Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

250 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
In the Supreme Court case US vs. Schenck, what law did Schenck break?
Sedition Act
In the Supreme Court case US vs. Schenck, what constitutional amendment most pertains to this law?
1st Amendment- Free Speech and Free Press
Identify and explain Oliver Wendall Holmes reasoning in upholding the 1st Amendment.
Oliver Wendall Holmes said that freedom of speech and press should be limited during war times. His doctrine included that free press should be limited in "clear and present danger".
Causes of WWI
desire for revenge; economic competition; increased defense spending; alliances designed to prevent war; intense nationalism; naval arms race; imperialism
What happened to German-Americans during WWI?
The German language wasn't taught in schools, books and music by German authors and composers was destroyed, and they lost their jobs
African-American soldiers were:
segregated from white units
The War Industries Board helped the war effort by:
making sure that raw materials were distrubited to the production of war
What caused widespread starvation in Germany during WWI?
the British blockade
Results of WWI
first Communist country in the world; US opposition to the League of Nations; WWII; end of several monarchies; the beginning of the Great Depression; inflation in Germany; women winning the right to vote in the US
German king
German submarines
Wilson's 14 Points
Wilson's plan to end the war
Committee on Public Information
The people who decided what the US should know and what it shouldn't know about the war
payments to losing counties of a war
War Guilt Clause
said that Germany must take sole responsibility for WWI; part of the Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles
US, France, and Great Britain's meeting at Versailles to end WWI
League of Nations
team of national leaders who would make treaties to stop wars and make peace
Russian emperor
Big Four
Wilson, Lloyd George, Orlando, and Clemenceau; The people who decided the Treaty of Versailles
Jeanette Rankin
first female in Congress; opposed WWI
Francis Ferdinand
was killed by a Serbian nationalist in Sarajevo; his assassination was a key factor in the start of WWI; archduke of Austria-Hungary
John Pershing
led the American Expeditiary Force
Herbert Hoover
leader of the Ford Administration
Alvin York
war hero who killed many Germans, but iroincally had started out as a conscientious objector
Which side won WWI
When did WWI end?
11th hour, 11th day, 11th months 1918
France, Italy, Russia, United States
Central Powers
Germany, Ottoman Empire, Austria-Hungary
Countries created because of WWI
Poland, Czecholslovakia
Countries that lost land because of WWI
Germany, Ottoman Empire, Russia, Austria-Hungary
Ten factors that contributed to WWI being much more terrible than previous wars
flamethrowers, tanks, poison gas, trench warfare, zeppelins, u-boats, Big Bertha, air warfare, Spanish Flu, machine guns
Reasons the Treaty of Versailles was never ratified
US thought that it would lead to another war; Wilson did not bring Republicans to Versailles; it was a partisan issue; it would overrule the Monroe Doctrine
"You provide the pictures, I'll provide the war"
William Randolph Hearst
"I took the Canal and let Congress debate"
Theodore Roosevelt
"Chronic wrongdoing may ultimately require intervention by some civilized nation, and in the Western Hemisphere the adherence of the United States to the Monroe Doctrine may force the United States however reluctantly to the exercise of an international police force"
Theodore Roosevelt
"Hawaii for Hawaiians"
Queen Lilukalani
Countries created because of WWI
Poland, Czecholslovakia
" once more shows what McKinley is: a weak and a bidder for the admiration of the crowd"
De Lome
"I walked the floor of the White House night after night...I went down on my knees and prayed Almighty God for light and guidance...I don't know how it was, but it came...there was nothing left for us to do, but to take them all, and to educate the Filipinos, and uplift and Christianize them, and by God's grace do the very best we could by them, as our fellow-men for whom Christ also died"
Native-American Mexican called the "Robin Hood" of Mexico
Son of missionaries who became a wealthy landowner in Hawaii that advocated US takeover
Carlos Finlay
a doctor that discovered the relationship between the mosquito and yellow fever
What nation tried and fafiled to build the Panama Canal?
Some Latin Americans resented the foreign policy of President T. Roosevelt because he:
intervened in Latin America
The US favored the building of a canal across Panama because a canal would:
reduce shipping costs on routes that linked the Atlantic and Pacific oceans
Puerto Rico eventually became:
a self-governing commonwealth
The US sent troops to Mexico in 1916 because
Pancho Villa attacked an American town
The Boxer Rebellion was:
a Chinese revolt against foreigners
One of the problems the US had to deal with after the Spanish-American War had to do with Emilo Aguinaldo in the Phillippines. What was this problem?
a revolution against US rule
Which of the folowing was not a part of the Treaty of Paris of 1898?
