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67 Cards in this Set

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The Federalists
An eloquent series of eight-five essays written to eliminate fears that the Constitution would so consolidate nation power as a menace to individual liberties.
Essays
Anti-Federalists
Opponents of the passage of the US Constitution as it was originally written. They wanted to ensure personal liberties by mandating that a Bill of Rights be added to the Constitution.
Personal Liberties
Federalists
Those who favored passage of the US Constitution as it was originally written.
Originally written
Judicial Review
Although not specifically granted by the US Constitution, the Supreme Court claimed this right to invalidate acts of Congress and the President it found to be Unconstitutional.
Unconstitutional
Great Compromise
Proposed by Roger Sherman of Connecticut, it gave us a bicameral legislature; and executive branch with 1 man in charge, and a judicial branch of government. To determine population, free residents would be counted as 1 while other persons would be counted as three-fifths.
bicameral legislature
New Jersey Plan
Drafted by William Patterson, it called for maintaining the Confederate Congress as is (one state, one vote) and furthur amended the Articles of Confederation by giving the National Government the explicit power to tax and to regulate domestic and foreign commerce.
One state, one vote
Virginia Plan
Drafted by James Madison, it called for a bicameral legislature (representation in both houses based upon population), an executive branch, and a judicial branch.
Representation in both houses upon population
Constitutional Convention
Was held in Philadelphia where 55 members met and created a new framework of government.
55 members
Annapolis Convention
In September 1786, delegates from several states met to devise a uniform system of commercial regulation for the country. While there, a group of nationalist leaders called on all states to send delegates to a convention at Philadelphia "to devise such furthur provisions as shall appear to them necessary to render the constitution of the Federal Government adequate to the exigencies of the Union."
Uniform system
Southwest Ordinance of 1790
A legislative act in which slavery was brought under national control and allowed slavery in a United States territory south of the Ohio River, a decision that would have grave consequences in the future sectionalization of the United States.
Allowed slavery where?
Northwest Ordinanace of 1787
The most significant legislative act of the Confederate Congress. It created a political structure for the territories and a phased process for achieving statehood that neatly blended public and private interests. It provided greater protection for property rights as well as a bill of right guaranteeing individual freedoms. Most significant, it prohibited slavery.
prohibited slavery
Land Ordinance of 1785
Stipulated that public lands by surveyed in a rectangular grid pattern before being offered for sale. It helped promote compact settlements and produced undisputed land titles. Became the backbone of the New England system of land settlement.
Backbond of the New England system of land settlement.
Shay's Rebellion
This occured in the fall of 1786 when farmers, who had petitioned the state legislators for economix relief during a time of heavy taxes and also when money was in short supply, request were rejected. Some 2,000 farmers took up arms against the state government as a result. When the Governer of the State of Massachusetts petitioned the national government to send the militia to help control the rebellion, the nation government could not react with any speed since it could not pay to create a militia. It was a major step towards a Constitutional Convention.
Farmers rebel
Bank of North America
The nation's 1st commercial bank. Its founder, Robert Morris wanted it to serve as a national institution and to be used to hold government funds, make loans to the government, and issue paper bank notes that could be used to settle debts and pay taxes owed to the United States.
To be used for 3 things
Nationalists
A loose bloc of congressman, army officers, and public creditors who wanted to strengthed the Confederation at the expense of the state. They were primarily concerned with the bleak economic outlook that had been present ever since 1780 when inflation was rampant, the Continental Army was going unpaid, and when the 2nd Continental Congress ceased paying interest on the public debt.
Made up of congressman, army officers, and public creditors.
Articles of Confederation
Created by the 2nd Continental Congress as a need to create a legal basis for a permanent union of the state. It was drafted by John Dickinson of Pennsylvania. It created a loose confederation of autonomous states which ultimately failed as it lacked some powers mecessary to run a National Government.
Stated "Each State retains its sovereignty, freedom, and independence, and every power, jurisdiction, and right, which is not by this confederation expressly delegated to the United States, in Congress assembled."
