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Navigation Laws
A series of British regulations which taxed goods imported by the colonies from places other than Britain, or otherwise sought to control and regulate colonial trade. Increased British-colonial trade and tax revenues. The Navigation Acts were reinstated after the French and Indian War because Britain needed to pay off debts incurred during the war, and to pay the costs of maintaining a standing army in the colonies.
Stamp Act
March 22, 1756 – British legislation passes as part of Prime Minister Grenville’s revenue measure which required that all legal or official documents used in the colonies, such as wills, deeds and contracts, and to be written on special, stamped British paper. It was so unpopular in the colonies that it caused riots, and most of the stamped paper sent to the colonies from Britain was burned by angry mobs. Because of this opposition, and the decline in British imports caused by the non-importation movement, London merchants convinced Parliament to repeal the Stamp Act in 1766.
Quebec Act
1774 – It was passed by Parliament. It alarmed the colonies because it recognized the Roman-Catholic Church in Quebec. Some colonials took it as a sign that Britain was planning to impose Catholicism upon the colonies. The First Continental Congress met to discuss their concerns over Parliament’s dissolutions of the New York (for refusing to pay to quarter troops), Massachusetts (for the Boston Tea Party), and Virginia Assemblies. The First Continental Congress rejected the plan for a unified colonial government stated grievances against the crown called the Declaration of Rights, resolved to prepare militias, and created the Continental Association to enforce a new non-importation agreement through Committees of Vigilance. In response, in February, 1775, Parliament declared the colonies to be in rebellion.
Sugar Act
Part of Prime Minister Grenville’s revenue program, the act replaced the Molasses Act of 1733, and actually lowered the tax on sugar and molasses (which the New England colonies imported to make rum as part of the triangular trade) from 6 cents to 3 cents a barrel, but for the first time adopted provisions that would insure that the tax was strictly enforced; created the vice-admiralty courts; and made it illegal for the colonies to buy goods from non-British Caribbean colonies.
Proclamation of 1763
A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.
Declaratory Act
1766 – Passed at the same time that the Stamp Act was repealed, the Act declared that Parliament had the power to tax the colonies both internally and externally, and had absolute power over the colonial legislatures.
Intolerable Acts
Passed in 1774 in response to the Boston Tea Party, and included the Boston Pot Act, which shut down Boston Harbor; the Massachusetts Government Act, which disbanded the Boston Assembly (but it soon reinstated itself); the Quartering Act, which required the colony to provide provision for British soldiers; and the Administration of Justice Act, which removed the power of colonial courts to arrest royal officers.
Mercantilism
Mercantilism was the economic policy of Europe in the 1500s through 1700s. The government exercised control over industry and trade with the idea that national strength and economic security comes from exporting more than is imported. Possession of colonies provided countries both with sources of raw materials and markets for their manufactured goods. Great Britain exported goods and forced the colonies to buy them.
Virtual Representation
Virtual representation means that a representative is not elected by his constituents, but he resembles them in his political beliefs and goals. The colonies only had virtual representation in the British government.
Republicanism
Idea made by Paine.
- Idea that there should be a “republic” where senators, governors, and judges should have their power from the consent of the people.
- He laced his ideas with biblical imagery, familiar to common folk.
- His ideas about rejecting monarchy and empire and embrace and independent republic fell on receptive ears in America, though it should be noted that these ideas already existed.
Common Sense
Made to encourage the colonies to seek independence. It spoke out against the unfair treatment of the colonies by the British government and was instrumental in turning public opinion in favor of the Revolution.
Declaration of Independence
The Declaration of Independence was signed by the Second Continental Congress on July 4. It dissolved the colonies’ ties with Britain, listed grievances against King George III, and declared the colonies to be and independent nation.
Salutary Neglect
Prime Minister Robert Walpole's policy in dealing with the American colonies. He was primarily concerned with British affairs and believed that unrestricted trade in the colonies would be more profitable for England than would taxation of the colonies.
Continental Army
The Continental Army was the unified command structure of the thirteen colonies fighting Great Britain during the American Revolutionary War. The Army was created by a resolution of the Continental Congress on June 14, 1775. Most of the Continental Army was disbanded on November 3, 1783, after the Treaty of Paris. A small residual force remained at West Point and some frontier outposts until Congress created the United States Army by their resolution of June 3, 1784.
Loyalists
Those who supported the King.
- They often went to battle against fellow Americans, and were called “Tories.”
- They were generally conservatives.
- They were most numerous where the Anglican Church was strongest.
- They were less numerous in New England, where Presbyterianism and Congregationalism flourished.
Patriots
Those who supported rebellion and were called “Whigs.”
- Patriot militias constantly harassed small British detachments.
- They were generally the younger generation, like Samuel Adams and Patrick Henry.
Hessians
German mercenaries who, because they were lured by booty and not duty, had large numbers desert and remained in America to become respectful citizens.
French Alliance
The colonies needed help from Europe in their war against Britain. France was Britain's rival and hoped to weaken Britain by causing her to lose the American colonies. The French were persuaded to support the colonists by news of the American victory at the Battle of Saratoga.
- France aided the U.S. in the American Revolution, and the U.S. agreed to aid France if the need ever arose. Although France could have used American aid during the French Revolution, the U.S. didn't do anything to help. The U.S. didn't fulfill their part of the agreement until World War I.
Sam Adams
He was opposed to the constitution until the Bill of Rights was added, and then he supported it.
Thomas Paine
A British citizen, he wrote Common Sense, published on January 1, 1776, to encourage the colonies to seek independence. It spoke out against the unfair treatment of the colonies by the British government and was instrumental in turning public opinion in favor of the Revolution.
George Washington
He led troops (rather unsuccessfully) during the French and Indian War, and had surrendered Fort Necessity to the French. He was appointed commander-in-chief of the Continental Army, and was much more successful in this second command.
- Established many of the presidential traditions, including limiting a president’s tenure to two terms. He was against political parties and strove for political balance in government by appointing political adversaries to government positions.
- He warned against the dangers of political parties and foreign alliances in his farewell address.
Ben Franklin
Along with Roger Sherman, Robert Livingston, John Adams, and Thomas Jefferson, made up the committee which drafted the Declaration of Independence.
- A delegate who signed the Treaty of Paris in 1783.
William Pitt
British secretary of state during the French and Indian War. He brought the British/colonial army under tight British control and started drafting colonists, which led to riots.
Charles Townshend
reated the Townshend Acts
- British Prime Minister (Grenville’s replacement)
- Townshend Acts formed a program of taxing items imported into the colonies, such as paper, lead, glass, and tea; it replaced the direct taxes of the Stamp Act.
- Townshend Acts led to boycotts by Boston merchants, a key contributor to the Boston Massacre
Thomas Jefferson
He was a delegate from Virginia at the Second Continental Congress and wrote the Declaration of Independence. He later served as the third President of the United States.
Saratoga
In 1777, British General John Burgoyne attacked southward from Canada along the Hudson Valley in New York, hoping to link up with General Howe in New York City, thereby cutting the colonies in half. Burgoyne was defeated by American General Horatio Gates on October 17, 1777 at the Battle of Saratoga, surrendering the entire British Army of the North.
Treaty of Paris
1783 – This treaty ended the Revolutionary War, recognized the independence of the American colonies, and granted the colonies the territory from the southern border of Canada to the northern border of Florida, and from the Atlantic coast to the Mississippi River.
- Treaty between Britain, France, and Spain, which ended the Seven Years War (and the French and Indian War). France lost Canada, the land east of the Mississippi, some Caribbean islands, and India to Britain. France also gave New Orleans and the land west of the Mississippi to Spain, to compensate it for ceding Florida to the British.
French and Indian War
Part of the Seven Years’ War in Europe. Britain and France fought for control of the Ohio Valley and Canada. The Algonquians, who feared British expansion into the Ohio Valley, allied with the French. The Mohawks also fought for the French while the rest of the Iroquois Nation allied with the British. The colonies fought under British commanders. Britain eventually won, and gained control of all the remaining French possessions in Canada, as well as India. Spain, which had allied with France, ceded Florida to Britain, but received Louisiana in return.
Battle of Quebec
1759 - James Wolfe lead and army to meet French troops near the Plains of Abraham. Both he and the French commander, Marquis de Montcalm, died. The French were ultimately defeated and the city of Quebec surrendered.
- It was considered to be one of the most significant engagements in British and American history, and when Montreal fell in 1760, that was the last time French flags would fly on American soil.
Yorktown
Because of their lack of success in suppressing the Revolution in the northern colonies, in early 1780 the British switched their strategy and undertook a series of campaigns through the southern colonies. This strategy was equally unsuccessful, and the British decided to return to their main headquarters in New York City. While marching from Virginia to New York, British commander Lord Cornwallis became trapped in Yorktown on the Chesapeake Bay. His troops fortified the town and waited for reinforcements. The French navy, led by DeGrasse, blocked their escape. After a series of battles, Cornwallis surrendered to the Continental Army on October 19, 1781, which ended all major fighting in the Revolutionary War.
Bunker Hill
At the beginning of the Revolutionary War, the British troops were based in Boston. The British army had begun to fortify the Dorchester Heights near Boston, and so the Continental Army fortified Breed’s Hill, north of Boston, to counter the British plan. British general Gage led two unsuccessful attempts to take this hill, before he finally seized it with the third assault. The British suffered heavy losses and lost any hope for a quick victory against the colonies. Although the battle centered around Breed’s Hill, it was mistakenly named for nearby Bunker Hill.
Albany Congress
Made of delegates of seven colonies tat met in New York to discuss plans for collective defense
- Pennsylvanian delegate, Benjamin Franklin, proposed a plan for an intercolonial government; the plan was later rejected by the colonial legislatures as demanding too great a surrender of power
- While the other colonies showed no support for the idea, it was an important precedent for the concept of uniting in the face of a common enemy
Committees of Correspondence
These started as groups of private citizens in Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and New York who, in 1763, began circulating information about opposition to British trade measures. The first government – organized committee appeared in Massachusetts in 1764. Other colonies created their own committees in order to exchange information and organize protests to British trade regulations. The Committees became particularly active following the Gaspee Incident.
- Attempted to let people in the different colonies know what’s going one.
- Established by Sam Adams
- Hoped that if people were upset in New York, the people in South Carolina would know about it.
Radical Whigs
The Radical Whigs were "a group of British political commentators" associated with the British Whig faction who were at the forefront of Radicalism. They played a significant role in the development of the American Revolution, as their republican writings were widely read by the American colonists, many of whom were convinced by their reading that they should be very watchful for any threats to their liberties. Subsequently, when the colonists were indignant about their perceived lack of democratic representation and taxes such as the Stamp Act, Sugar Act, and Tea Act, the colonists broke away from the Kingdom of Great Britain to form the United States.
Articles of Confederation
The Articles of Confederation delegated most of the powers (the power to tax, to regulate trade, and to draft troops) to the individual states, but left the federal government power over war, foreign policy, and issuing money. The Articles' weakness was that they gave the federal government so little power that it couldn't keep the country united. The Articles' only major success was that they settled western land claims with the Northwest Ordinance. The Articles were abandoned for the Constitution.
Northwest Ordinance
A major success of the Articles of Confederation. Set up the framework of a government for the Northwest Territory. The Ordinance provided that the Territory would be divided into 3 to 5 states, outlawed slavery in the Territory, and set 60,000 as the minimum population for statehood.
Embargo Act
This act issued by Jefferson forbade American trading ships from leaving the U.S. It was meant to force Britain and France to change their policies towards neutral vessels by depriving them of American trade. It was difficult to enforce because it was opposed by merchants and everyone else whose livelihood depended upon international trade. It also hurt the national economy, so it was replaced by the Non-Intercourse Act.
Bill of Rights
Adopted in 1791 – The first ten amendments to the Constitution, which guarantee basic individual rights.
Alien and Sedition Acts
These consist of four laws passed by the Federalist Congress and signed by President Adams in 1798; the Naturalization Act, which increased the waiting period for an immigrant to become a citizen from 5 to 14 years; the Alien Act, which empowered the president to arrest and deport dangerous aliens; the Alien Enemy Act, which allowed for the arrest and deportation of citizens of countries at war with the US; and the Sedition Act, which made it illegal to publish defamatory statements about the federal government or its officials. The first three were enacted in response to the XYZ Affair, and were aimed at French and Irish immigrants, who were considered subversives. The Sedition Act was an attempt to stifle Democratic-Republican opposition, although only 25 people were ever arrested, and only 10 convicted, under the law. The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, which initiated the concept of “nullification” of federal laws, were written in response to the Acts.
Impressment
British seamen often deserted to join the American merchant marines. The British would board American vessels in order to retrieve the deserters, and often seized any sailor who could not prove that he was an American citizen and not British.
Funding
Based on the natural laws of supply and demand and Adam Smith’s The Wealth of Nations. (1776)
- The government would sell bonds to people. Then so many would be in circulation that they would loose value and the people would sell them back to the government for a profit to the government.