Hawaii became a part of the US
Aflred Thayer Mahan wrote which of the following books?
The Influence of Sea Power in History
After the Spanish-American War the Platt Amendment was passed. This amendment granted the US the right to send soldiers in to what area whenever citizens of that area were threatened?
Who was responsible for the removal of Queen Liliuokalani from leadership in the Hawaiian islands?
white landowners
What were results of the Spanish-American war?
US became more interested in Asia, Theodore Roosevelt became President, the US became a colonizing country
Matthew Perry
commanded the naval squadron that forced the opening of an isolated Japan
What was the name of the army led by T. Roosevelt during the Spanish-American war?
Rough Riders
Which of the following was the victorious US naval commander at the Battle of Manila Bay?
Admiral Dewey
Which of the following individuals played a key role in the US acquisition at the Panama Canal?
Philippe Bunau-Varilla
The Teller Amendment stated that:
the US would not annex Cuba
Who was President during the Spanish-American war?
The Mexican Revolution of 1911 happened because
too much foreign ownership of Mexican land and mines; too many landless peasants; a promised free election that was fraudulent instead
The Russo-Japanese War:
was the first time a European nation was defeated by an Asian nation; Theodore Roosevelt won the Nobel Peace Prize because of his work dealing with this war; this war began with a surprise attack on the Russian navy in Port Arthur
Seward's Folly
what people called Seward's arrangement of buying Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million dollars
Diaz's secret police who punished people who went against Diaz
government policy that includes the expansion of countries through colonization of other territories; became a race between countries to get the most territories
Roosevelt Corollary
addition to the Monroe Doctrine that states that the US will use force to protect economic interests in Latin America
Open Door Policy
stated that no one could have a monopoly over a certain country
country whose affairs and foreign policy are partially controlled by a stronger country
White Man's Burden
Poem by Kipling; idea that European descendents should Christianize the less fortunate
Meiji Restoration
bringing the emperor of Japan back to power; modernization and industrialization of Japan
What describes the Ku Klux Klan in the 1920s
it favored immigration restrictions as well as White supremacy
Franklin D. Roosevelt's farm policy was primarily designed to:
reduce production in order to boost farm prices
An important factor contributing to the Great Depression in the US in the 1930s was the:
decline in farm prosperity in the 1920s
Which celebrated trial best illustrates the cultural conflict in the 1920s between fundamentalism and modernism?
Scopes Trial
What accurately describes the Harlem Rennaisance?
it was a period of Black intellectual and artistic creativity
The main purpose of the Wagner National Labor Relations Act was to:
insure workers the right to organzize and bargain collectively
During the New Deal, President Franklin Roosevelt recommended legislation to achieve:
legal protection for workers who sought collective bargaining; government payments to farmers who plowed up their crops; the development of public power generating facilites
Crime in the 1920s became a big business because gangsters wer able to:
control the stock market
During the 1920s organized labor:
declined in numbers and strength
The Bonus Army was formed by unemployed army veterans who demanded:
early payment of the bonus Congress promised to pay in 1945
What were causes of the Great Depression?
overproduction; under consumption; prolonged slump in agriculture
One of the great ironies of the Great Depression was that:
hunger existed in cities while farmers destroyed food
Franklin Roosevelt's victory in the 1932 election reflected people's:
willingness to blame the Depressionon the Republicans
The trial of Sacco and Vanzetti in the 1920s came to symbolize:
mistrust of immigrant and socialists
In his domestic policy, President Hoover believed that the nations would prosper if:
individuals would work harder
Frances Townsend gathered widespread support with his plan to:
pay Americans over age 60 a pension of $200 a month
Huey Long of Louisiana attracted widespread support with his plan to:
confiscate all mineral wealth
Marcus Garvey was committed to the idea that Black Americans should:
support African American business
In the Teapot Dome scandal the Secretary of the Interior was convicted of:
taking bribes related to government oil reserves
One result of increasing car sales during the 1920s was:
the growth of the suburbs
Because of racial segregation and poverty in the South during the 1920s almost a million blacks:
moved to northern cities
The term "Lost Generation" refers to:
writers who were disillusioned by the American system
One cause of the Great Depression was that:
rich getting richer while the poor getting poorer
President Hoover believed that direct refers to the unemployed should be provided by:
state governments
The Brain Trust refers to a group of:
FDR's advisors, some of whom were college professors
Members of the Liberty League charged that the Roosevelt administration had:
undermined the free enterprise system
In the 1920s the domestic policies of the federal government were primarily concerned with:
protecting business interests
One of the chief results of the New Deal was that:
Presidents gained power
This law was the first that the majority of Americans were willing to disobey
Volstead Act
Why did Eleanor Roosevelt resign from the Daughters of the American Revolution?
