Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/113

Click to flip

113 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
What were the motivations for colonizations?
- looking for wealth
- looking for new work opportunities
- looking for land
- looking for natural resources
- religious freedom
- indentured serivitude
What were people lacking in Europe?
What kind of relationship did each colony have with the native people?
New England - fairly good relationship - not a whole lot of contact
Middle Colonies -
Southern Colonies - Bad relationship with natives, exmaple is Bacon's Rebellion
New England
Middle Colonies
Southern Colonies
Headright System
Virginia company's policy of granting 50 acres of land to each settler and each family member who accompanied him. Ploy to make more money for the Company.
Head right to America and get 50 acres of land.
Puritans & predestination
members of a group that wanted to elminate all traces of Roman Catholic rituals and traditons in the Church of England. They settled in Massachusetts Bay Colony and CT. Belived they were chosen at brith to go to heaven.
want to purify Church of England.
Pilgrims
Came over on the Mayflower seeking religious freedom. Settled in Plymouth, MA. Wrote the Mayflower Compact - has democratic principals.
Mayflower
William Penn
Founded Pennsylvania as a haven for the Quakers.
Pennsylvania
Roger Williams
Founded RI for religious freedom.
College named after him in Bristol, RI
John Winthrop & "City on the Hill"
Religious leader who founds Massachusetts Bay Colony. Lays out plan in sermon to create a utopian society.
Religious leader/ Boston
Southern business pursuits vs. those in the North
South: farming, cash crops (indigo, rice, cotton)
North: religious freedom
South: single men
North: families
Glorious Revolution
The transfer of the British Monarchy from James II to William and Mary in 1688-1689. Positive Change in Colonies.
Good Change. William and Mary University
mercantilism
Economic system in which nations seek to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and establishing a favorable balance of trade. GB uses this to theory to make the most money possible from the colonies.
Merchant buys and sells things.
French and Indian War
conflict in NA lasting from 1754 - 1763 that was part of world wode struggle between France and Britain that ended in the defeat of France and the transfer of French Canada to Britain. Causes Britain to begin taxing the Colonies to make back money spent to defend colonies in this war.
The French actually fought GB and Colonies...leads to American Revolution
Enlightenment
18th Century intelletual movement that emphasised the use of reason and the scientific method as means of obtaining knowledge. Movement away from religion in the North.
Science made the light bulb possible
Sugar Act
stricter enforcement of trade regulations
reduce stealing
Stamp Act
tax on printed materials and legal document
goods were taxed
Intolerable Acts
British response to Boston Tea Party, intended to punish Boston
Boston Tea Party
dumping of 18,000 pounds of tea into Boston Harbor by colonists in 1733 to protest the Tea Act
Townshend Acts
establishing indirect taxes on goods imported from Britain by the British colonies in North America
Loyalists
colonists who supported the British government during the American Revolution
Shay's Rebellion
an uprising of debt-ridden Massachusetts farmers protesting increased state taxes in 1787
John Locke and his views of good government
Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of happiness(property)
Bandwagon
The "bandwagon" approach encourages you to think that because everyone else is doing something, you should do it too, or you'll be left out. The technique embodies a "keeping up with the Joneses" philosophy.
Name calling
This techniques consists of attaching a negative label to a person or a thing. People engage in this type of behavior when they are trying to avoid supporting their own opinion with facts. Rather than explain what they believe in, they prefer to try to tear their opponent down.
Testimonial
This technique is easy to understand. It is when "big name" personalities are used to endorse a product. Whenever you see someone famous endorsing a product, ask yourself how much that person knows about the product, and what he or she stands to gain by promoting it.
Plain Folks
This technique uses a folksy approach to convince us to support someone or something. These ads depict people with ordinary looks doing ordinary activities.
Glittering Generalities
This technique uses important-sounding "glad words" that have little or no real meaning. These words are used in general statements that cannot be proved or disproved. Words like "good," "honest," "fair," and "best" are examples of "glad" words.