- The rich would also benefit because they could buy the cheap bonds to decrease the amount in circulation, increasing the demand, and increasing the value. The rich could then sell them to make a profit.
Assumption
The national government would pay for the states’ debts.
- It gave a sense of unity because all of the states were under an “umbrella” from the national government.
Washington's Farewell Address
He warned against the dangers of political parties and foreign alliances.
Federalist Papers
This collection of essays by John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, and James Madison, explained the importance of a strong central government. It was published to convince New York to ratify the Constitution.
- The Federalist #10 – This essay from the Federalist Papers proposed setting up a republic to solve the problems of a large democracy (anarchy, rise of factions which disregard public good).
Louisiana Purchase
1803 – The U.S. purchased the land from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains from Napoleon for $15 million. Jefferson was interested in the territory because it would giver the U.S. the Mississippi River and New Orleans (both were valuable for trade and shipping) and also room to expand. Napoleon wanted to sell because he needed money for his European campaigns and because a rebellion against the French in Haiti had soured him on the idea of New World colonies. The Constitution did not give the federal government the power to buy land, so Jefferson used loose construction to justify the purchase.
Neutrality Proclamation
Washington’s declaration that the U.S. would not take sides after the French Revolution touched off a war between France and a coalition consisting primarily of England, Austria, and Prussia. Washington’s Proclamation was technically a violation of the Franco-American Treaty of 1778.
3/5 Compromise
The South wanted slaves to count of citizens in order to increase the population, and therefore increasing the number of Southerners in the House of Representatives. The North argued that slaves were property and couldn’t be counted. In the end, slaved came to be counted as 3/5 of a person.
Virginia and New Jersey Plans
The Virginia Plan called for a two-house Congress with each state's representation based on state population. The New Jersey Plan called for a one-house Congress in which each state had equal representation.
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional.
The National Bank
Part of Hamilton's Plan, it would save the government's surplus money until it was needed.
Excise taxes and tariffs
Taxes placed on manufactured products. The excise tax on whiskey helped raise revenue for Hamilton's program.
William Marbury
He had been appointed as Justice of the Peace in the District of Columbia by President John Adams shortly before leaving office, but John Marshall, Adam’s Secretary of State didn’t deliver his commission as required. When Thomas Jefferson became President, he ordered the new Secretary of State, James Madison, to not deliver his commission. Marbury petitioned and brought the case to the Supreme Court, but was unsuccessful and never became a Justice of the Peace in the District of Columbia.
John Marshall
Justice Marshall was a Federalist whose decisions on the U.S. Supreme Court promoted federal power over state power and established the judiciary as a branch of government equal to the legislative and executive. In Marbury vs. Madison he established the Supreme Court’s power of judicial review, which allows the Supreme Court to declare laws unconstitutional.
James Madison
His proposals for an effective government became the Virginia Plan, which was the basis for the Constitution. He was responsible for drafting most of the language of the Constitution.
- Helped write the Federalist Papers
Alexander Hamilton
Helped write the Federalist Papers
- A leading Federalist, he supported industry and strong central government. He created the National Bank and managed to pay off the U.S.'s early debts through tariffs and the excise tax on whiskey.
- His programs were designed to pay off the U.S.'s war debts and stabilize the economy; he believed that the United States should become a leading international commercial power. His programs included the creation of the National Bank, the establishment of the U.S.'s credit rate, increased tariffs, and an excise tax on whiskey. Also, he insisted that the federal government assume debts incurred by the states during the war.
Daniel Shays
He was a captain in the American Revolutionary War. He is mostly known for leading a small army of farmers in Shays' Rebellion, which was a revolt against the state government of Massachusetts from 1786-1787.
Thomas Jefferson
He was a delegate from Virginia at the Second Continental Congress and wrote the Declaration of Independence. He later served as the third President of the United States.
- Ran against the Federalist Adams in the Election of 1796. He was a Democratic-Republican.
- Ran against Aaron Burr and John Adams in the Election of 1800. He tied with Burr so the decision went to the House of Representatives where there was another tie. After a long series of ties in the House, Jefferson was finally chosen as president. Burr became the vice-president
- His tie with Burr in the election of 1800 caused the 12th amendment to be passed which said that the president and vice-president of the same party would run on the same ticket.
- Declared that he would avoid foreign alliances, and wanted to keep the country unified to avoid partisan conflicts in his Inaugural Address.
- He believed in a less aristocratic presidency. He wanted to reduce federal spending and government interference in everyday life. He was a Democratic-Republican (originally an Anti-Federalist), so he believed in strict interpretation of the constitution.
- Wanted the Louisiana Purchase because it gave the United States the Mississippi and New Orleans.
John Adams
A Massachusetts attorney and politician who was a strong believer in colonial independence. He argued against the Stamp Act and was involved in various patriot groups. As a delegate from Massachusetts, he urged the Second continental Congress to declare independence. He helped draft and pass the Declaration of Independence. Adams later served as the second President of the United States.
- Signed the Treaty of Paris in 1783.
- A federalist, had little to say in Washington’s Administration (was Washington’s vice-president).
- Ran in the election of 1800, but had no chance.
War of 1812
Causes included British impressments of sailors, British seizure of neutral American trading ships, and the reasons given by the War Hawks (the British were inciting the Indians on the frontier to attack the Americans, and the war would allow the U.S. to seize the northwest posts, Florida, and possibly Canada)
- A war between the U.S. and Great Britain caused by American outrage over the impressments of American sailors by the British, the British seizure of American ships, and British aid to the Indians attacking the Americans on the western frontier. Also, a war against Britain gave the U.S. an excuse to seize the British northwest posts and to annex Florida from Britain’s ally Spain, and possibly even to seize Canada from Britain. The War Hawks (young westerners led by Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun) argued for war in Congress. The war involved several sea battles and frontier skirmishes. U.S. troops led by Andrew Jackson seized Florida and at one point the British managed to invade and burn Washington, D.C. The Treaty of Ghent (December 1814) restored the status quo and required the U.S. to give back Florida. Two weeks later, Andrew Jackson’s troops defeated the British at the Battle of New Orleans, not knowing that a peace treaty had already been signed. The war strengthened American nationalism and encouraged the growth of industry.
- The U.S. navy won some important battles on the Great Lakes but failed to break the British blockade of the U.S.
- Oliver Perry led an 1813 naval victory against the British on Lake Erie. Washington D.C. was captured and burned by the British in 1814. The Battle of New Orleans was a great victory for the U.S. in January, 1815, but it took place two weeks after the signing of the Treaty of Ghent had ended the war.
- The U.S.'s success in the War of 1812 gave Americans a feeling of national pride. The War of 1812 had cut off America's access to British manufactured goods and forced the U.S. to develop the means to produce those goods on its own.
Pinckney's Treaty
1795 – Treaty between the U.S. and Spain which gave the U.S. the right to transport goods on the Mississippi river and to store goods in the Spanish port of New Orleans.
Shay's Rebellion
Occurred in the winter of 1786-7 under the Articles of Confederation. Poor, indebted landowners in Massachusetts blocked access to courts and prevented the government from arresting or repossessing the property of those in debt. The federal government was too weak to help Boston remove the rebels, a sign that the Articles of Confederation weren't working effectively.
Jay's Treaty
1794 – It was signed in the hopes of settling the growing conflicts between the U.S. and Britain. It dealt with the Northwest posts and trade on the Mississippi River. It was unpopular with most Americans because it did not punish Britain for the attacks on neutral American ships. It was particularly unpopular with France, because the U.S. also accepted the British restriction on the rights of neutrals.
Federalists
Americans who advocated centralized power and constitution ratification
- Used The Federalist Papers to demonstrate how the Constitution was designed to prevent the abuse of power.
- Supporters of Federalist platforms included Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, John Jay, and northeastern business groups
- Federalists believed that the government was given all powers that were not expressly denied to it by the Constitution; they had a loose interpretation of the Constitution
Democratic-Republicans
One of the first two American political parties, together with the Federalist Party. Founded by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison. Those two and James Monroe were the only Democratic-Republican presidents. Party disbanded in the 1820s, splintering into two factions, the Democratic Party and the Whig Party. Members of the Democratic-Republican Party believed that a strong federal government would weaken and not respect the rights of the states and the people.
Hartford Convention
A meeting was held in Hartford, Connecticut to consider the problems of New England in the War of 1812.
Anti-Federalists
Those against the adoption of the Constitution because of suspicion against centralized government ruling at distance and limiting freedom
- George Mason, Patrick Henry, and George Clinton were Anti-Federalists
- Many of the Anti-Federalists would come to oppose the policies of Alexander Hamilton and the Federalist Party
- The Jeffersonian Republican Party absorbed many of the Anti-Federalists after the Constitution was adopted
Monroe Doctrine
1823 – Declared that Europe should not interfere in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere and that any attempt at interference by a European power would be seen as a threat to the U.S. It also declared that a New World colony which has gained independence may not be recolonized by Europe. (It was written at a time when many South American nations were gaining independence).
Missouri Compromise
Admitted Missouri as a slave state and at the same time admitted Maine as a free state. Declared that all territory north of the 36 30 latitude
Tariff of Abominations
1828 - Also called Tariff of 1828; it raised the tariff on imported manufactured goods. The tariff protected the North but harmed the South; South said that the tariff was economically discriminatory and unconstitutional because it violated state's rights. It passed because New England favored high tariffs.
12th Amendment
Brought about by the Jefferson/Burr tie, stated that presidential and vice-presidential nominees would run on the same party ticket. Before that time, all of the candidates ran against each other, with the winner becoming president and second-place becoming vice-president.
Indian Removal Act
Act which moved all Indian tribes from the east of the Mississippi to the West
Force Bill
1833 - The Force Bill authorized President Jackson to use the army and navy to collect duties on the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. South Carolina's ordinance of nullification had declared these tariffs null and void, and South Carolina would not collect duties on them. The Force Act was never invoked because it was passed by Congress the same day as the Compromise Tariff of 1833, so it became unnecessary. South Carolina also nullified the Force Act.
Jacksonian Democracy
The Jacksonian era (1829-1841) included many reforms: free public schools, more women's rights, better working conditions in factories, and the rise of the Abolition movement. In the election, Jackson was portrayed as a common man and his opponent, J.Q. Adams, was attacked for his aristocratic principles. Electors in the Electoral College were also chosen by popular vote. Common man, nationalism, National Nominating Conventions.
Transcendentalism
A philosophy pioneered by Ralph Waldo Emerson in the 1830's and 1840's, in which each person has direct communication with God and Nature, and there is no need for organized churches. It incorporated the ideas that mind goes beyond matter, intuition is valuable, that each soul is part of the Great Spirit, and each person is part of a reality where only the invisible is truly real. Promoted individualism, self-reliance, and freedom from social constraints, and emphasized emotions.
Temperance
The American Temperance Society was formed in Boston in 1826. It persuaded people to stop drinking or lesson their drinking.
Doctrine of Nullification
Expressed in the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions, it said that states could nullify federal laws.
Deism
The religion of the Enlightenment (1700s). Followers believed that God existed and had created the world, but that afterwards He left it to run by its own natural laws. Denied that God communicated to man or in any way influenced his life.
Sectionalism
Different parts of the country developing unique and separate cultures (as the North, South, and West). This can (and did) lead to conflict.
Second Great Awakening
A series of religious revivals starting in 1801, based on Methodism and Baptism. Stressed a religious philosophy of salvation
Judicial Nationalism
The Constitution and Federal Law is superior to State Constitutions and State Law—Article VI of the Constitution
- The Supreme Court is the final arbiter on Constitutional Questions
The National Road
Also called the Cumberland Road
- The first highway built by the federal government. Constructed during 1825-1850, it stretched from Pennsylvania to Illinois. It was a major overland shipping route and an important connection between the North and the West.
The American System
Proposed after the War of 1812 by Clay. It included using federal money for internal improvements (roads, bridges, industrial improvements, etc.), enacting a protective tariff to foster the growth of American industries, and strengthening the national bank.
Cotton Gin
1798 – Eli Whitney developed the cotton gin, a machine which could separate cotton from its seeds. This invention made cotton a profitable crop of great value to the Southern economy. It also reinforced the importance of slavery in the economy of the South.
Era of Good Feelings
A name for President Monroe’s two terms, a period of strong nationalism, economic growth, and territorial expansion. Since the Federalist Party dissolved after the War of 1812, there was only one political party and no partisan conflicts.
Corrupt Bargain
The charge make by Jacksonians in 1825 that Clay had supported John Quincy Adams in the House presidential vote in return for the office of Secretary of State. Clay knew he could not win, so he traded his votes for an office.
Spoils System
Franchise extended - more people were given the right to vote, even men who owned no land. Spoils system - "To the victor go the spoils" - the winner of the election may do whatever they want with the staff. Jackson made more staff changes than any previous president, firing many people and replacing them with his own.
Social Reforms
Abolition of debtors’ prisons and changes in criminal codes allow people to be punished but also rehabilitated.
- Reforms of insane asylums.
- Pacificism – American Peace Society 1828
- American Temperance Society 1826
- Women’s Rights Movements – Seneca Falls 1848
- Utopian societies
Andrew Jackson
1832 – Vetoed the bill to recharter the national bank.