the DAR didn't allow a Black singer to perform in their hall
The Palmer Raids of 1919 were conducted against:
suspected communists and anarchists
The American Federation of Labor split apart at itst national convention in 1935 because:
a majority of AFL leaders refused to grant charters to new unions organized on an industry-wide basis
In 1932 Franklin Roosevelt and Herbert Hoover disagreed most strongly about the desirability of:
federal relief to individuals
A common goal of both the Washington Naval Conference and the Kellogg-Briand Pact was:
to reduce the possiblity of war in the future
Paul Robeson
black actor who believed in Communism and was a supporter of the Soviet Union
Charles Coughlin
Catholic priest who blamed the Depression on the Jews
Charles Lindbergh
Pilot who flew solo over the Atlantic
Margaret Sanger
opened the first birth control clinic and fought for the rights of physicians to hand out birth control pamphlets to their patients
Bull Market
the rise in prices of stock
shanty-towns in America
Red Scare
the intense fear that Americans had of the potential spread of Communism throughout the US during the Depression era
women who emancipated themselves from former female housewife roles; pushed the mores of society
bars who sold alcohol during Prohibition
Ohio Gang
Harding's group of poker-playing cronies; corrupt government officials who used their power to corrupt the government
Black Tuesday
October 29, 1929; when the Stock Market crashed and most lost their money
court packing
FDR's attempt to expand the Supreme Court; lost support
21st Amendment
banned Prohibition all together
provided power through water
gave people jobs in construction in rural areas
Social Security
gave money to those with disabilites, the elderly, and dependent children
National Recovery Act; businesses could set prices, prohibiting bankruptcies
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation; insured bank deposits
Securty in Exchange Commission; regulated the stock market
Agricultural Adjustment Act; provided farmers with more money and land
Bonneville Power Association; provided power through water
Volstead Act
made purchase, sale, and manufacturing of alcohol illegal
Who advocated the Return to Normalcy and what did he mean?
Harding; simpler times before progressive era
Who coined the phrase Black is Beautiful and what did that represent?
Marcus Garvey; black pride
Andrew Mellon's economic theory
trickle-down economy
John Maynard Keynes' economic theory
prime the pump
How did Roosevelt fight the psychological aspects of the Great Depression?
bank holiday; created jobs; direct relief; FDIC
Lend-Lease Act
the act gave the President authority to sell or lend war supplies to any nations, whose defense was essential to the US
During the Spanish civil war Francisco Franco was supported by:
Germany, The Fascists, Italy
In the Munich Agreement, Hitler promised that he:
had no more territorial ambitions
Japanese-Americans during WWII
a Japanese-Army unit became the most decorated in US history; Japanese-American living on the west coast of the US were forced into internment camps; Japanese-Americans living on the west coast of the US were forced to sell their belongings, homes, and businesses at far below their true value
African-Americans in the military during WWII
they fought in segregated units
The Kellogg-Briand Pact was an attempt to:
outlaw war
The Nye Committee charged that the US entry in WWI had been caused by:
weapons manufacturers and bankers
Why do some historians believe that the "unconditional surrender" demand was a mistake?
because it may have caused the Japanese to fight longer
The critical D-day invasion was planned by the Supreme Court of Allied Forces Europe General:
Dwight Eisenhower
Because of his shrewdness and daring as a general, he earned the nickname the "Desert Fox"
Erwin Rommel
The system of French defenses erected after WWI was known as the:
Maginot line
During WWII, the Battle of the Bulge represented a last desperate effort of the:
Germans in Belgium
American participation in WWII had what effect on the home front?
a movement of women into factory work
The Neutrality Acts of the middle 1930s reflected American
support for an isolationists foregn policy
What were common reasons for the rise of fascism in both Germany and Japan?
