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33 Cards in this Set

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"Neolithic Revolution"
Time period leading from Paleolithic to Neolithic Age. People transitioned from nomadic to more centralized living. Population increased a great deal.

Creation of
-Animal Husbandry
-Pottery for transportation and storage

Middle East - 8000BCE
China - 4000BCE
India - 3600BCE
Bronze Age
Refers to 3100-1200BCE, discovery of mixing tin and copper to make bronze.

-Growth of towns
-Creation of large urban centers
-Invention of smelting for tools and weapons
Birth of civilizations
-Technological, industrial, and social change.
-Long distance trade
-symbolic communication
Leader who conquered most of mesopotamia during 18th Century BCE. Wrote a famous set of laws that covered commerce, land tenure, and family life. Significant because these laws covered in detail many issues that had not been addressed by government yet in history
People who founded the first cities around the fourth millennium in Sumer. This was important because they were the first actual civilization in History.
Old Kingdom
The time period from 2700-2200 B.C.E. in which Egyptian civilization stepped on to the scene near the river Nile. This was important because it was the beginning of the Egyptian civilization.
A group that emerged as a major political power during the 14th Century. The first empire was short lived but the 2nd took over all of Mesopotamia, most of southern asia minor, Syria, Palestine, and Egypt. Was destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar.
A text from which we derive almost all of our knowledge about the Vedic Aryan civilization. It is believed to have been started orally around 1700 BCE and was passed down until written in 500 BCE. It is a religious work and not historical but it tells us a lot about the religion, society, and values of Aryan India.
(1766-1050) Chinese dynasty beginning in the broze age. Captured prisoners were enslaved. Believed in a supreme “Deity Above” and lesser Deities, sun, moon, earth, rain, wind, six clouds. Calendar month 30 days, 360 per year, adding a month occasionally. Kings possessed political, social and religious authority but were not divine. Practiced human sacrifice. A rigid hierarchy of classes. Very effective army with spears and compound bows.
(1050-771) A Chinese dynasty, conquered the Shang. Social hierarchy like the Shang. Blood or lineage ties were essential to their style of rule. Used Mandate of Heaven to legitimize their rule
Mandate of Heaven
1050 bce The Chou’s argument that “Heaven”(new name for Deity) was appalled by the wickedness of the last Shang king and placed the new Chou in charge. A way for the Chou to legitimize their rule.
(551-479 BCE)Believed the early Chou dynasty was ideal. Believed if everyone fulfilled their duties of their status, harmony would prevail. His concept of chun-tzu urged leaders to be “gentlemen” and positive examples for the people and the government should care for its’ people. His ideals were not adopted into Chinese philosophy until the Han dynasty(202BCE – 9CE).
Leading legalists were Han Fei-tzu and Li Ssu. Peace was found through having a strong state and central government. Laws should be severe and impartial. Strong system of rewards and punishments. Favored conscription and saw war as a way to extend state power. Hated merchants. Primary philosophy of the state of Ch’in which destroyed Chou in 256 BCE and unified China in 221 BCE. Many of the legal systems developed by this philosophy carried on in Dynastic China.
School of thought coming from the Lao-tzu.4th century BCE Believes knowledge is bad and people should not have desire. Ruling without action, being the “uncarved block” Leaders should act without acting. Every action has an opposite reaction and sets the universe off balance.
An idea brought by the Upanishads(800-500BCE) of an endless cycle of existence. It is the idea of endless re-death and suffering. The first solution was maximizing good deeds and minimizing bad ones creating good karma and good things. The second was seeking liberation from existence through, Moksha, doing nothing, good or bad.
Living a good life in accordance with the Dharma included. 1 Actions in the world of Samara are necessary and legitimate. 2 Acceptance of responsibilities appropriate to one’s sex, class, and caste group. 3 One’s duty is do good things to acquire merit for one’s atman.4 Rebirth in heaven is the highest goal.5 All achievement is subject to change.
Siddhartha Gautama
(566-486BCE) More commonly known as Buddha, was born into a wealthy family and abandoned it after seeing human suffering. He eventually gained spiritual enlightenment and taught it to the world through his idea of the middle path which held that 1 Dukkha(life) is suffering 2 the source of suffering is desiring 3 cessation of desire is the way to end suffering 4 Doing the right thing is the path to this end