- January 1815 – A large British invasion was repelled by Andrew Jackson’s troops at New Orleans; Jackson had been given the details of the British army’s battle plans by the French pirate, Jean Laffite. About 2500 British soldiers were killed or captured, while in the American army only 8 men were killed. Neither side knew that the Treaty of Ghent had ended the War of 1812 two weeks before the battle. This victory inspired American nationalism.
- The Seminole Indians in Florida, encouraged by the Spanish, launched a series of raids into the U.S. President J.Q. Adams ordered Andrew Jackson, whose troops were on the U.S./Florida border, to seize Spanish forts in northern Florida. Jackson’s successful attacks convinced the Spanish that they could not defend Florida against the U.S.
- In the election of 1824 Jackson did not have a majority in the electoral vote (but did have the majority of the popular vote), so the election went to the House of Representatives, where Adams won.
- Angry because Biddle used bank funds to support anti-Jacksonian candidates, Jackson removed federal deposits from the bank in 1833, firing the secretaries of treasury who wouldn't comply, and was charged with abuse of power. Roger B. Taney was Chief Justice of the Supreme Court and helped Jackson crush the Bank of the U.S. Pet banks were state banks into which Jackson deposited federal funds in 1833, after he vetoed the recharter of the Second Bank of the U.S., so called because people thought they were chosen on political grounds.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Essayist, poet. A leading transcendentalist, emphasizing freedom and self-reliance in essays which still make him a force today. He had an international reputation as a first-rate poet. He spoke and wrote many works on the behalf of the Abolitionists.
Henry Clay
Proposed the American System
- Signed the Treaty of Ghent
- Devised the Compromise Tariff of 1833
- Helped heal the North/South rift by aiding passage of the Compromise of 1850, which served to delay the Civil War.
John C. Calhoun
Vice-President Calhoun anonymously published the essay South Carolina Exposition, which proposed that each state in the union counter the tyranny of the majority by asserting the right to nullify an unconstitutional act of Congress. It was written in reaction to the Tariff of 1828, which he said placed the Union in danger and stripped the South of its rights. South Carolina had threatened to secede if the tariff was not revoked; Calhoun suggested state nullification as a more peaceful solution.
- 1832 - Calhoun, from South Carolina, wrote the doctrine of nullification, expressing his views in support of states' rights. His views were so disputed and so different from Jackson's that Calhoun resigned and was appointed senator in South Carolina to present their case to Congress.
- 1832 - Calhoun resigned as vice-president when his views on states' rights were disputed by Jackson. Calhoun wanted each section of the country to share federal power equally, and he wanted independence for the South if they were to be controlled by the majority.
- Formerly Jackson’s vice-president, later a South Carolina senator. He said the North should grant the South’s demands and keep quiet about slavery to keep the peace. He was a spokesman for the South and states’ rights.
Eli Whitney
1798 – He developed the cotton gin, a machine which could separate cotton from its seeds. This invention made cotton a profitable crop of great value to the Southern economy. It also reinforced the importance of slavery in the economy of the South.
John Quincy Adams
Helped negotiate the Treaty of Ghent.
- He served under President Monroe. In 1819, he drew up the Adams-Onis Treaty in which Spain gave the U.S. Florida in exchange for the U.S. dropping its claims to Texas. The Monroe Doctrine was mostly Adams' work.
Martin Van Buren
Martin Van Buren, a Democratic-Republican Senator from New York, rallied the factory workers of the North in support of Jackson. He became Jackson's V.P. after Calhoun resigned. New York politics at that time was controlled by a clique of wealthy land-owners known as the Albany Regency, of which Van Buren became the leader.
- Passed the Independent Treasury System with Polk after the National Bank was destroyed. It was a way to maintain government funds with minimum risk.
Nicholas Biddle
Became the Second National Bank’s president, and he made the bank's loan policy stricter and testified that, although the bank had enormous power, it didn't destroy small banks. The bank went out of business in 1836 amid controversy over whether the National Bank was constitutional and should be rechartered.
Horace Mann
Secretary of the newly formed Massachusetts Board of Education, he created a public school system in Massachusetts that became the model for the nation. Started the first American public schools, using European schools (Prussian military schools) as models.
Noah Webster
Wrote some of the first dictionaries and spellers in the U.S. His books, which became the standard for the U.S., promoted American spellings and pronunciations, rather than British.
Treaty of Ghent
December 24, 1814 – Ended the War of 1812 and restored the status quo. For the most part, territory captured in the war was returned to the original owner. It also set up a commission to determine the disputed Canada/U.S. border.
Texas-Mexican Conflict
Causes – Annexation of Texas, diplomatic ineptness of U.S./Mexican relations in the 1840’s and particularly the provocation of U.S. troops on the Rio Grande. The first half of the war was fought in northern Mexico near the Texas border, with the U.S. Army led by Zachary Taylor. The second half of the war was fought in central Mexico after U.S. troops seized the port of Veracruz, with the Army being led by Winfield Scott.
- Results – U.S. captured Mexico City, Zachary Taylor was elected president, Santa Ana abdicated, and Mexico ceded large parts of the West, including New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, Arizona, Nevada, and California
- American got this land due to the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
War of 1812
causes – Included: British impressment of sailors, British seizure of neutral American trading ships, and the reasons given by the War Hawks (the British were inciting the Indians on the western frontier to attack the Americans, and the war would allow the U.S. to seize the northwest posts, Florida, and possibly Canada).
- A war between the U.S. and Great Britain. A war against Great Britain gave the U.S. an excuse to seize the British northwest posts and to annex Flo9rida from Britain’s ally Spain, and possibly even to seize Canada from Britain. The War Hawks (young westerners led by Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun) argued for war in Congress. The war involved several sea battles and frontier skirmishes. U.S. troops led by Andrew Jackson seized Florida and at one point the British managed to invade and burn Washington, D.C. The Treaty of Ghent (December 1814) restored the status quo and required the U.S. to give back Florida. Two weeks later, Andrew Jackson’s troops defeated the British at the battle of New Orleans, not knowing that a peace treaty had already been signed. The war strengthened American nationalism and encouraged the growth of industry.
Trail of Tears
A minority of the Cherokee tribe, despite the protest of the majority, had surrendered their Georgia land in the 1835 Treaty of New Echota. During the winter of 1838 - 1839, troops under General Winfield Scott evicted them from their homes in Georgia and moved them to Oklahoma Indian country. Many died on the trail; the journey became known as the "Trail of Tears".
Florida Purchase Treaty
1819 - Also known as the Adams-Onis Treaty. Spain sold Florida to the U.S. and the U.S. gave up its claims to Texas.
- Drawn up by John Quincy Adams.
Know-Nothing Party
The Know-Nothings opposed immigration and Catholic influence. They answered questions from outsiders about the party by saying "I know nothing." They were against the Irish and German immigrants because they created a Catholic Church, and the “natives” were Protestant. They were afraid that a Catholic Church would be established. The name came from its secretiveness.
War Hawks
A term originally used to describe a member of the House of Representatives of the Twelfth Congress of the United States who advocated going to war against Great Britain in the War of 1812.
Whig Party
Group stemmed from the old Federalist Party, the old National Republican Party, and others who opposed Jackson’s policies
- Cultivated commercial and industrial development
- Encouraged banks and corporations
- Cautious approach to westward expansion
- Support cam largely from Northern business and manufacturing interests and from large Southern planters
- Included Calhoun, Clay, and Webster
Hartford Convention
December 1814 – A convention of New England merchants who opposed the Embargo and other trade restriction, and the War of 1812. They proposed some Amendments to the Constitution and advocated the right of states to nullify federal laws. They also discussed the idea of seceding from the U.S. if their desires were ignored. The Hartford Convention turned public sentiment against the Federalists and led to the demise of the party.
National-Republicans
After the 1824 election, part of the Democratic - Republican Party joined John Q. Adams, Clay, and Daniel Webster to oppose Andrew Jackson. They favored nationalistic measures like recharter of the Bank of the United States, high tariffs, and internal improvements at national expense. They were supported mainly by Northwesterners and were not very successful. They were conservatives alarmed by Jackson's radicalness; they joined with the Whigs in the 1830's.
Democratic-Republicans
One of the first two political parties. Many of the Democratic-Republicans had earlier been members of the Antifederalists, which had never organized into a formal political party.
- The leading Democratic- Republicans were Thomas Jefferson and James Madison.
- The Democratic-Republicans opposed the National Bank and taxes to support the growth of industry, favoring state banks and little industry.
- Opposite of federalists (who was the other first political party).
- Democratic-Republicans believed in a weak central government, state and individual rights, and strict interpretation of the Constitution.
- The Democratic-Republicans felt that France was the U.S.'s most important ally.
Wilmot Proviso
When President Polk submitted his appropriations Bill of 1846 requesting Congress’ approval of the $2 million indemnity to be paid to Mexico under the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, Pennsylvania Representative David Wilmot attached a rider which would have barred slavery from the territory acquired. The South hated the Wilmot Proviso and a new Appropriations Bill was introduced in 1847 without the Proviso. It provoked one of the first debates on slavery at the federal level, and the principles of the Proviso became the core of the Free Soil, and later the Republican, Party.
Texas as the 28th State
Created March, 1836 but not recognized until the next month after the battle of San Jacinto. Its second president attempted to establish a sound government and develop relations with England and France. However, rapidly rising public debt, internal conflicts and renewed threats from Mexico led Texas to join the U.S. in 1845.
Fugitive Slave Law
Enacted by Congress in 1793 and 1850, these laws provided for the return of escaped slaves to their owners. The North was lax about enforcing the 1793 law, which irritated the South to no end. The 1850 law was tougher and was aimed at eliminating the Underground Railroad.
Compromise of 1850
Called for the admission of California as a free state, organizing Utah and New Mexico with out restrictions on slavery, adjustment of the Texas/New Mexico border, abolition of slave trade in District of Columbia, and tougher fugitive slave laws. Its passage was hailed as a solution to the threat of national division.
Kansas-Nebraska Act
1854 – This act repealed the Missouri Compromise and established a doctrine of congressional nonintervention in the territories. Popular sovereignty (vote of the people) would determine whether Kansas and Nebraska would be slave or free states.
Abolitionism
The militant effort to do away with slavery. It had its roots in the North in the 1700s. It became a major issue in the 1830s and dominated politics after 1840. Congress became a battleground between pro and anti-slavery forces from the 1830’s to the civil War.
Manifest Destiny
Phrase commonly used in the 1840’s and 1850’s. It expressed the inevitableness of continued expansion of the U.S. to the Pacific.
Second Great Awakening
A series of religious revivals starting in 1801, based on Methodism and Baptism. Stressed a religious philosophy of salvation through good deeds and tolerance for all Protestant sects. The revivals attracted women, Blacks, and Native Americans.
"54/40 of fight"
An aggressive slogan adopted in the Oregon boundary dispute, a dispute over where the border between Canada and Oregon should be drawn. This was also Polk’s slogan – the Democrats wanted the U.S. border drawn at the 54 40 latitude. Polk settled for the 49 latitude in 1846.
"Kint Cotton"
Expression used by Southern authors and orators before the civil War to indicate the economic dominance of the Southern cotton industry, and that the North needed the south’s cotton. In a speech to the Senate in 1858, James Hammond declared, “You daren’t make war against cotton!...Cotton is king!”
Caroline Incident
In 1837 a steamer, the Caroline, was attacked by the British. They burned it on the shore of New York. This steamer was carrying supplies across the Niagara River. Luckily, it sank before going over the falls and only One American died.
Lone Star State
Perhaps one of the most recognized nicknames of any state, "The Lone Star State" comes from the symbolism of the star on the 1836 flag of the republic, the "National Standard of Texas." The single golden star on a blue background signified Texas as an independent republic and was a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico.
- A single star was part of the Long Expedition (1819), Austin Colony (1821) and several flags of the early Republic of Texas. Some say that the star represented the wish of many Texans to achieve statehood in the United States. Others say it originally represented Texas as the lone state of Mexico which was attempting to uphold its rights under the Mexican Constitution of 1824.
Underground Railroad
A secret, shifting network which aided slaves escaping to the North and Canada, mainly after 1840.
Gadsden Purchase
1853 – After the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed, the U.S. realized that it had accidentally left portions of the southwestern stagecoach routes to California as part of Mexico. James Gadsden, the U.S. Minister to Mexico, was instructed by President Pierce to draw up a treaty that would provide for the purchase of the territory through which the stage lines ran, along which the U.S. hoped to also eventually build a southern continental railroad. This territory makes up the southern parts of Arizona and New Mexico.
John Tyler
tenth President
- President following the death of William Henry Harrison
- States’ righter, Southerner, and strict constitutionalist
- Rejected the programs of the Whigs who had elected Harrison, which led them to turn against him
- Settled Webster-Ashburton Treaty between the United States and Britain
- Helped Texas achieve statehood in 1845
James K. Polk
Came up with the Independent Treasury System to maintain government funds with minimum risk.
