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46 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Federalists
Followed Hamilton's ideas. Admired British society and government. Believed in a strong central government.
Democratic Republicans
Led by Thomas Jefferson. Believed that common people should have a part in running the government. Did not like the idea of a strong central government.
Contributions of Alexander Hamilton.
National Bank
Leader of the Federalist Party
Policy of Neutrality
Not taking sides in political disagreements. The United States decided not to choose sides in European affairs.
Elastic Clause/Implied Power
Power of the federal government that is not directly stated in the Constitution. For example, the federal government's establishment of the national banking system is not stated in the constitution.
Marbury v. Madison
Supreme Court case that established the concept of judicial review.
Nationalism
A feeling of pride in one's country. After the War of 1812, the Americans began to feel a sense of unity as one nation.
Louisiana Purchase
An action in which the United States bought the land around the Mississippi River from France.
Manifest Destiny
Belief that God has given the right to do something. The Americans believed that they could expand towards the west because God had given them the right.
Monroe Doctrine
Policy that stated the United States would stay neutral with European affairs and that Europe couldn't interfere in American affairs. Also stopped the Europeans from further colonization in Americas.
Annexation, Cession
To add land.
Assignment of territory by one state or government to another. The territory of a foreign government gained by the transfer of sovereignty.
Sectionalism
Loyalty to a region (State), rather than the nation (country). Slavery was a big issued that separated the North from the South.
Missouri Compromise
Agreement that allowed Maine to join the US as a free state, while Missouri joined as a slave state.
Compromise of 1850
California became part of the US as a free state. Also established tougher laws on runaway slaves.
Fugitive Slave Law
A law that required the return of runaway slaves to their owner.
Kansas-Nebraska Act
Went against the Missouri Compromise. Allowed popular sovereignty to determine the slave policy for the states of Kansas and Nebraska.
Popular Sovereignty
Individual people choose. The policy that the population has the power.
Abolitionists
Group of people who wanted to end slavery in the United States. Frederick Douglass was a famous African American who belonged to this group.
Dred Scott v. Sanford
Supreme Court case in which a slave sued his owner, claiming he was free because he had lived in a free state. The Supreme Court finally decided that slaves were not protected under the constitution.
Election of 1860
Abraham Lincoln wins due to the conflict of interest between states.
Homestead Act
The government was giving a lot of land to people for a low price. It encouraged people to move west.
Mayflower Compact
An agreement made by the Pilgrims that were going to the “new world” (American colony) in which they created a government.
Mercantilism
Economic system of establishing a balance of trade. Countries would take the raw material from their colonies instead of having to buy them from other countries. For example: England could get lumber from their colonies in the Americas instead of purchasing it from another country.
House of Burgesses
The first representative body in the American colonies that established rules and made laws.
Townshend Act
Laws that enforced taxes on the colonies for goods imported from Britain.
Articles of Confederation
The document that outlined the government of America.
Stamp Act
The first tax imposed on the colonists that required a “stamp” on certain documents and packages.
Declaration of Independence
The document written in 1776 that declared the colonies independent from Britain.
Bill of Rights
The first 10 amendments of the American Constitution which outlines the basic rights of the people.
Common Sense by Thomas Paine
A pamphlet that justified the reasons for the colonies to become independent from Great Britain.
Boston Tea Party
The colonist protest against the Tea Act by dumping tea into the Boston Harbor.
Boston Massacre
Boston colonists fight against British soldiers in which 5 colonists died.
Loyalists
Colonist who were loyal to Great Britain during the American Revolution.
Patriots
Colonists that supported independence from Great Britain.
3/5’s compromise
A compromise to establish the representation of states that each slave would count as three fifths of a person.
Judicial
Branch of government which interprets laws and the Constitution. Includes the Supreme Court.
Legislative
Branch of government which makes laws. This branch includes Congress (House of Representatives and Senate).
Executive
Branch of government that enforces the laws. This branch includes the President.
Nullification
A state considering a law unconstitutional by saying it has no force or power.
Judicial Review
Supreme Court’s power to declare something unconstitutional.
Checks and Balances
Prevents any branch of government from having too much power by establishing a system that each branch is “checked” by another.
Ratification
Approval of the Constitution, or an amendment, by the states.
Emancipation Proclamation
The declaration from President Abraham Lincoln which freed the slaves.
Reconstruction
The rebuilding of the South after the American Civil War.
Seneca Falls Convention
A women’s rights convention established by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott which called for the equality of women.
Secession
Withdrawal of a state from the Union. Leading up to the Civil War, Southern states threatened to separate and become a separate nation apart from America.