need to provide more land for a growing population; injustices attributed to the Treaty of Versailles; the Great Depression
Atlantic Charter
discussed the establishment of the UN; took place before the US was officially at war
Atlantic Charter
discussed the establishment of the UN; took place before the US was officially at war
Atlantic Charter
discussed the establishment of the UN; took place before the US was officially at war
Casablanca Conference
Demanded the unconditional surrender of Axis Nations; Britain and the US pledge to establish a "second front" in Europe
Discussed the establishment of the UN; Stalin promised free elections in Eastern Europe; was the last wartime conference for the Big Three; Societs promised to declare war against Japan 3 months after the surrender of Germany; discussed the division of Germany into occupation zones
Great Britain's leaders during WWII
Neville Chamberlain & Winston Churchill
Italy's leader during WWII
Benito Mussolini
US's leaders during WWII
Franklin Roosevelt & Harry Truman
Germany's leader during WWII
Adolf Hitler
Soviet Union's leader during WWII
Operation Fortitude
Allied plan to deceive Germans as to when and where D-day was
Japanese air suicides
Mein Kampf
Hitler's autobiography; outlined his plans for the Aryan race
"night of broken glass"; when storm troopers took Jews from their homes and destroyed their homes, businesses, and synagogues
Third Reich
Hitler's name for Germany
Rosie the Riveter
symbol for recruiting women into the war effort
type of government set up by Mussolini in Italy that focused on one leader and nationalism
the systematic killing of an entire population
Manhattan Project
the code name for the making of the A-bomb
American First Committee
largest American group for isolationism; led by Charles Lindbergh
When did the atack on Pearl Harbor take place?
December 7, 1941
When was D-day?
June 6, 1944
When did the US bomb Hiroshima?
August 6, 1945
When did Germany invade Poland
September 1, 1939
What caused WWI?
Germany invaded Poland
When was VE Day
May 8, 1945
What country won, what country lost, and what was the importance of the Battle of Stalingrad?
Won: Soviet Union
Lost: Germany
Importance: Germany's first loss, Soviet Union grows stronger
What country won, what country lost, and what was the importance of the Battle of Midway?
Won: US
Lost: Japan
Importance: Japan lost all of their pilots, Japanese lost four of their six aircraft carriers
Second generation Japanese-Americans who were citizens by right of birth
Warface tactic first used by the Germans in WWII that couple tanks, airplanes, and mobile infantry cooperating to concentrate, breakthrough, surround, and isolate your enemy
when a nation abandons its policies to avoid war
In 1947 a UN commission recommended that Palestine be:
divided into an Arab and Jewish state
In 1947 a UN commission recommended that Palestine be:
divided into an Arab and Jewish state
During the 1956 Suez Crisis, the US:
Joined with the Soviet Union to condemning Britain, France, and Israel
What best characterized the goals of Martin Luther King, Jr.?
a peaceful integration of the races in all areas of society
The announced purpose of the Marshall Plan was to:
aid the economic recovery of war-torn Europe
A US response to the successful orbiting of Sputnik in 1957 was to:
expand federal aid to education
The Taft-Hartley Act, passed over Truman's veto:
was intended to limit the power of unions
The belief by George Kennon writing under the pseudonym "X" described foreign policy goald that led to the:
policy of containment
What was a part of the National Security Act?
the CIA was created; The National Security Council was created; The Dept of War became the Dept. of Defense; the Air Force was created
The book, The Other America, by Michael Harrington talk about:
The Soviet Blockade of West Berlin was a response to
the loss of Yugoslavia to the Soviet Bloc
When an armistice was signed ending the Korean War,
North and South Korea were still divided along the 38th parallel
The USSR did not vote to defend South Korea at the UN Security Council because:
the Soviets were boycotting the UN over the presence of Taiwan
Where were the vast majority of homes built in the 1950s?
The Longoria incident prompted Mexican Americans to:
promote political candidates who represented their interests; organize the GI Forum; found the Unity League of California
Results of WWII
the UN; the Cold War; the destruction of almost every major European city
What justification was used to explain why the US refused to intervene in the Hungary Uprising of 1956?
the threat of nuclear war outweighed Hungarian suffering
What disadvantage of standardization in American business did William H. Whyte discuss in his work, The Organization Man?
the loss of individuality
The factor that most contributed to Truman's win in the 1948 election was:
his relentless campaign against a "do-nothing" Congress
A large corporation that owns a number of smaller companies in unrelated industries
Which program eliminated federal economic support for Native Americans, discontinued the reservation system, and distributed tribal lands among individual Native Americans?