- President known for promoting Manifest Destiny
William Lloyd Garrison
A militant abolitionist, he became editor of the Boston publication, The Liberator, in 1831. Under his leadership, The Liberator gained national fame and notoriety due to his quotable and inflammatory language, attacking everything from slave holders to moderate abolitionists, and advocating northern secession
Frederick Douglas
A self-educated slave who escaped in 1838, Douglas became the best-known abolitionist speaker. He edited an anti-slavery weekly, the North Star.
Eli Whitney
1798 – He developed the cotton gin, a machine which could separate cotton from its seeds. This invention made cotton a profitable crop of great value to the Southern economy. It also reinforced the importance of slavery in the economy of the South.
Henry Clay
Proposed the American System
- Signed the Treaty of Ghent
- Devised the Compromise Tariff of 1833
- Helped heal the North/South rift by aiding passage of the Compromise of 1850, which served to delay the Civil War.
Nicholas Trist
Sent as a special envoy by President Polk to Mexico City in 1847 to negotiate an end to the Mexican War.
Zachary Taylor
Twelfth President
- Famous general in Mexican War
- Whig President
- Opposed the spread of slavery
- Encouraged territories to organize and seek admission directly a states to avoid the issue of slavery.
- Died suddenly in1850; replaced by Millard Fillmore
Winfield Scott
He commanded the main expedition inland on Mexico in 1847. He was known as “Old Fuss and Feathers” because of his resplendent uniforms and strict discipline. He was unable to do as he pleased because of his inadequate number of troops, the terrain, disease, etc. He battled his way to Mexico City by September 1847.
John Slidell
1845 - He went to Mexico to pay for disputed Texas and California land. But the Mexican government was still angry about the annexation of Texas and refused to talk to him.
Clay, Calhoun, Webster
Leaders who came about during the debate over the Tariff of 1816. (This put a 20-30% tariff on imported goods to protect American’s economy)
- Webster was from the North and supported partial protection, but not the entire amount.
- Calhoun was from the South and was in favor of the tariff.
- Clay was from the West and also supported the tariff. He believed in the American System. This system entailed first, the protective tariff, and then with the benefits of the tariff and increase in national industry, the money could then be used to improve roads and transportation among the states.
Franklin Pierce
Fourteenth President
- Democratic president from New Hampshire
- Supported Manifest Destiny despite Northern concerns that it would lead to the spread of slavery.
- Signed the Kansas-Nebraska Act
- Sent Commodore Matthew Perry into Japan to open the country to diplomacy and commerce (Treaty of Kanagawa)
- Opened Canada to greater trade
- Pierce’s diplomats failed in their attempt to purchase Cuba from Spain, leading to the drafting of the Ostend Manifesto.
Stephen Douglas
A moderate, who introduced the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854 and popularized the idea of popular sovereignty.
Aroostook War
Maine lumberjacks camped along the Aroostook River in Maine in 1839 tried to oust Canadian rivals. Militia were called in from both sides until the Webster Ashburn Treaty was signed. Took place in disputed territory.
Webster-Ashburton Treaty
1842 – Established Maine’s northern border and the boundaries of the Great Lake states.
Guadalupe-Hidalgo
Required Mexico to cede the American southwest, including New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, Arizona, Nevada, and California, to the U.S. The U.S. gave Mexico $15 million in exchange, so that it would not look like conquest.
American Colonization Society
Formed in 1817, it purchased a tract of land in Liberia and returned free Blacks to Africa.
Quakers
They believed human religious institutions were, for the most part, unnecessary.
- They believed they could receive revelation directly from God and placed little importance on the Bible.
- They were pacifists and declined to show customary deference to their alleged social superiors.
- Their aggressiveness in denouncing established institutions brought them trouble in both Britain and America.
- They opposed slavery and favored decent treatment of Native Americans.
- Elements of this culture would play a role in shaping the characterizations of a United States that valued independence and social equality.
American Anti-Slavery Society
Formed in 1844, a major abolitionist movement in the North.
Whig Party
Group stemmed from the old Federalist Party, the old National Republican Party, and others who opposed Jackson’s policies
- Cultivated commercial and industrial development
- Encouraged banks and corporations
- Cautious approach to westward expansion
- Support cam largely from Northern business and manufacturing interests and from large Southern planters
- Included Calhoun, Clay, and Webster
Free Soil Party
Formed in 1847 – 1848, dedicated to opposing slavery in newly acquired territories such as Oregon and ceded Mexican territory
Republican Party
Birth of the Republican Party – A coalition of the Free Soil Party, the Know-Nothing Party and renegade Whigs merged in 1854 to form the Republican Party, a liberal, anti-slavery party. He party’s Presidential candidate, John C. Fremont, captured one-third of the popular vote in the 1856 election.
- 1860 platform – free soil principles, a protective tariff
- Supporters – anti-slavers, business, agriculture
- Leaders – William M. Seward, Carl Shulz
The Dred Scott Decision
A Missouri slave sued for his freedom, claiming that his four year stay in the northern portion of the Louisiana Territory made free land by the Missouri Compromise had made hi ma free man. The U.S. Supreme Court decided he couldn’t sue in federal court because he was property, not a citizen.
Lecompton Constitution
The pro-slavery constitution suggested for Kansas’ admission to the union. It was rejected.
Crittenden Amendment
A desperate measure to prevent the Civil War, introduced by John Crittenden, Senator from Kentucky, in December 1860. The bill offered a Constitution amendment recognizing slavery in the territories south of the 36 30 line, noninterference by Congress with existing slavery, and compensation to the owners of fugitive slaves. Republicans, on the advice of Lincoln, defeated it.
Suspension of Habeas Corpus
Lincoln suspended this writ, which states that a person cannot be arrested without probable cause and must be informed of the charges against him and be given an opportunity to challenge them. Throughout the war, thousands were arrested for disloyal acts. Although the U.S. Supreme Court eventually helped the suspension edict to be unconstitutional, by the time the Court acted the Civil War was nearly over.
Merrill Tariff Act
This increased tariff rates by about 5 to 10%, but war soon drove these rates even higher.
Emancipation Proclamation
September 22, 1862 – Lincoln freed all slaves in the states that had seeded, after the Northern victory at the Battle of Antietam. Lincoln had no power to enforce the law.
13th Amendment
1865 - Freed all slaves, abolished slavery
14th Amendment
1866 – Ratified in 1866. It fixed provision of the Civil Rights Bill: full citizenship to all native-born or naturalized Americans, including former slaves and immigrants.
15th Amendment
1870 – No one could be denied the right to vote on account of race, color, or having been a slave. It was to prevent states from amending their constitutions to deny black suffrage.
Wade-Davis Bill
Bill declared that the Reconstruction of the South was a legislative, not executive, matter. It was an attempt to weaken the power of the president. Lincoln vetoed it. Wade-Davis Manifesto said Lincoln was acting like a dictator by vetoing.
Black Codes
Restrictions on the freedom of former slaves, passed by Southern governments.
Jim Crow Laws
State laws which created a racial caste system in the South. They included the laws which prevented blacks from voting and those which created segregated facilities.
Tenure of Office Act
1866 – Enacted by radical Congress, it forbade the president from removing civil officers without consent of the Senate. It was meant to prevent Johnson from removing radicals from office. Johnson broke this law when he fired a radical Republican from his cabinet, and he was impeached for this “crime.”
Reconstruction Act of 1867
Pushed through congress over Johnson’s veto, it gave radical Republicans complete military control over the south and divided the South into five military zones, each headed by a general with absolute power over his district.
Force Acts
The four Force Acts passed by the Congress of the United States shortly after the American Civil War helped protect the voting rights of African-Americans.
Freeport Doctrine
During the Lincoln-Douglas debates, Douglas said in his Freeport Doctrine that Congress couldn’t force a territory to become a slave state against its will.
Secession
After Lincoln was elected, but before he was inaugurated, seven Southern states seceded. Buchanan, the lame duck president, decided to leave the problem for Lincoln to take care of.
Union Advantages
in the Civil War – Larger number of troops, superior navy, better transportation, overwhelming financial and industrial reserves to create munitions and supplies, which eventually outstripped the South’s initial material advantage.
Confederate Advantages
in the Civil War – Large land areas with long coasts, could afford to lose battles, and could export cotton for money. They were fighting a defensive war and only needed to keep the North out of their states to win. Also had the nation’s best military leaders, and most of the existing military equipment and supplies.
"Uncle Tom's Cabin"
Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote the abolitionist book, Uncle Tom’s Cabin. It helped to crystallize the rift between the North and South. It has been called the greatest American propaganda novel ever written, and helped to bring about the Civil War.
"The Impending Crisis of the South"
Hinton Helper of North Carolina spoke for poor, non-slave-owning Whites in his 1857 book, which was a violent attack on slavery. It wasn’t written with sympathy for Blacks, who Helper despised, but with a belief that the economic system of the South was bringing ruin on the small farmer.
Lincoln-Douglas Debates
Occurred in 1858 during Illinois Senatorial campaign – A series of seven debates. The two argued the important issues of the day like popular sovereignty, the Lecompton constitution and the Dred Scott decision. Douglas won these debates, but Lincoln’s position in these debates helped him beat Douglas in the 1860 presidential election.
Border States
States bordering the North: Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky and Missouri. They were slave states, but did no secede.
Trent Affair
Two Confederate diplomats were dispatched to go to Europe on a mail steamer to try and gain support from Britain and France. The Union stopped this steamer and removed the two Confederate diplomats.
Harriett Beecher Stowe
Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote the abolitionist book, Uncle Tom’s Cabin. It helped to crystallize the rift between the North and South. It has been called the greatest American propaganda novel ever written, and helped to bring about the Civil War.
Hinton R. Helper
Hinton Helper of North Carolina spoke for poor, non-slave-owing Whites in his 1857 book, which as a violent attack on slavery. It wasn't written with sympathy for Blacks, who Helper despised, but with a belief that the economic system of the South was bringing ruin on the small farmer.
Roger B. Taney
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court and helped Jackson crush the Bank of the U.S.
- As chief justice, he wrote the important decision in the Dred Scott case, upholding police power of states and asserting the principle of social responsibility of private property. He was Southern and upheld the fugitive slave laws.
John Brown
In 1859, the militant abolitionist John Brown seized the U.S. arsenal at Harper's Ferry. He planned to end slavery by massacring slave owners and freeing their slaves. He was captured and executed.
James Buchanan
After Lincoln was elected, but before he was inaugurated, seven Southern states seceded. Buchanan, the lame duck president, decided to leave the problem for Lincoln to take care of.
Stephen Douglas
A moderate, who introduced the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854 and popularized the idea of popular sovereignty.
Abraham Lincoln
Debated with Douglas in a series of seven debates – he lost.
- In his acceptance speech for his nomination to the Senate in June, 1858, Lincoln paraphrased from the Bible: "A house divided against itself cannot stand." He continued, "I do not believe this government can continue half slave and half free, I do not expect the Union to be dissolved - I do not expect the house to fall - but I do believe it will cease to be divided."
- Came up with the ten percent plan which said that former Confederate states would be readmitted to the Union if 10% of their citizens took a loyalty oath and the state agreed to ratify the 13th Amendment which outlawed slavery. Not put into effect because Lincoln was assassinated.
Jefferson Davis
Davis was chosen as president of the Confederacy in 1861.
George McClellan
A Union general in the Civil War.
- In 1861 he was commander of the Army of the Potomac (name of the Union Army). He was an excellent drillmaster and organizer of troops but he was also a perfectionist and would always believe he was outnumbered. He never took risks, and held the army for months until Lincoln ordered him to advance.
Robert E. Lee
General Robert E. Lee and General Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson were major leaders and generals for the Confederacy. Best military leaders in the Civil War.
Ulysses S. Grant
A Union general in the Civil War
- U.S. president 1873-1877. Military hero of the Civil War, he led a corrupt administration, consisting of friends and relatives. Although Grant was personally a very honest and moral man, his administration was considered the most corrupt the U.S. had had at that time.
William T. Sherman
A Union general in the Civil War.
- He was given command to march through Georgia, capturing and burning down Atlanta before completing his famous “march to the sea” at Savannah.
John Wilkes Booth
An actor, planned with others for six months to abduct Lincoln at the start of the war, but they were foiled when Lincoln didn't arrive at the scheduled place. April 14, 1865, he shot Lincoln at Ford's Theatre and cried, "Sic Semper Tyrannis!" ("Thus always to tyrants!") When he jumped down onto the stage his spur caught in the American flag draped over the balcony and he fell and broke his leg. He escaped on a waiting horse and fled town. He was found several days later in a barn. He refused to come out; the barn was set on fire. Booth was shot, either by himself or a soldier.
Andrew Johnson
A Southerner form Tennessee, as V.P. when Lincoln was killed, he became president. He opposed radical Republicans who passed Reconstruction Acts over his veto. The first U.S. president to be impeached, he survived the Senate removal by only one vote. He was a very weak president.
Thaddeus Stevens
A radical Republican who believed in harsh punishments for the South. Leader of the radical Republicans in Congress.