Transfer
In this technique, an attempt is made to transfer the prestige of a positive symbol to a person or an idea. For example, using the American flag as a backdrop for a political event makes the implication that the event is patriotic in the best interest of the U.S.
grievances in declaration of independence
complaints of the king's tyranical actions that forced his american subjects to rebel
Battle of Saratoga
Britain's attempt to isolate New England from the rest of the colonies, but were surrounded by American troops and forced to surrender in Saratoga
Why did the British lose the war?
troops were outnumbered by 2 to 1, exhausted from constant shelling, cornwallis finally surrendered.
Foreign Aid for Americans
the French suggested that the American and French armies unite then attack British army at Yorktown
Articles of Confederation
a new type of government in a set of laws in which 2 levels of government shared fundamental powers
Constitutional Convention
a meeting of state deligates to discuss issues of interstate trade
The Virginia Plan
representation by population
the New Jersey Plan
each state has an equal vote
the Great Compromise
equal representation in the senate, but the population of each state would determine the representation in the house of representative
the Federalist Papers
a series of 85 essays defending the constitution. provided an analysis and explanation of constitutional provisions
Article 1: legislative branch
senate, house of representatives, congress. make laws
Article 2: executive branch
president. carry out laws
Article 3: judicial branch
supreme court. interpret the law
elastic clause
it can be used to expand the powers of Congress to fit appropriate situations
supremacy clause
everyone must follow federal law in the face of conflicting state law
Amendment 1
religious and political freedom
Amendment 4
search and seizure. you cant search without a warrant and a good reason
Amendment 5
right to remain silent
Amendment 6
right to speedy and public trial
Amendment 8
no cruel and unusual punishments
Amendment 9
basic human rights
Amendment 10
unlisted powers for people and states
electoral college
group of electors chosen by the states would cast ballots for the candidates
Whiskey Rebellion
Hamilton put a high excise tax on whiskey in an attempt to pay off the nation's debt. settlers in Pennsylvania rebelled and tested the new government
Washington DC strict vs. loose construction
jefferson- what it did not permit it forbade
hamilton- what it did not forbid it permitted
Federalism
a political system in which a national government and constituent units, such as state governments, shared power
Jeffersonian ideas
-economy based on farming
-fear of absolute power or ruler
-national bank unconstitutional
Hamiltonian ideas
-fear of mob rule
-national bank constitutional
-economy based on shipping and manufacturing
Republican party
those who believed in Jefferson's vision of a strong state government
Federalist party
those who believed in Hamilton's vision of a strong central government
Alien and Sedition Acts
raised the residents requirement for American citizenship from 5 years to 14 years. allowed the president to report or jail any alien considered undesirable.
Virginia and Kentucky resolutions
virginia and Kentucky claimed the right to declare null and void federal laws going beyond powers granted by the constitution to the federal goverment
marbury vs. madison
madison was supposed to deliver papers to marbury but the judiciary act of 1789 required the supreme court order that the papers be delivered. marbury sued to enforce this provision.
Louisiana Purchase
Jefferson bought the land from France for 15 million dollars from the land drained by the western tributaries of the mississippi river.