Bill of Rights
A group of amendments to State Constitutions which set explicit limits on the power of government to interfere in the lives of its citizens. The Virginia Declaration of Rights adopted in June 1776 set the precedent for this notable republican feature.
The Virginia Declaration of Rights
Natural Rights
The inherent human rights to life, liberty, and human freedom. It was a commitment which was one of the principles of the American Revolution.
Three rights
Sufferage
The right to vote
you know this one
Peace of Paris
The treaty that ended the Revolutionary War. It gave the US everything it asked for except for Canada, which it really didn't want in the first place. It created a new national border with everything east of the Mississippi River (except for Spanish Florida) and south of the Canadian border.
Didn't really want Canada
Valley Forge
Washington and his men spent a winter at the location. Washington lost 2,500 of his men from either hypothermia, disease, or starvation. It was during this winter that Washington, with the help of General von Stueben, transformed the Continental Army into a disciplined professional army.
Spent a winter here.
Battle of Yorktown
Place where General Cornwallis surrendered his army to members of the Continental Army.
surrender
Hessians
American term for German mercenaries employed by the British.
Term for who?
Brown Bess
The weapon most British soldiers carried. With a bayonet attached, it was almost 6 feet long and weighed of 16 pounds. It fired a lead ball slightly more than 1/2 inch in diameter which was capable of hitting its target at up to 100 yards away.
Weapon
Republicanism
A complex, changing body of ideas, values, ad assumptions that was derived from the political ideas of classicla antiquity, Renaissance Europe, and early Modern England. It holds that self-government by the citizens of a country, or their representatives, provides more reliable foundation for a good society and individual freedom rather than rule by Kings.
3 things derived from 3 things
Contract Theory of Government
That political theory that lies behind the Declaration of Independence. it was developed by 17th century English philosopher John Locke and others. It maintains that legitimate government rests on an agreement between the people and their rulers and that people are bound to obey their rules only so long as the rulers offer them protection.
political theory
Declaration of Indepence
Formally passed on July 4th, 1776, it is the document that stated that the American colonies break away from the British government to form their own country. The 2nd Continental Congress intended it to be a justification for American's secession from the British Empire.
you know this one
George Washington
Appointed as the Commander and Chief of the newly created and named Continental Army. He served in this position through the Revolutionary War and resigned his commission after the formal end of the war.
Commander and Chief of what?
Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms
Passed by the 2nd Continental Congress which asserted the resolve of American patriots "to die freeman, rather than to live as slaves."
"To die ____, rather than to ______"
Olive Branch Petition
Passed by the 2nd Continental Congress which asked the king to protect his American subjects from the military actions ordered by Parliament. This was a compromise as many in the Congress did not wish to formally declare themselves independent but to deny Parliament's claim to govern the colonies.
Asked the king what?
Second Continental Congress
Convened in Philadelphia, they would govern the colonies from the beginning of the Revolutionary War until the passage of the Articles of Confederation in 1781.
Named Washington as commander and chief.
Battles of Lexington and Concord
The start of the Revolutionary War. It began when a British major ordered the colonial militia to disperse. Upon hearing a shot, the British army unleashed a volley of bullets towards the militia killing 18 Americans. Eventually, the Americans would flank the British amry and kill or wound 273 British soldiers while suffering 100 casualties themselves.
Start of the ______ War.
Conciliatory Proposition
Formulated by Prime Minister Lord North as a gesture of appeasement. In it, Britian pledged not to tax the colonies if they would voluntarily contribute to the defense of the empire. However, British authorities would decide what would be a sufficient contribution therefore maintaining Parliament and Britian as sovereign over the colonies.
Voluntary Contribution
Minute Men
Members of the militia who were to be ready at "a minute's warning in case of an alarm."
Chello!
Committee of Safety
Called for by the provisional assembly of Massachusetts, it appointed this emergency Executive body which would be led by John Hancock. They began to stockpile weapons and organize militia volunteers.
Began to stockpile what?
Tories
A term which was first used in the months before the American Revolution to refer to advocates sympathetic to the King and to stay loyal to Great Britian.