"Bleeding" Kansas
Also known as the Kansas Border War. Following the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, pro-slavery forces from Missouri, known as the Border Ruffians, crossed the border into Kansas and terrorized and murdered antislavery settlers. Antislavery sympathizers from Kansas carried out reprisal attacks, the most notorious of which was John Brown's 1856 attack on the settlement at Pottawatomie Creek. The war continued for four years before the antislavery forces won. The violence it generated helped precipitate the Civil War.
Harper's Ferry
In 1859, the militant abolitionist John Brown seized the U.S. arsenal at Harper's Ferry. He planned to end slavery by massacring slave owners and freeing their slaves. He was captured and executed.
Ft. Sumter
Site of the opening engagement of the Civil War. On December 20, 1860, South Carolina had seceded from the Union, and had demanded that all federal property in the state be surrendered to state authorities. Major Robert Anderson concentrated his units at Fort Sumter, and, when Lincoln took office on March 4, 1861, Sumter was one of only two forts in the South still under Union control. Learning that Lincoln planned to send supplies to reinforce the fort, on April 11, 1861, Confederate General Beauregard demanded Anderson's surrender, which was refused. On April 12, 1861, the Confederate Army began bombarding the fort, which surrendered on April 14, 1861. Congress declared war on the Confederacy the next day.
Antietam
A battle site of the Civil War.
- A turning point of the war and a much-needed victory for Lincoln.
- McClellan’s men found a copy of Lee’s plans and were able to stop the Southerners and Antietam on September 17, 1862 in one of the bloodiest days of the civil War.
- Antietam was also the Union display of power that Lincoln needed to announce his Emancipation Proclamation.
Gettysburg
A battle sites of the Civil War.
- 90,000 soldiers under Meade vs. 76,000 under Lee lasted three days and the North won.
- General George Pickett led a hopeless, bloody, and pitiful charge up a hill that ended in the pig-slaughter of Confederates.
Know-Nothing Party
The Know-Nothings opposed immigration and Catholic influence. They answered questions from outsiders about the party by saying "I know nothing." They were against the Irish and German immigrants because they created a Catholic Church, and the “natives” were Protestant. They were afraid that a Catholic Church would be established. The name came from its secretiveness.
Copperheads
Those who were totally against the war, and denounced the president and his “nigger war.”
- The most famous of the copperheads was Clement L. Valandigham, who harshly denounced the war but was imprisoned, then banished to the South, then came back to Ohio illegally but was not further punished, and also inspired the story “The Man without a Country.”
Radical Republicans
Minority Republican group
- believed that the South should have a harder time rejoining the Union because of what they did
- wanted the Southern social structure to be uprooted, the planters punished, and the freemen protected by federal law
- some were secretly pleased when Lincoln was assassinated
Freedman's Bureau
1865 - Agency set up to aid former slaves in adjusting themselves to freedom. It furnished food and clothing to needy blacks and helped them get jobs.
Scalawags
Southerners who were accused of plundering Southern treasuries and selling out the Southerners.
Carpetbaggers
Northerners accused of sleazily seeking power and profit in a now-desolate South.
- Derogatory Southern name for Northerners who came to the South to participate in Reconstruction governments.
- Name came from the cloth gas of possessions many of them used to travel South.
- Response by some violent Southern whites led to organization of the Ku Klux Klan.
KKK
Also known as the Ku Klux Klan
- White-supremacist group formed by six former Confederate officers after the Civil War. Name is essentially Greek for "Circle of Friends". Group eventually turned to terrorist attacks on blacks. The original Klan was disbanded in 1869, but was later resurrected by white supremacists in 1915.
Resumption Act
1879 - Congress said that greenbacks were redeemable for gold, but no one wanted to redeem them for face gold value. Because paper money was much more convenient than gold, they remained in circulation.
Electoral Count Act
As a belated result of the disputed election of 1876 involving Samuel J. Tilden and Rutherford B. Hayes, the Electoral Count Act of 1887 placed the responsibility of deciding electoral disputes mainly on the states themselves. Congress now counts the votes (a mere formality) on Jan. 6.
Plessy vs. Ferguson
1886 - Plessy was a black man who had been instructed by the NAACP to refuse to ride in the train car reserved for blacks. The NAACP hoped to force a court decision on segregation. However, the Supreme Court ruled against Plessy and the NAACP, saying that segregated facilities for whites and blacks were legal as long as the facilities were of equal quality.
- “Separate but equal”
Chinese Exclusion Act
Denied citizenship to Chinese in the U.S. and forbid further immigration of Chinese. Supported by American workers who worried about losing their jobs to Chinese immigrants who would work for less pay.
Pendleton Act
1883 - The first federal regulatory commission. Office holders would be assessed on a merit basis to be sure they were fit for duty. Brought about by the assassination of Garfield by an immigrant who was angry about being unable to get a government job. The assassination raised questions about how people should be chosen for civil service jobs.
McKinley Tariff Act
A highly protective tariff passed in 1880. So high it caused a popular backlash which cost the Republicans votes.
Sherman Silver Purchase Act (repeal of)
1890 - Directed the Treasury to buy even larger amounts of silver that the Bland-Allison Act and at inflated prices. The introduction of large quantities of overvalued silver into the economy lead to a run on the federal gold reserves, leading to the Panic of 1893. Repealed in 1893.
- 1893 - Act repealed by President Cleveland to protect gold reserves.
Interstate Commerce Act
Established the Interstate Commerce Commission in part to monitor discrimination within the railroad industry.
- Prohibited rebates and pools and required railroads to publish their rates.
- Also prohibited unfair discrimination against shippers and prohibited the practice of charging more for short hauls than long hauls.
- In general, the Act opened competition, the goal of which was to preserve equality and spur innovation.
Wabash vs. Illinois
1886 - Stated that individual states can control trade in their states, but cannot regulate railroads coming through them. Congress has exclusive jurisdiction over interstate commerce. States cannot regulate or place restrictions on businesses which only pass through them, such as interstate transportation.
Interstate Commerce Commission
A five member board that monitors the business operation of carriers transporting goods and people between states.
Sherman Anti-trust Act
1890 - A federal law that committed the American government to opposing monopolies, it prohibits contracts, combinations and conspiracies in restraint of trade.
Morrill Act
This increased tariff rates by about 5 to 10%, but war soon drove these rates even higher.
18th Amendment
Banned the manufacture, sale, and transportation of alcohol. It was ratified on January 16, 1919 and repealed by the 21st Amendment in 1933. In the over 200 years of the U.S. Constitution, the 18th Amendment remains the only Amendment to ever have been repealed.
The "Bloody Shirt"
The practice of reviving unpleasant memories from the past. Representative Ben F. Butler waved before the House a bloodstained nightshirt of a carpetbagger flogged by Klan members.
Era of "Good Stealings"
The 1870’s-1890’s was a dark period in American politics filled with corruption, which rivaled today’s. Dubbed “The Era of Good Stealings,” the gilded age was arguably when politicians first recognized the seemingly deep pool of corporate money and also when many of them signed their souls over to the corporations.
Populism
A political doctrine or philosophy that aims to defend the interests of the common people against an entrenched, self-serving or corrupt elite.
- Flourished among western farmers
- Based largely on its opposition to the gold standard
Free Enterprise and Competition
An economic system characterized by private ownership of property and productive resources, the profit motive to stimulate production, competition to ensure efficiency, and the forces of supply and demand to direct the production and distribution of goods and services.
Vertical Integration
Owning every step of the manufacturing process.
- Ex: An oil company owns the land the oil comes from, the business to extract the oil, the shipping business to ship the oil, and the gas stations to sell the oil.
Horizontal Integration
Owning many different businesses who sell the same thing.
- Ex: Gap owns Forth and Towne, Banana Republic, Old Navy, and the GAP company itself.
Gospel of Wealth
Carnegie was an American millionaire and philanthropist who donated large sums of money for public works. His book argued that the wealthy have an obligation to give something back to society.
"New Immigration"
The second major wave of immigration to the U.S.; betwen 1865-1910, 25 million new immigrants arrived. Unlike earlier immigration, which had come primarily from Western and Northern Europe, the New Immigrants came mostly from Southern and Eastern Europe, fleeing persecution and poverty. Language barriers and cultural differences produced mistrust by Americans.
Social Gospel
A movement in the late 1800s / early 1900s which emphasized charity and social responsibility as a means of salvation.
Nativism
An anti-foreign feeling that arose in the 1840's and 1850's in response to the influx of Irish and German Catholics.
Credit-Mobilier Scandal
A construction company owned by the larger stockholders of the Union Pacific Railroad. After Union Pacific received the government contract to build the transcontinental railroad, it "hired" Credit Mobilier to do the actual construction, charging the federal government nearly twice the actual cost of the project. When the scheme was discovered, the company tried to bribe Congress with gifts of stock to stop the investigation. This precipitated the biggest bribery scandal in U.S. history, and led to greater public awareness of government corruption.
Whisky Ring
During the Grant administration, a group of officials were importing whiskey and using their offices to avoid paying the taxes on it, cheating the treasury out of millions of dollars.
1893 Depression
Profits dwindled, businesses went bankrupt and slid into debt. Caused loss of business confidence. 20% of the workforce unemployed. Let to the Pullman strike.
Transcontinental railroad
Union Pacific: Began in Omaha in 1865 and went west. Central Pacific: Went east from Sacramento and met the Union Pacific Railroad at Promontory Point, Utah on May 10, 1869, where the golden spike ceremony was held. Transcontinental railroad overcharged the federal government and used substandard materials.
Stock "Watering"
Price manipulation by strategic stock brokers of the late 1800s. The term for selling more stock than they actually owned in order to lower prices, then buying it back.
Pools
The first industrial pools in the 80's tried to fix the price of their goods (be it salt, whiskey, cattle, iron, oil ...) no matter the circumstances, to a level high enough to earn them a nice living, but not too high so as not to attract outside competitors.
Monopolies
It is defined as a persistent market situation where there is only one provider of a product or service. Monopolies are characterized by a lack of economic competition for the good or service that they provide and a lack of viable substitute goods.
Bessemer Process
Bessemer invented a process for removing air pockets from iron, and thus allowed steel to be made. This made skyscrapers possible, advances in shipbuilding, construction, etc.
Jim Fisk / Jay Gould
Stock manipulators and brothers-in-law of President Grant, they made money selling gold.
Ulysses S. Grant
U.S. president 1873-1877. Military hero of the Civil War, he led a corrupt administration, consisting of friends and relatives. Although Grant was personally a very honest and moral man, his administration was considered the most corrupt the U.S. had had at that time.
William Tweed
Large political boss and head of Tammany Hall, he controlled New York and believed in "Honest Graft".
Denis Kearney
Irish immigrant who settled in San Francisco and fought for workers rights. He led strikes in protest of the growing number of imported Chinese workers who worked for less than the Americans. Founded the Workingman's Party, which was later absorbed into the Granger movement.
James A. Garfield
Twentieth President
- Former Ohio Congressman and Union General
- Charles Guiteau, a disappointed office seeker, shot and killed Garfield
- His assassination spurred the passage of the Pendleton Act.
Grover Cleveland
Cleveland was the first Democrat to be president since Buchanan. He benefited from the split in the Republican Party.
- Emphasized civil service reform, and fought high tariffs in his Annual Address.
- The only President to serve two non-consecutive terms.
- Signed the Interstate Commerce Act
- Sent in federal troops to enforce an injunction against striking railroad workers in Chicago.
William Jennings Bryan
Three-time candidate for president for the Democratic Party, nominated because of support from the Populist Party. He never won, but was the most important Populist in American history. He later served as Woodrow Wilson's Secretary of State (1913-1915).
Cornelius Vanderbilt
A railroad baron, he controlled the New York Central Railroad.
Andrew Carnegie
A business tycoon, he made his money in the steel industry.
- Carnegie was an American millionaire and philanthropist who donated large sums of money for public works. His book argued that the wealthy have an obligation to give something back to society.
John D. Rockefeller
Joined his brother William in the formation of the Standard Oil Company in 1870 and became very wealthy.
Terrence Powderly
An American labor union originally established as a secret fraternal order and noted as the first union of all workers. It was founded in 1869 in Philadelphia by Uriah Stephens and a number of fellow workers. Powderly was elected head of the Knights of Labor in 1883.
Samuel Gompers
President of the AFL, he combined unions to increase their strength.
Louis Sullivan
Known as the father of the skyscraper because he designed the first steel-skeleton skyscraper. Mentor of Frank Lloyd Wright.
Jane Addams
Social reformer who worked to improve the lives of the working class. In 1889 she founded Hull House in Chicago, the first private social welfare agency in the U.S., to assist the poor, combat juvenile delinquency and help immigrants learn to speak English.
Washington Gladden
Congregationalist minister who followed the social gospel and supported social reform. A prolific writer whose newspaper columns and many books made him a national leader of the Social gospel movement.
Charles Darwin
Presented the theory of evolution, which proposed that creation was an ongoing process in which mutation and natural selection constantly give rise to new species. Sparked a long-running religious debate over the issue of creation.