(2nd Millennium) Came from Ur in southern Mesopotamia. Jews, Christians, and Muslims hold him as founder of their Monotheistic faiths. Made a special covenant with his unique God and promised to serve him only.
ethical monotheism
One of the main idea’s was that God was righteous and expected righteousness from human beings and their communities as opposed to blood offerings and empty prayers.
(late 2nd Millennium) Made a famous covenant with God that said his followers would follow his laws and God would protect them.
People who preached the word of God. Believed to be responsible for the consolidation of the Judaic religion. Promoted the 2 ideas which were central to Judaic Monotheism. 1. The history of a divine plan- Through their suffering God was going to spread his world and purify other nations. 2. God was a righteous God who expected righteousness from human beings.
Delian League
478-477 BCE An alliance amongst Greeks, led by Athens, to free Greeks under Persian rule, to protect against Persian return, and obtain compensation from Persians by attacking their lands and taking booty.
495-429 BCE Evolved Athens into the freest government the world had ever seen. Hoplite class was made eligible for archonship. Introduced pay for jury duty. Citizenship was sharply restricted to those with two citizen parents. All decisions of the state had to be approved by popular assembly. Every judicial decision was subject to appeal by a popular court.
Great Peloponnesian War
435BCE during the 30 year peace from the first Peloponnesian war. Peace ended after ten years. Sparta and Athens started fighting again. Eventually Sparta gained Persian support and Athens surrendered unconditionally in 404 BCE.
A religion started by Zoroaster in Iran around 1000BCE and dominated until Islam wiped it out around the 7th or 8th century CE. Monotheistic religion with ideas of moral reform very similar to Christianity. Probably had a great deal of influence on Jewish, Christian, and Muslim religions.
(469-399 BCE) taught through questioning. Discredited people with questioning and held contempt for democracy. He was executed for this.
(429-374BCE) a student of Socrates. Founded the Academy to train statesmen and citizens.
(384-322 BCE) Student of Plato at the Academy. Was a tutor to Alexander the Great. Proponent of common sense and empirical data
(272-232BCE) A Mauryan king in India, gained control of most of India except for the far south. Converted to the Buddhist religion and praised non-violence except in the pursuit of conquest by righteousness. Sent envoys to spread Buddhist teachings. Provided the model for an ideal king for later Hindu and Buddhist thought. His empire collapsed after his reign because it’s size was too large for effective administration.
Alexander the Great
(356-323BCE) The first son of Philip of Macedonia. Inherited his fathers stable empire and expanded it to conquer most of the ancient world. Died before he could really reap the benefits of his conquests but led the world in tremendous economic and social prosperity for about 75 years after his death.
Elected chief official in Rome. Elected by romans. Served for one year with no consecutive terms. Had power of imperium. Led the army. Served as judges. After their year would spend life in the senate.
Struggle of the Orders
The plebeian fight for political, legal, and social equality that lasted 200 years. In 450BCE published the Twelve Tables to codify Rome’s harsh customs. Gained plebeians: Right to marry patricians, offices of consul, dictator, censor, priesthoods. To pass laws in plebeian assembly without senate approval.
Punic Wars
1st(264-241BCE) Fought between Rome and Carthage over Sicily. The Carthaginians gave up after Rome blockaded its ports in 241BCE. 2nd(218-202BCE) Hannibal took control of Carthaginian forces in Spain. The Rome was allied with the Spanish town of Saguntum and agreed to protect them. Hannibal left Saguntum alone until it began to fight with Spanish tribes allied with Hannibal. He then besieged the town and Rome declared war. Hannibal defeated an 80000 man Roman army in 216BCE causing Rome to lose many of their allies to Hannibal. Publius Cornelius Scipio took control of the Roman army and defeated Hannibal forcing the Carthaginians to accept peace.
Tiberius Gracchus(168-133BCE) Became a tribune in 133BCE on the platform of land reform. Was strongly supported by the people but feared by the senate. When he announced his candidacy for a second term he and 300 of his followers were murdered by the senate and thrown into the Tiber river.
Gaius Gracchus(159-121BCE) brother of Tiberius. Elected in 123BCE. Had a the complete support of the tribune. Proposed to establish new colonies for landless veterans. Put through a law stabilizing the price of grain in Rome. He was reelected in 122BCE and aimed to give Roman citizenship to Italians. Common people didn’t like this idea and he was not reelected in 121BCE. The consul provoked an incident that led to violence. Senate declared martial law and had Gaius and 3000 of his followers killed.