Termination Policy
Which US President signed the executive order to integrate the armed forces in 1948?
Harry Truman
When the UN partitioned Palestine following WWII, this resulted
Formation of Israel; war between the Arab League and Isreal; Traditional boundaries were not recognized
The McCarran Internal Security Act
made it illegal to take any action to establish a totalitarian dictatorship in the US
The Interstate Highway and Defense Act of 1956 contributed to:
the growth of suburbs
After the Geneva Summit with Eisenhower and Khrushchev
there was a thaw in Cold War tensions
Why was Douglas MacArthur fired as commander of UN forces in Korea?
for challenging the authority of the President
A company that offers similar products or services in many locations
What was a similarity between US intervention in Iran and Guatemala?
both involved CIA; both claimed to stop communist expansion; both were motivated by economic concerns
The first politician to successfully use the new medium of television was
Richard Nixon
"I should say this- that Pat doesn't have a mink coat. But she does have a respectable Republican cloth coat. And I always tell her that she would look good in anything...It was a little cocker spaniel dog...."
Richard Nixon
"We conclude that in the field of public education separate but equal has no place. Separate education facilities are inherently unequal."
Earl Warren
"I have in my hand a list of 205 communists in the State Department."
"There is no substitute for victory."
"We will bury you."
"I shall go to Korea."
"What is good fro General Motors is good for the country."
Eisenhower's cabinet member
"Old soldiers never die; they just fade away."
About the Korean War: "There is no simple formula for victory."
"From Settin in the Blatic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent."
Warsaw Pact nations
East Germany, Soviet Union; Czechoslovokia; Hungary
Italy; US; France
Not Aligned with alliances during WWII
Switzerland; Spain; Yugoslavia
Balfour Declaration
Promise to Jews of support by British in exchange for help in WWI
Hollywood Ten
People in the movie business who refused to testify about communism in movies and were blacklisted
George Kennon's idea, written under the pseudonym "X" that was to fight the spread of communism to other countries
Truman Doctrine
US would help any cuontry threatened by Communism
"White Flight"
when middle class Americans moved from urban areas to the suburbs
Planned Obsolescence
manufacturers purposely produced products to break or go out of style quickly
when in war, a nation threatens to use violence very harshly and right before the action, they don't do it
Southern democrats who broke from the Democratic Party because of Truman's civil rights beliefs
MAD Doctrine
If someone nuked the US, we would nuke them back and vice versa
Cold War
time period in which the US and the Soviet Union fought, but without weapons; Capitalism vs. democracy
During the Civil Rights Movement, this organization, which was made up of many black Christians, fight for their rights; Southern Christian Leadership Conference
Mao Zedong
Communist leader in China
Ethel and Julius Rosenberg
were executed for giving the Soviet Union information about the atomic bombs
William Levitt
mass produced homes
Jackie Robinson
African American who was the first black person in a major sports integrated league; baseball players
Jonas Salk
Dr. who invented the cure for polio
Kim Il Sung
Communist leader of Korea
Edward R. Murrow
Had a TV show that exposed Joseph McArthy
John Foster Dulles
Secretary of State; came up with brinkmanship
Gamel Abdul Nasser
Ruler of Egypt; nationalized the Suez Canal
In 1973, Congress passed the War Powers Act in order to limit:
the president's ability to wage an undeclared war
What was Martin Luther King Jr.'s position on the war in Vietnam?
he thought it used funds should have been invested the poor
What describes Ho Chi Minh?
Which of the following increased African-American voter registration:
Freedom Summer
Who concluded that Lee Harvey Oswald acted alone to assassinate President Kennedy?
Warren Commission
Which program sent volunteers to work for two years in developing countries?
the Peace Corps
Which of the following occurred as a result of the Geneva Accords?
Vietnam was divided temporarily at the 17th parallel
Where was there a televised beating of peaceful demonstrators that contributed to the beginning of the Black Panthers?
Where was there a televised beating of peaceful demonstrators that contributed to the beginning of the Black Panthers?
Where was there a televised beating of peaceful demonstrators that contributed to the beginning of the Black Panthers?