Hearst
Newspaper publisher who adopted a sensationalist style. His reporting was partly responsible for igniting the Spanish-American War. The most famous yellow journalist.
DuBois and B.T. Washington
DuBois black orator and eassayist. Helped found the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). He disagreed with Booker T. Washington's theories, and took a militant position on race relations.
Stanton, Anthony, Chapman Catt
All suffregettes
- Stanton was a suffragette who, with Lucretia Mott, organized the first convention on women's rights, held in Seneca Falls, New York in 1848. Issued the Declaration of Sentiments which declared men and women to be equal and demanded the right to vote for women. Co-founded the National Women's Suffrage Association with Susan B. Anthony in 1869.
- Anthony was an early leader of the women's suffrage (right to vote) movement, co-founded the National Women's Suffrage Association with Elizabeth Cady Stnaton in 1869.
- Catt was a suffragette who was president of the National Women's Suffrage Association, and founder of the International Woman Suffrage Alliance. Instrumental in obtaining passage of the 19th Amendment in 1920.
Homestead Strike
The workers at a steel plant in Pennsylvania went on strike, forcing the owner to close down. Armed guards were hired to protect the building. The strikers attacked for five months, then gave in to peace demands.
Greenback Labor Party
An American political party that was active between 1874 and 1884. Its name referred to paper money, or "greenbacks," that had been issued during the American Civil War and afterward. The party opposed the shift from paper money back to a specie-based monetary system because it believed that privately owned banks and corporations would then reacquire the power to define the value of products and labor. Conversely, they believed that government control of the monetary system would allow it to keep more currency in circulation, as it had in the war. This would better foster business and assist farmers by raising prices and making debts easier to pay. It was established as a political party whose members were primarily farmers financially hurt by the Panic of 1873.
Tammany Hall
Political machine in New York, headed by Boss Tweed.
Civil Service Commission
A federal agency which regulates the hiring of government employees.
Populist Party
o A short-lived political party in the United States in the late 19th century. It flourished particularly among western farmers, based largely on its opposition to the gold standard. Although the party did not remain a lasting feature of the political landscape, many of its positions have become adopted over the course of the following decades. The crux of the party's platform — the democratization of the nation's economic/finance system — was not implemented, however. The very term "populist" has since become a generic term in U.S. politics for politics which appeals to the common person in opposition to established interests.
Farmer’s Alliance
Movement which focused on cooperation between farmers. They all agreed to sell crops at the same high prices to eliminate competition. Not successful.
Knights of Labor
An American labor union originally established as a secret fraternal order and noted as the first union of all workers. It was founded in 1869 in Philadelphia by Uriah Stephens and a number of fellow workers. Powderly was elected head of the Knights of Labor in 1883.
American Federation of Labor
AFL - Began in 1886 with about 140,000 members; by 1917 it had 2.5 million members. It is a federation of different unions.
American Protective Association
A Nativist group of the 1890s which opposed all immigration to the U.S.
NAACP
Founded in 1909 by a group of black and white intellectuals. Stands for National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.
- Founded in 1909 to improve living conditions for inner city Blacks, evolved into a national organization dedicated to establishing equal legal rights for Blacks.
Anti-Saloon League
National organization set up in 1895 to work for prohibition. Later joined with the WCTU to publicize the effects of drinking.
"Yellow" Journalism
Term used to describe the sensationalist newspaper writings of the time. They were written on cheap yellow paper. The most famous yellow journalist was William Randolf Hearst. Yellow journalism was considered tainted journalism - omissions and half-truths.
- Described foreign exploits as manly adventures.
Josiah Strong
Enivisioned a "final competition of races," in which the Anglo-Saxons would emerge victorious.
- In the book Our Country, Strong argued that the American country and people were superior because they were Anglo-Saxon.
- Helped write the Yellow Press.
Theodore Roosevelt
In charge of the navy when the Maine crisis occurred, he had rebuilt the navy and tried to start a war with Cuba.
- Roosevelt said, "walk softly and carry a big stick." In international affairs, ask first but bring along a big army to help convince them. Threaten to use force, act as international policemen. It was his foreign policy in Latin America.
Henry Cabot Lodge
Lodge was against the League of Nations, so he packed the foreign relations committee with critics and was successful in convincing the Senate to reject the treaty.
Alfred Thayer Mahan
In 1890, he wrote The Influence of Sea Power upon History. He was a proponent of building a large navy. He said that a new, modern navy was necessary to protect the international trade America depended on and that control of the sea as the key to world.
- Created a race among the great powers (English, Germans, and Japanese) for unclaimed land.
James G. Blaine
The 1884 nomination for the Rebublican presidential candidate. Pan-Americanism stated that events in the Americans affected the U.S. and we thus had reason to intervene.
- Pushed the "Big Sister" Policy and said we should open Latin American markets to Yankee traders.
Richard Olney
Attorney General of the U.S., he obtained an active injunction that state union members couldn't stop the movement of trains. He moved troops in to stop the Pullman strike.
The Battleship Maine
February 15, 1898 - An explosion from a mine in the Bay of Havanna crippled the warship Maine. The U.S. blamed Spain for the incident and used it as an excuse to go to war with Spain however, the battleship actually exploded from inside.
Teller Amendment
April 1896 - U.S. declared Cuba free from Spain, but the Teller Amendment disclaimed any American intention to annex Cuba.
John D. Long
He was a Navy secretary and much of the readiness of the army was owed to him and Theodore Roosevelt.
George Dewey
Was the Commander of the US Asiatic Squadron in Hong Kong when he was ordered to go to the Phillipines in the event of a war. He was victorious over an attacking Spanish fleet but was unable to continue battle on land due to insufficient numbers and had to wait for backup to slowly assemble in America.
The Rough Riders and the Battle of San Juan Hill
1898 - Theodore Roosevelt formed the Rough Riders (volunteers) to fight in the Spanish- American War in Cuba. They charged up San Juan Hill during the battle of Santiago. It made Roosevelt popular.
Anti-Imperialist League
A league containing anti-imperialist groups; it was never strong due to differences on domestic issues. Isolationists. They fought against the McKinley administration's expansionist moves.
Foraker Act
Gave the Puerto Ricans a limited degree of popular government. In 1917 they got US citizenship.
Platt Amendment
A rider to the Army Appropriations Bill of 1901, it specified the conditions under which the U.S. could intervene in Cuba's internal affairs, and provided that Cuba could not make a treaty with another nation that might impair its independence. Its provisions where later incorporated into the Cuban Constitution.
Emilio Aguinaldo
Emilio Aguinaldo (1869-1964) led a Filipino insurrection against the Spanish in 1896 and assisted the U.S. invasion. He served as leader of the provisional government but was removed by the U.S. because he wanted to make the Philippines independent before the U.S. felt it was ready for independence. He was captured.
John Hay
September, 1899 - Hay sent imperialist nations a note asking them to offer assurance that they would respect the principle of equal trade opportunities, specifically in the China market.
The Open Door Note
Asked Imperialist Nations to offer assurance that they would respect the principle of equal trade opportunities, specifically in the China market.
- Asked European nationas to keep fair competition open to all nations willing and wanting to participate. It "saved" China from being carved up.
The Boxer Rebellion
1900 - a secret Chinese society called the Boxers, because their symbol was a fist, revolted against foreigners by taking over the capital of Chinga, Beijing and taking all foreigners hostage.
Hay-Pauncefote Treaty
1901 - Great Britain recognized U.S. Sphere of Influence over the Panama canal zone provided the canal itself remained neutral. U.S. given full control over construction and management of the canal.
The Panama Canal
Buit to make passage between Atlantic and Pacific oceans easier and faster because there were many Navy ships that needed to get from Gulf of Mexico out to the Pacific to help protect American islands in case of invasion.
Root-Takahira Agreement
1908 - Japan / U.S. agreement in which both nations agreed to respect each other's territories in the Pacific and to uphold the Open Door policy in China.
The Zimmerman Note
1917 - Germany sent this to Mexico instructing an ambassador to convince Mexico to go to war with the U.S. It was intercepted and caused the U.S. to mobilized against Germany, which had proven it was hostile.
Wilsonian Idealism
Set idealistic goals for peace
The Fourteen Points
Wilson's idea that he wanted included in the WWI peace treaty, including freedom of the seas and the League of Nations.
Committee on Public Information
Was created to "sell" the war to those people who were against it and gain support for it. To do this, men devlievered speeches and gave out pamphlets. It was headed by George Creel
George Creel
Headed the Committee on Public Information
Espionage Act and Sedition Act
Brought forth under the Wilson administration, they stated that any treacherous act or draft dodging was forbidden, outlawed disgracing the government, the Constitution, or military uniforms, and forbade aiding the enemy.
National War Labor Board
Acted as a supreme court for labor cases. Did more harm than good when it tried to limit wages, which led to strikes.
Wobblies
Haywood was the leader of the Wobblies. The International Workers of the World (Wobblies) were a militant, radical union. They favored socialism and opposed free enterprise. They were disliked by big business and less radical unions.
Alice Paul
A suffragette who believed that giving women the right to vote would eliminate the corruption in politics.
Herbert Hoover
He led the Food Administration and started many programs to streamline food production and distribution.
General John Pershing
1916 - Villa attacked Columbus, New Mexico and Pershing was directed to follow him into Mexico by America because he was leading an American front. Pershing met with resistance and eventually left without finding Pancho Villa.
Henry Cabot Lodge
Lodge was against the League of Nations, so he packed the foreign relations committee with critics and was successful in convincing the Senate to reject the treaty.
The League of Nations
Devised by President Wilson, it reflected the power of large countries. Although comprised of delegates from every country, it was designed to be run by a council of the five largest countries. It also included a provision for a world court.
Treaty of Versailles
The Palace of Versailles was the site of the signing of the peace treaty that ended WW I on June 28, 1919. Victorious Allies imposed punitive reparations on Germany.
Warren G. Harding
August 2, 1923 - President Harding died and Vice President Calvin Coolidge took over.
Jacob Riis
Early 1900's writer who exposed social and political evils in the U.S. Muckraker novel, How the Other Half Lives. It shocked the middle class and deeply influenced Theodore Roosevelt.
Muckrackers
Bright young reporters that exposed evil in the country by digging deep for dirt that the public loved to hate.
Lincoln Steffens
He wrote The Same of the Cities which was a muckraker novel concerning the poor living conditions in the cities. He also unmasked the alliance between big business and municipal government
Ida Tarbell
Wrote History of the Standard Oil Company in 1904 which exposed the monpolistic practices of the Standard Oil Company. Strengthened the movement for outlawing monopolies. A muckraker novel.
Initiatives
People have the right to propose a new law. Made elected officials more responsible and sensitive to the needs of the people, and part of the movement to make government more efficient and scientific.
Referendums
A law passed by the legislature could be put on the ballot can for the people to approval/veto. Made elected officials more responsible and sensitive to the needs of the people, and part of the movement to make government more efficient and scientific.
Recalls
The people can petition and vote to have an elected official removed from office. Made elected officials more responsible and sensitive to the needs of the people, and part of the movement to make government more efficient and scientific.
17th Amendment
Direct election of US Senators
Robert La Follette
A great debater and political leader who believed in libertarian reforms, he was a major leader of the Progressive movement from Wisconsin.
The Settlement House Movement
At this time many settlement houses were created, which helped newcomers cope with American big-city life and exposed middle class women to American big city problems. the most prominent settlement house (but not first) was the Hull House.
Florence Kelley
Founded the National Consumer's League, which wanted legislation to protect consumers from being cheated or harmed by big business. Also was the state of Illinois' first chief factory inspector and lead an advocate for improved factory conditions.
National Comsumers League
Made female comsumers push for laws safeguarding women and children in the work place.
Triangle Shirtwaist company fire
A fire in New York's Triangle Shirtwaist Company in 1911 killed 146 people, mostly women. They died because the doors were locked and the windows were too high for them to get to the ground which was a fire hazard. Later laws were passed to prevent this from happening again.
Frances E. Willard and the WCTU
Dean of Women at Northwestern University and the president of the Women's Christian Temperance Union which she build to become the largest organization of women in the world.
Department of Labor and Commerce
Originally started in 1903 as the Department of Commerce and Labor, it was combined with the Bureau of Corporations in 1913 to create the Department of Labor. The Bureau of Corporations helped break the stronghold of monopolies.
Elkins Act
1903 This strengthened earlier federal legislation that outlawed preferential pricing through rebates by saying that heavy fines could be imosed on railroads that gave rebates and shippers that accepted them. This act also prohibited railroads from transporting goods they owned. As a dodge around previous legislation, railroads were buying goods and transporting them as if they were their own.
Hepburn Act
1906 It imposed stricter control over railroads and expanded powers of the Interstate Commerce Commission, including giving the ICC the power to set maximum rates. It severely restricted free railroad passes with bribery.
Upton Sinclair's "The Jungle"
1906 The author who wrote a book about the horrors of food productions in 1906, the bad quality of meat and the dangerous working conditions.