War Hawks
members of Congress who favored war with Britain in the early years of the 19th century
War of 1812
war broke out again between the United States and Britain. US won
industrial North vs. Agrarian South
-north depended upon shipping and foreign trade for income
-south depended on cash crops
Capitalism
an economic system in which private individuals and corporations control the means of production and use them to earn profit
Eli Whitney
invented the cotton gin
cotton gin
made it possible for farmers to grow short, stable cotton for a profit
Slater's Mill
established the first successful mechanized textile factory in America
mass production
the production of goods in large quantities
changes in who votes
you didn't need to own land to vote so many common and poor people had the opportunity to vote
Egalitarian gains
when Jackson gained presidency, the common people had more equal rights
nullification
a state's refusal to recognize an act of congress that is considered unconstitutional
secession
the formal withdrawal of a state from the union
industrial North vs. Agrarian South
-north depended upon shipping and foreign trade for income
-south depended on cash crops
Capitalism
an economic system in which private individuals and corporations control the means of production and use them to earn profit
Eli Whitney
invented the cotton gin
cotton gin
made it possible for farmers to grow short, stable cotton for a profit
Slater's Mill
established the first successful mechanized textile factory in America
mass production
the production of goods in large quantities
changes in who votes
you didn't need to own land to vote so many common and poor people had the opportunity to vote
Egalitarian gains
when Jackson gained presidency, the common people had more equal rights
nullification
a state's refusal to recognize an act of congress that is considered unconstitutional
secession
the formal withdrawal of a state from the union
industrial North vs. Agrarian South
-north depended upon shipping and foreign trade for income
-south depended on cash crops
Capitalism
an economic system in which private individuals and corporations control the means of production and use them to earn profit
Eli Whitney
invented the cotton gin
cotton gin
made it possible for farmers to grow short, stable cotton for a profit
Slater's Mill
established the first successful mechanized textile factory in America
mass production
the production of goods in large quantities
changes in who votes
you didn't need to own land to vote so many common and poor people had the opportunity to vote
Egalitarian gains
when Jackson gained presidency, the common people had more equal rights
nullification
a state's refusal to recognize an act of congress that is considered unconstitutional
secession
the formal withdrawal of a state from the union
The American System
a plan to unify the nation and create a strong, stable economy that would make the nation self sufficient
Indian Removal Act
the federal government provided funds to negotiate treaties that would force native americans to move west
Jackson's legacy
Martin Van Buren
sectionalism
the placing of the interests of one's own region ahead of the interest's of the nation as a whole
John C. Calhoun
Jackson's vice president, supported the south. pro slavery.
Tariff of Abomination
the south had to buy their goods from the north which was more expensive, giving the north an advantage
Southern justifications for slavery
it was in the bible and it was what the economy was built off of
Nat Turner's Rebellion
a slave who gathered up 80 followers and attacked 4 plantations and killed 40 white inhabitants
Second great awakening
much of the impulse toward reform was rooted in the revivals of the broad religious movement that swept the United States after 1790
manifest destiny
the 19th century belief that the United States would inevitably expand westwardto the spacific ocean and into the mexican territory
class system in the south
-wealthy plantation owners
-common people: small farmers, plantation farm hands
-slaves
missouri compromise
a series of agreements passed by Congress in 1820-1821 to maintain the balance of power between slave states and free states
Clay's compromise/compromise of 1850
- California admitted as a free state
-Utah and New Mexico territories decide about slavery
-Texas-New Mexico boundary dispute resolved; Texas paid $10 million by federal government
-the sale of slaves banned in the District of Columbia. But slavery itself may continue there.
-Fugitive Slave Act required people in the free states to help capture and return escaped slaves.
Fugitive Slave Act
a law enacted as part of the Compromise of 1850, designed to ensure that escaped slaves would be returned into bondage
Kansas-Nebraska Act
in 1854 and it repealed the Missouri compromise. allowed settlers to accept or reject slavery by popular sovereignty. led to the formation of the Republican party.
John Brown
abolitionist. he's crazy. he believed that god sent him to earth to abolish slavery. involved in bleeding kansas and the raid on Harper's ferry. he and a couple of slaves went into the town of harper's ferry and tried to steal all of the weapons but he was caught and hanged for treason.
popular sovereignty
individual states decide wether or not slavery is allowed
bleeding kansas
kansas had popular sovereignty. pro/anti slavery states went to kansas to try and influence the vote and each side got into fights and over 300 people died.
Republican Party
opposed to the extension of slavery in the western territories. weren't pro or anti slavery, they just didn't want to see it spreading.
Abraham Lincoln
Republican. elected in 1860, South Carolina suceed from the union.