padget Dz of the Breast
Dx:

malignant breast CA w/ Lymphocytic infiltrate
Medullary CA
Dx:

multicentric or Bilateral breast CA w/ cells arranged in linear ("indian-file") fashion
Invasive Lobular CA

[Invasive Lobular = Indian Line]
Dx:

breast CA w/ lymphatic involvement of skin by underlying CA causing red, swollen and hot area on breast
Inflammatory CA
Dx:

tumor cells fill breast ducts resulting in necrosis and a cheese-like consistency
(2 names)
Intraductal CA in situ

(Comedocarcinoma)

[Cheesy Comedian]
Dx:

malignant breast CA w/ tumor cells in cords, islands and glands embedded in dense fibrous stroma; firm consistency
Invasive Ductal CA

(MC malignant Breast CA)
Dx:

clusters of neoplastic cells fill intralobular ductules and acini and don't pass BM, often metastasis to bilateral breast by time of initial Dx
Lobular CA in situ
Dx:

malignant breast CA w/ pools of extracellular mucus surrounding clusters of tumor cells; gelatinous consistency
Mucinous (Colloid) CA
Dx:

young adult w/ fever, vomiting and diarrhea, rapid pulse and hypotension, diffuse macular rash
Toxic Shock syndrome

(S. aureus)
what bug causes PID in combo w/ monoarticular arthritis?
Gonorrhea