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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Three key processes involved in memory
Encoding
Storage
Retrieval
Involves maintaining encoded information in memory over time.
Storage
Involes recovering information from memory stores.
Retrieval
Focusing awareness on a narrowed range of stimuli or events.
Attention
Linking a stimulus to other information at the time of encoding.
Elaboration
holds that memory is enhanced by forming semantic and visual codes, since either can lead to recall.
dual-coding theory
preserves information in its original form for a brief time, usually only a fraction of a second.
Sensory memory
Process involving the selective turning up of one kind of sensory input, while turning down the others.
Sensory Gating
involves focusing awareness on a narrow range of stimuli within one sensory channel.
Selective Attention
a limited-capacity store that can maintain unrehearsed information for up to about 20 seconds.
Short-term memory
the process of repetitively verbalizing or thinking about the information.
maintenance rehearsal
The removal of some information from working memory as new information comes in.
Displacement
a group of familiar stimuli stored as a single unit.
chunk
an unlimited capacity store that can hold information over lengthy periods of time.
Long-term memory
the tendency to remember similar or related items in groups
Clustering
consists of nodes representing concepts, joined together by pathways that link related concepts.
semantic network
the reappearance of an extinguished response after a period of nonexposure to the conditioned stimulus.
Spontaneous recovery
occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus responds in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original.
stimulus generalization
occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus does not respond in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus.
stimulus discrimination
Aquiring Operant Conditioning
-Continuous reinforcement
-Shaping
Maintaining Operant Conditioning
-Periodic Positive/Negative reinforcement
-Reinforcement Schedules
Stopping or modifying Operant conditioning
positive/negative punishment
extinction
Maintaining Classical Conditioning
Periodically pair UCS and CS
Stopping or modifying Classical Conditioning
Extinction
Counter Conditioning
Types of reinforcement schedules
Fixed Ratio
Variable Ratio
Fixed Interval
Variable Interval
occurs when an animal's innate response tendencies interfere with conditioning processes.
Instinctive drift
Acquiring observational learning
Attention
Retention
Reproduction
Motivation

Choosing a model
-Social Power
-Avoidance of punishment
-Vicarious Reinforcement
-Status Envy
-Secondary Reinforcer
-Similarity to Learner
maintaining observational learning
Reinforcement
-Direct
-Vicarious
-Intrinsic
Stopping or modifying observational learning
Provide new model

Punishment
-direct
-vicarious
Problem solving steps
1.Recognize and define the problem
2.Gather information relative to the problem
3.List possible solutions
4.Test possible solutions
5.Select the best solution
6.Implement the solution
Barriers in problem solving
1.ill defined problems
2.irrelevant information
3.functional fixedness
4.mental set
5.Anchoring
6.Unnecessary constraints
Ways to approach problems
incubation
brainstorming
forming subgoals
Possible outcomes in signal-detection theory.
Hit
Miss
Correct Rejection
False Alarm
Effective use of punishment
-Swift application
-consistency of punishment
-reduce of eliminate physical punishment
-explain the punishment
-alternative response available
-make punishment just severe enough to be effective
Elaborative Rehearsal techniques
Mnemonics
Context
Imagery
Meaning
Organization
Occurs when people forget information because of competition from other material.
Interference
A memory problem that occurs when previously learned information interferes with the retention of new information
proactive interference
A memory problem that occurs when new information impairs the retention of previously learned information.
Retroactive interference