On British side
Whigs
A term which was first used in the months before the American Revolution to refer to advocated of colonial rights.
pro american independence
Continental Association
Created by the Continental Congress to organize and enforce sanctions against the British. As a first step, they asked Americans to cut off imports from Britian, and if the dispute with Britian wasn't resolved, it called for barring most exports to Britian and the West Indies.
Cut off imports from where?
Suffolk Resolves
A strongly worded resolve which denounced the Coercive Acts as unconstitutional advised the people to arm, and called for general economic sanctions against Britian.
Upon learning of them, one British official told an American "If these Resolves of your people are to be depended on, they have declared way against us."
Intolerable Acts
A term used by the colonists in referring to both the Coercive Acts ad the Quebec Act.
Term for what 2 acts?
Quebec Act
A statute that enlarged the boundaries of Quebec south to the Ohio River and stipulated that it be governed by an appointed governer and council but no elected assembly. It also provided for the trial of civil cases without a jury and gave the Catholic Church the same priviledges that it had enjoyed under the French.
Enlarged the boundries of what?
Coercive Acts
A series of repressive measures passed after the Boston Tea Party. 1- Boston Port Act which closed the Port of Boston. 2- Administration of Justice Act which stated that a British official who killed a colonist in the lin eof duty would be tried in England. 3- Massachusetts Government Act which limited the number of town meetings that could be held with the governer's prior approval. 4- Quartering Act which declared that the troops under the command of General Thomas Gage could lodge his troops in any uninhabited building.
4 repressive acts passed
Boston Tea Party
Occured after a pre-arranged signal was delivered to Samuel Adams. A well organized band of men disguised as Indians raced aboard the Dartmouth and two other tea ships and broke 342 chests of tea and heaved the contents into the harbor.
Happened after the delivering of the line "Could do nothing more to perserve the liberties of America"
Thomas Hutchinson
Royal appointed governer of Massachusetts who refused to bow to pressure from the Sons of Liberty to keep Boston supplied with tea. His action led to the Boston Tea Party.
His action led to the Boston Tea Party.
Tea Act of 1773
This was an act to help save the British East India Company from bankruptcy. It permitted the company to ship tea from its warehouse in Britian without paying the duty normally collected there making its tea cheaper than its American counterpart.
Helped save this company from going bankrupt.
Committees of Correspondence
Incidents such as the Boston Massacre and the threat by the British to send American leaders to resolve to keep one another informed about actions by the British by establishing these groups to keep one another resolved.
Establishing these groups for what?
Crispus Attucks
A half-indian, half-Negro who died during the Boston Massacre. He is now the most celebrated casualty of the incident.
He is now the most celebrated casualty of the incident.
Boston Massacre
Occurred when British troops fired on American civilians in Boston. It was a result from months of increasing friction between townspeople and the British troops stationed in the city. 5 men died. To preserve order, British troops vacated the city.
Why did this happen?
Lord North
Appointed by King George III to position of Prime Minister of Great Britian who was going to suggest the repeal of the Townshend Duty Act. All of the duties were repealed except for the duty on tea which was left to continue the assertion that Parliament had the right to tax the colonies.
He would retain his position of this through the American Revolution.
Townshend Duty Act
The legislation was intended to help pay the cost of government in America. It imposed new duties which colonists in the past were willing to accept unlike the direct taxes such as the Stamp Tax. To make sure the duties were collected, British authorities added new board of custom commissioners for America and located its headquarters in Boston. However, most colonists felt that by bypassing their representative assemblies, this legislation threatened to undermine their authority.
Intended to help pay costs of what?
Regulators
Vigilante groups that emerged in North Carolina in response to official corruption and in South Carolina in response to lawlessness.
Groups that responded to what?
Declaratory Act
This act what passed after the repeal of Stamp Act to make Parliament's retreat more acceptable to its members, this act stated that Parliament had the right to "legislate for the colonies in all cases whatsoever."
This act stated that Parliament had the right to "legislate for the colonies in all cases whatsoever."
Declaration of Rights and Grievances
Adopted by the Stamp Act Congress, it denied Parliament's right to tax the colonies and petitioned both king and Parliament to repeal the Stamp and Sugar Acts. Parliament was unwilling to acknowledge this challenge to its authority and refused to recieve the colonial petitions.