Meat Inspection Act
1906 - Laid down binding rules for sanitary meat packing and government inspection of meat products crossing state lines.
Pure Food and Drug Act
1906 - Forbade the manufacture or sale of mislabeled or adulterated food or drugs, it gave the government broad powers to ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs in order to abolish the "patent" drug trade. Still in existence as the FDA.
Woodrow Wilson
He believed that monopolies had to be broken up and that the government must regulate business. He believed in competition, and called his economic plan "New Freedom."
Progressive Republican Party
Roosevelt ran under this party, it was a third party.
The "Bull Moose" Campaign
Roosvelt's campaing under the Progressive Party in the 1912 election. He ran as a Progressive against Republican Taft, beating him but losing to Democrat Woodrow Wilson. It was called "Bull Moose" because Roosevelt said he felt as strong as a bull moose.
Underwood Tariff Bill
October 13, 1913 - Lowered tariffs on hundreds of items that could be produced more cheaply in the U.S. than abroad.
16th Amendment
Congress has the power to lay and collect income taxes.
The "triple wall of privilege"
Wilson called for a war against these three things, tariff, banks, and trusts.
Federal Reserve Act
1913-Regulated banking to help small banks stay in business. A move away from laissez-faire policies, it was passed by Wilson.
Federal Trade Commission
1914-A government agency established in 1914 to prevent unfair business practices and help maintain a competitive economy. They wanted to crush monopolies at their source by rooting out unfair trade practices.
Clayton Anti-Trust Act
1914 - Extended the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 to give it more power against trusts and big business. It outlawed practices that had a dangerous likelihood of creating a monopoly, even if no unlawful agreement was involved.
Louis Brandeis
A lawyer and jurist, he created the "Brandeis Brief," which succinctly outlines the facts of the case and cites legal precedents, in order to persuade the judge to make a certain ruling. Also the first Jew to be nominated for Supreme Court.
Pacho Villa
1916 - Villa attacked Columbus, New Mexico and Pershing was directed to follow him into Mexico. Pershing met with resistance and eventually left without finding Pancho Villa.
Lusitania
May 7, 1915 - British passenger ships were regularly sunk by German subs, but the Lusitania had Americans aboard and brought the U.S. into the war. However, the Germans justified their sinking it by saying that it had almost 4200 cases of small ammunition.
The Sussex Ultimatum and the Sussex Pledge
The ultimatum said that Germans must stop sinking ships or the US will break their neutrailty (and almost certainly neter the war). The Pledge was that the Germans promised to stop submarine warfare.
A. Mitchell Palmer
He was chosen to round up immigrants that were questionably communists, and he ended up rounding up about 6000 people.`
Sacco and Vanzetti
Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti were Italian immigrants charged with murdering a guard and robbing a shoe factory in Braintree, Mass. The trial lasted from 1920-1927. Convicted on circumstantial evidence, many believed they had been framed for the crime because of their anarchist and pro-union activities. They were electrocuted.
Emergency Quota Act of 1921
1921 - First legislation passed which restricted the number of immigrants. Quota was 357,800, which let in only 2% of the number of people of that nationality that were allowed in in 1890.
Immigration Act of 1924
1924 - Limited the number of immigrants to 150,000 per year.
The Volstead Act (18th Amendment)
Prohibition - 1919: the 18th Amendment outlawed the manufacture or sale of intoxicating liquors. Volstead Act - 1919: Defined what drinks constituted "intoxicating liquors" under the 18th Amendment, and set penalties for violations of prohibition.
Al Capone
In Chicago, he was one of the most famous leaders of organized crime of the era.
John Dewey
American philosopher and educator, he led the philosophical movement called Pragmatism. Influenced by evolution, he believed that only reason and knowledge could be used to solve problems. Wanted educational reforms.
Scopes "Monkey" Trial
1925 - Prosecution of Dayton, Tennessee school teacher, John Scopes, for violation of the Butler Act, a Tennessee law forbidding public schools from teaching about evolution. Former Democratic presidential candidate, William Jennings Bryan, prosecuted the case, and the famous criminal attorney, Clarence Darrow, defended Scopes. Scopes was convicted and fined $100, but the trial started a shift of public opinion away from Fundamentalism.
Henry Ford
1913 - Ford developed the mass-produced Model-T car, which sold at an affordable price. It pioneered the use of the assembly line. Also greatly increased his workers wages and instituted many modern concepts of regular work hours and job benefits. Sloan, an American industrialist, helped found project.
The Wright Brothers
Launched the air age.
Charles Lindbergh
Lindbergh flew his airplane, the Spirit of St. Louis, across the Atlantic in the first transatlantic solo flight.
D.W. Griffith
Produced the move "The Birth of Nations" in 1915 which glorified the KK of Reconstuction days and defamed both blacks and Northern carpetbaggers.
Al Jolson
Starred in the first "talkie" movie with sounds called "The Jazz Singer."
Margaret Sanger
American leader of the movement to legalize birth control during the early 1900's. As a nurse in the poor sections of New York City, she had seen the suffering caused by unwanted pregnancy. Founded the first birth control clinic in the U.S. and the American Birth Control League, which later became Planned Parenthood.
The "Jazz" Age
Jazz was the new music of the time and it movied north with the blacks from New Orleans after WWI. Many jazz songs became instant classics.
Marcus Garvey
Black leader who advocated "black nationalism," and financial independence for Blacks, he started the "Back to Africa" movement and founded the United Negro Improvement Association (UNIA). He believed Blacks would not get justice in mostly white nations. He also sponsored black businesses to keep black dollars in black hands.
H.L. Mencken
In 1924, founded The American Mercury, which featured works by new writers and much of Mencken's criticism on American taste, culture, and language. He attacked the shallowness and conceit of the American middle class.
F. Scott Fitzgerald
Most critics regard "The Great Gatsby" as his finest work. Written in 1925, it tells of an idealist who is gradually destroyed by the influence of the wealthy, pleasure-seeking people around him.
Ernest Hemingway
He received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1954 and the Pulitzer Prize in 1952. A Farewell to Arms was written in 1929 and told the story of a love affair between an American ambulance driver and a British nurse in Italy during WW I. He shot himself in the head with a shotgun in 1961.
Buying stocks on margin
This is when you buy a stock with a small downpayment and say that you will pay the rest later because you don't have the money now. It's buying something with money you hope that you'll be getting in the future.
Warren G. Harding
President for less than three years.
Calvin Coolidge
August 2, 1923 - President Harding died and Vice President Calvin Coolidge took over. Republican
Herbert Hoover
Secretary of Commerce for Harding. Republican
Adkins vs. Children's Hospital
1923 - The hospital fired employees because it didn't want to pay them what was reqired by the minimum wage law for women and children. Reversed Muller vs. Oregon case.
The Washington Conference of 1921
The U.S. and nine other countries discussed limits on naval armaments. They felt that a naval arms race had contributed to the start of WW I. They created quotas for different classes of ships that could be built by each country based on its economic power and size of existing navies.
Kellogg-Briand Pact 1928
"Pact of Paris" or "Treaty for the Renunciation of War," it made war illegal as a tool of national policy, allowing only defensive war. The Treaty was generally believed to be useless.
The Teapot Dome Scandal
1929 - The Naval strategic oil reserve at Elk Hills, also known as "Teapot Dome" was taken out of the Navy's control and placed in the hands of the Department of the Interior, which leased the land to oil companies. Several Cabinet members received huge payments as bribes. Due to the investigation, Daugherty, Denky, and Fall were forced to resign.
Hawley-Smoot Tariff
1930-Congressional compromise serving special interest, it raised duties on agricultural and manufactured imports. It may have contributed to the spread of the international depression because it raised the tariff to 60%.
Black Tuesday
October 29, 1929-The day that the stock market crashed.
The "tricle down" Theory
If the rich become richer then the money will "trickle down" to the middle and poor classes making them more wealthy.
Norris LaGuardia and the Anti-Injunction Act
1932-Liberal Republicans, Feorelo LaGuardia and George Norris cosponsored the Norris-LaGuardia Federal Anti-Injunction Act, which protected the rights of striking workers, by severely restricting the federal courts' power to issue injunctions against strikes and other union activities.
Reconstruction Finance Corporation
Created in 1932 to make loans to banks, insurance companies, and railroads, it was intended to provide emergency funds to help businesses overcome the effects of the Depression. It was later used to finance wartime projects during WW II.
The "Bonus" Army
1932 - Facing the financial crisis of the Depression, WW I veterans tried to pressure Congress to pay them their retirement bonuses early. Congress considered a bill authorizing immediate assurance of $2.4 billion, but it was not approved. Angry veterans marched on Washington, D.C., and Hoover called in the army to get the veterans out of there.
Henry L. Stimson and Manchuria
1932 - Japan's seizure of Manchuria brought this pronouncement by Hoover's Secretary of State, Henry Stimson, that the U.S. would not recognize any changes to China's territory, nor any impairment of China's sovereignty.
The Good Neighbor Policy
Franklin Roosevelt described his foreign policy as that of a "good neighbor." The phrase came to be used to describe the U.S. attitude toward the countries of Latin America. Under Roosevelt's "Good Neighbor Policy," the U.S. took the lead in promoting good will among these nations.
Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt
First Democrat to be elected after a period of three Republicans. She would become the most active first lady every and he had polio and was in a wheelchair but hid it from public.
"Relief, recovery, reform"
The first step in FDR's relief program was to establish the Civilian Conservation Corps in April, 1933. The chief measure designed to promote recovery was the National Industrial Recovery Act. The New Deal acts most often classified as reform measures were those designed to guarantee the rights of labor and limit the powers of businesses.
New Deal
Some thought the first New Deal (legislation passed in 1933) did too much and created a big deficit, while others, mostly the elderly, thought it did not do enough. Most of the 1933 legislation was ineffective in stopping the Depression, which led F. D. R. to propose a second series of initiatives in 1935, referred to the Second New Deal.
The Hundred Days
March 9, 1933 - At Roosevelt's request, Congress began a special session to review recovery and reform laws submitted by the President for Congressional approval. It actually lasted only 99 days.
Emergency Banking Relief Act
March 6, 1933 - FDR ordered a bank holiday. Many banks were failing because they had too little capital, made too many planning errors, and had poor management. The Emergency Banking Relief Act provided for government inspection, which restored public confidence in the banks. It gave the president power to regulate banking transactions and foreign exchange and to reopen solvent banks.
The Fireside Chats
Done over the radio in order to restore public confidence of banks.
FDIC
A federal agency which insures bank deposits, created by the Glass-Strengall Banking Reform Act of 1933.
Charles Coughlin
He ran against FDR and disliked the New Deal. He voiced his opinions on the radio.
Huey Long
The Share the Wealth society was founded in 1934 by Senator Huey Long of Louisiana. He called for the confiscation of all fortunes over $5 million and a 100% tax on annual incomes over $1 million. He was assassinated in 1935 and his successor Gerald K. Smith lacked the ability to be a strong head of the society.
Francis E. Townsend
Advanced the Old Age Revolving Pension Plan, which proposed that every retired person over 60 receive a pension of $200 a month (about twice the average week's salary). It required that the money be spent within the month.
That National Recovery Administration
It was designed to assist industry, labor, and the unemployed. there were maximum hours of labor, minimum wages, and more rights for labor union members, including the right to choose their own representatives in bargaining.
The Dust Bowl
A drought and strong winds that occurred in 1933 that forced many farmers to migrate west. It occured in the central USA.
John Steinbeck's The Grapes of Wrath
1939 - Steinbeck's The Grapes of Wrath was about "Okies" from Oklahoma migrating from the Dust Bowl to California in the midst of the Depression.
The Social Security Act of 1935
One of the most important features of the Second New Deal established a retirement for persons over 65 funded by a tax on wages paid equally by employee and employer.
John L. Lewis
Boss of the United Mine Workers who succeeded in forming the Committee for Industrial Organization.
Alf Landon
Ran against FDR in the 1936 election. He was weak on the radio and weaker in personal compaigning, and while he criticized FDR's spending, he also favored enough of FDR's New Deal to be ridiculed by the Democrats as an unsure idiot.
20th Amendment
Written by George Norris and also called the "Lame Duck Amendment," it changed the inauguration date from March 4 to January 20 for president and vice president, and to January 3 for senators and representatives. It also said Congress must assemble at least once a year.
John Maynard Keynes
Suggested deficit spending which was later embraced by FDR.
London Economic Conference
In the summer of 1933, 66 nations sent delegates to the London Economic Conference. The delegates hoped to organize a coordinated international attack on the global depression. They sought to stabilize the values of various nations' currencies and the rates at which they could be exchanged. President Roosevelt, at first, agreed to send delegates to the conference, but had second thoughts after he realized that an international agreement to maintain the value of the dollar in terms of other currencies wouldn't allow him to inflate the value of the dollar. He declared that America wouldn't take place in the negotiations. Without support from the United States, the London Economic Conference fell apart. The collapse strengthened the global trend towards nationalism, while making international cooperation increasingly difficult.