Denied Parliament's right to do what?
Stamp Act Congress
Included the representation from nine colonies to discuss the current situation in regards to the taxation policies placed upon the colonies by the British Parliament.
Discussed what?
Sons of Liberty
A collection of loosely organized protest groups who put pressure on stamp distributors and British authorities in the colonies.
A collection of groups who did what?
Nonimportation Movement
This began as the colonies assemblies passed resolutions flatly maintaining that any parliamentary tax on America was unconstitutional. Therefore, New York merchants joined with boston artisans and merchants and organized a formal boycott of British manufactured goods.
Said parliamentary tax was what?
Writs of Assistance
General search warrants which gave customs officials in America the power to inspect virtually any building suspected of holding smuggled goods which had to be renewed at the accession of a new monarch.
Warrants giving officials what power?
British Constitution
This is not a single written document, but an accumulated body of English law and custom, including acts of Parliament.
An accumulated body of what?
Stamp Act
This legislation passed by the British Parliament required all valid legal documents, as well as newpapers, playing cards, and various other papers, to bear a government-issued stamp, for which their was a charge. It was the first internal tax that Parliament imposed on the colonies.
It was the first internal tax that Parliament imposed on the colonies.
Sugar Act
Also know was the American Revenue Act. It was passed by the British Parliament whose main purpose was "for improving the revenue of this kingdom." This along with accompanying legislation combined new and revised duties on colonial imports with strict provisions for collecting these impositions. It lengthened the list of enumerated products and required that ships carry elaborate new documents certifying the legality of their cargoes.
It was passed by the British Parliament whose main purpose was "for improving the revenue of this kingdom."
Currency Act of 1764
An act passed by British Parliament prhibiting all colonies from printing their own legal tender paper money. This was done during an economic recession so it was considered by most colonists especially burdensome attempt to furthur curtail their assemblies powers'.
This was done during an economic recession so it was considered by most colonists especially burdensome attempt to furthur curtail their assemblies powers'.
Parson's Cause
Anglican ministers were drawing tax-supported salaries computed in pounds of tobacco. However, a drought caused prices of tobacco to skyrocket. The Virginia house of Burgess acted by restricting their payment to two pennies a pound (Two Penny Act) below the value of the tobacco that backed their salaries. The clergy successfully lobbies the king to disallow the Two Penny Act. Some took note of the King's decision including Patrick Henry who declared that a king who cetoed beneficial acts became a tyrant and thereby forfeited "all rights to his subjects' obedience."
Some took note of the King's decision including Patrick Henry who declared that a king who cetoed beneficial acts became a tyrant and thereby forfeited "all rights to his subjects' obedience."
Cherokee War
This conflict began when a group of Native Americans, who had been siding with the British in the French and Indian War, stole horses belonging to Virginia colonies. Eventually, the Natives would capture Fort Loudon in Eastern Tennessee. The conclusion of this war was victory for the combined British and Colonial forces with these Native Americans being forced to surrender some of their lands in the Carolinas and Virginia.
The conclusion of this war was victory for the combined British and Colonial forces with these Native Americans being forced to surrender some of their lands in the Carolinas and Virginia.
Pontiac's Rebellion
Upon the French losing the French and Indian War, eight tribes united and attacked both British forces and American settlers from the Great Lakes area all the way to Virginia. Concluded with the Native Americans forced to give up some of their lands in the Ohio Valley and Great Lakes area. However, the Nation Americans were guaranteed their traditional hunting grounds in the Ohio Valley.
Concluded with the Native Americans forced to give up some of their lands in the Ohio Valley and Great Lakes area.
Quartering Acts
This law required colonial assemblies to provide barracks and certain supplies tp British soldiers stationed in the colonies.
Required colonial assemblies to do what?
Proclamation Line
This was drawn through the Appalachain Mountains which forbid white settlement west of it. It would help keep whites and Native Americans apart and would hold colonists closer to the coast where it would be easier for Great Britian to control.
Drawn to do what?
Proclamation of 1763
A step taken by the British government which established civilian governments in East and West Florida.
Established governments where?