Cordell Hull
Chief architect of the Reciprocal Trade Agreement Act of 1934. He also succeeded in negotiating pacts with 21 countries by the end of 1939. These pacts were essentially trade agreements that stated if the United States lowered its tariff, then the other country would do the same.
Tydings-McDuffie Act 1934
Provided independence of the Philippines by 1946. The nation did not want to have to support the Philippines if Japan attacked there.
Reciprocal Trade Agreement Act of 1934
It was designed to lower the tariff, and it aimed at both relief and recovery. The president was empowered to lower existing rates by as much as 50% provided that the other country involved would do the same. During these years of trade agreements, U.S. foreign trade increased dramatically. The act paved the way for the American-led free-trade international economic system that took shape after WWII.
The Rome-Berlin Axis 1934
A series of treaties in 1936 and 37 between Germany, Italy, and Japan created what was called the "Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis." The coutries were thereafter refered to as the Axis Powers.
General Francisco Franco
In July, 1936, Gen. Fransisco Franco and other army leaders staged a coup and installed a right-wing fascist government, touching off a civil war between loyalist Republican forces (aided by Russia) and Franco's Fascist party (aided by Mussolini and Hitler).
Roosevel'ts "Quarantine" Speech
1937 - In this speech Franklin D. Roosevelt compared Fascist agression to a contagious disease, saying democracies must unite to quarantine agressor nations.
The Hitler-Stalin Pact 1939
On August 23, 1939, the Soviet Union signed a nonaggression treaty with Hitler. The Hitler-Stalin pact meant that Germany could make war on Poland and the Western democracies without fear of retaliation from the Soviet Union.
The Neutrality Act of 1939
It stated that the European democracies could buy American war materials as long as they would transport the munitions on their own ships after paying for them in cash. America thus avoided loans, war debts, and the torpedoing of American arms-carriers. Overseas demand for war goods brought a sharp upswing from the recession of 1937-1938 and ultimately solved the decade-long unemployment crisis.
"Phony" War
The months following the collapse of Poland were known as the "phony war."
The Destroyer Deal
1940 - U.S. agreed to "lend" its older destroyers to Great Britain. (Destroyers were major warships that made up the bulk of most countries' navies.) Signaled the end of U.S. neutrality in the war.
The America First Committee
1940 - Formed by die-hard isolationists who feared the U.S. going to war. They wanted to do anything they could to stay out of war.
Wendell Wilkie
The Republicans chose Wendell L. Willkie to run against President Roosevelt. Willkie's great appeal lay in his personality. The Republican platform condemned FDR's alleged dictatorship, as well as the New Deal. Willkie was opposed not so much to the New Deal as to its extravagances and inefficiencies.
The Nazi Invasion of the Soviet Union
Hitler decided to crush the Soviet Union, seize the oil and other resources of the Soviet Union, and then have two free hands to battle Britain. On June 22, 1941, Hitler launched an attack on the Soviet Union. President Roosevelt immediately promised assistance and backed up his words by making some military supplies available.
The Atlantic Charter
August 1941-Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill met and discussed common problems of the world. The two men came up with the eight-point Atlantic Charter, outlining the aspirations of the democracies for a better world at the war's end. The Atlantic Charter promised that there would be no territorial changes contrary to the wishes of the inhabitants; it affirmed the right of a people to choose their own form of government and to regain the governments abolished by the dictators; and it declared for disarmament and a peace of security, pending a new League of Nations.
Korematsu vs. US 1944
Upheld the U.S. government's decision to put Japanese-Americans in internment camps during World War II.
War Production Board
Converted factories from civilian to military production. Manufacturing output tripled.
Office of Price Administration
Government agency which successful combatted inflation by fixing price ceilings on commodities and introducing rationing programs during World War II.
Smith-Connally Anti-Strike Act
Let the government seize and operate industries threatened by or under strikes.
Braceros
Mexican workers that were brought to America to work when so many men and women were gone from home during World War II that there weren't enough workers.
A. Philip Randolph
President of the Brotherhood of Car Porters and a Black labor leader, in 1941 he arranged a march on Washington to end racial discrimination.
Fair Employment Practices Commission
Enacted by executive order 8802 on June 25, 1941 to prohibit discrimination in the armed forces.
Congress of Racial Equality
1941-42 - Interracial until 1962, when it became predominately Black, after 1964, only Blacks were allowed to join. It concentrated on organizing votes for Black candidates and political causes, successful even in states like Mississippi and Alabama.
Douglas MacArthur
Military governor of the Philippines, which Japan invaded a few days after the Pearl Harbor attack. MacArthur escaped to Australia in March 1942 and was appointed supreme commander of the Allied forces in the Pacific. Recieved the Medal of Honor.
Bataan Death March
American troops were treated with vicious cruelty in the 80-mile Bataan Death March to prisoner-of-war camps.
Chester Nimitz
Forced Japanese back when they were trying to weize Midway Island.
Guadalcanal
In August 1942, American forces gained a foothold on Guadalcanal Island, the Solomon Islands, in an attempt to protect the lifeline from America to Australia through the Southwest Pacific. After several desperate sea battles for naval control, the Japanese troops evacuated Guadalcanal in February 1943.
The "island hopping" strategy
Take over one island after the other as American troops slowly moved closer to Japan.
The Teheran Conference
December, 1943 - A meeting between FDR, Churchill and Stalin in Iran to discuss coordination of military efforts against Germany, they repeated the pledge made in the earlier Moscow Conference to create the United Nations after the war's conclusion to help ensure international peace.
D-Day
June 6, 1944 - Led by Eisenhower, over a million troops (the largest invasion force in history) stormed the beaches at Normandy and began the process of re-taking France. The turning point of World War II.
The Battle of the Bulge
December, 1944-January, 1945 - After recapturing France, the Allied advance became stalled along the German border. In the winter of 1944, Germany staged a massive counterattack in Belgium and Luxembourg which pushed a 30 mile "bulge" into the Allied lines. The Allies stopped the German advance and threw them back across the Rhine with heavy losses.
The Potsdam Conference
July 26, 1945 - Allied leaders Truman, Stalin and Churchill met in Germany to set up zones of control and to inform the Japanese that if they refused to surrender at once, they would face total destruction.
Taft-Hartley Act
1947 - Senator Robert A. Taft co-authored the labor-Management Relations Act with new Jersey Congressman Fred Allan Hartley, Jr. The act amended the National Labor Relations Act of 1935 and imposed certain restrictions of the money and power of labor unions, including a prohibition against mandatory closed shops.
Council of Economic Advisors
This council was created by the Employment Act and was made to promote maximum employment, production, and purchasing power.
GI Bill of Rights
Granted $13 billion in aid for former servicemen, ranging from educational grants to housing and other services to assist with the readjustment to society afte
The "Sun Belt"
"Smiling crescent" of 15 states in Southern America. The population increased in this area at double the rate of old industrial zones in the Northeast (Frostbelt)
The FHA
1934 - Created by Congress to insure long-term, low-interest mortgages for home construction and repair.
"White Flight"
Whites migrating/moving to the suburbs by the millions
The Yalta Agreement
February, 1945 - Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin met at Yalta to make final war plans, arrange the post-war fate of Germany, and discuss the proposal for creation of the United Nations as a successor to the League of Nations. They announced the decision to divide Germany into three post-war zones of occupation, although a fourth zone was later created for France. Russia also agreed to enter the war against Japan, in exchange for the Kuril Islands and half of the Sakhalin Peninsula.
Bretton Woods and the IMF
The common name for the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference held in New Hampshire, 44 nations at war with the Axis powers met to create a world bank to stabilize international currency, increase investment in under-developed areas, and speed the economic recovery of Europe.
The United Nations
Only the Security Council could take action on substantive issues through investigation. The General Assembly met and talked. A secretariat, headed by a Secretary-General, was to perform the organization's administrative work.
Bernard Baruch
Millionaire, he headed the War Industries Board after 1918.
George Kennan
(containment) A member of the State Department, he felt that the best way to keep Communism out of Europe was to confront the Russians wherever they tried to spread their power.
The Truman Doctrine
1947 - Stated that the U.S. would support any nation threatened by Communism.
Mashall Plan
Introduced by Secretary of State George G. Marshall in 1947, he proposed massive and systematic American economic aid to Europe to revitalize the European economies after WWII and help prevent the spread of Communism.
The National Security Act of 1947
1947 - Created the cabinet post of Secretary of Defense, the CIA, and the National Security Council. 1949 - Created NATO.
NATO
Chartered April, 1949. The 11 member nations agreed to fight for each other if attacked. It is an international military force for enforcing its charter.
The Smith Act
Required fingerprinting and registering of all aliens in the U.S. and made it a crime to teach or advocate the violent overthrow of the U.S. government.
Dennis vs. the United States
In 1948, the Attorney General indicted two key Communist leaders for violation of the Smith Act of 1940 which prohibited conspiring to teach violent overthrow of the government. They were convicted in a 6-2 decision and their appeal was rejected.
HUAC
Committee in the House of Representatives founded on a temporary basis in 1938 to monitor activities of foreign agents. Made a standing committee in 1945. During World War II it investigated pro-fascist groups, but after the war it turned to investigating alleged communists. From 1947-1949, it conducted a series of sensational investigations into supposed communist infiltration of the U.S. government and Hollywood film industry.
The Rosenbergs
Arrested in the Summer of 1950 and executed in 1953, they were convicted of conspiring to commit espionage by passing plans for the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union.
The Dixicrats
A group of people from 15 southern states that were embittered by Truman's nomination and nominated J. Strom Thurmond on a states' Rights Party ticket.
The Fair Deal
Truman's policy agenda -- he raised the minimum wage from 65 to 75 cents an hour, expanded Social Security benefits to cover 10 million more people, and provided government funding for 100,000 low-income public housing units and for urban renewal.
NSC-68
The National Security Council Memorandum #68 said the that US should quadruple defense spending. This marked a major step in the militarization of America's foreign policy and reflected a sense of almost limitless possibility that pervaded postwar American society.
Joseph McCarthy
Wisconsin Senator who began sensational campaign in February, 1950 by asserting that the U.S. State Department had been infiltrated by Communists. In 1953 became Chair of the Senate Sub- Committee on Investigations and accused the Army of covering up foreign espionage. The Army-McCarthy Hearings made McCarthy look so foolish that further investigations were halted.
Jim Crow Laws
State laws which created a racial caste system in the South. They included the laws which prevented blacks from voting and those which created segregated facilities.
Emmett Till
A fourteen year old black boy who was lynched by a Mississippi mob for leering at a woman.
Thurgood Marshall
In 1967, appointed the first Black Supreme Court Justice, he had led that NAACP's legal defense fund and had argued the Brown v. The Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas case before the Supreme Court.
Sweatt vs. Painter
Segregated law school in Texas was held to be an illegal violation of civil rights, leading to open enrollment.
Rosa Parks and The Montgomery Bus Boycott
December, 1955 - In Montgomery, Alabama, she refused to give up her bus seat for a White man as required by city ordinance. It started the Civil Rights Movement and an almost nation-wide bus boycott lasting 11 months.
Brown vs. Board of Education
1954 - The Supreme Court overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated.
Earl Warren
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, Earl Warren used the Court's authority to support civil rights and individual liberties. He authored Brown v. The Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas and Roe v. Wade decisions. His liberal attitudes led conservative groups to brand him a communist and lobby for his impeachment.
SCLC
Headed by Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr., a coalition of churches and Christians organizations who met to discuss civil rights.
SNCC
Organized in the fall of 1960 by Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr. as a student civil rights movement inspired by sit-ins, it challenged the status quo and walked the back roads of Mississippi and Georgia to encourage Blacks to resist segregation and to register to vote.
John Foster Dulles
As Secretary of State. he viewed the struggle against Communism as a classic conflict between good and evil. Believed in containment and the Eisenhower doctrine.
Ho Chi Minh
North Vietnamese leader who had lead the resistance against the Japanese during WW II and at the end of the war had led the uprising against the French Colonial government. He had traveled in Europe, was an ardent Communist, and became President of the North Vietnamese government established after the French withdrawal. Often called the George Washington of North Vietnam.
Ngo Dinh Diem
Leader of the pro-Western government in South Vietnam.
The Eisenhower Doctrine
Eisenhower proposed and obtained a joint resolution from Congress authorizing the use of U.S. military forces to intervene in any country that appeared likely to fall to communism. Used in the Middle East.
Sputnik
October, 1957 - The first artificial satellite sent into space, launched by the Soviets.
Nikita Khrushchev
Stalin's successor, wanted peaceful coexistence with the U.S. Eisenhower agreed to a summit conference with Khrushchev, France and Great Britain in Geneva, Switzerland in July, 1955 to discuss how peaceful coexistence could be achieved.
Fidel Castro
1959 - A band of insurgents led by Fidel Castro succeeded in overthrowing the corrupt government of Juan Baptista, and Cuba became Communist.
Betty Freidan
1963 - Depicted how difficult a woman's life is because she doesn't think about herself, only her family. It said that middle-class society stifled women and didn't let them use their talents. Attacked the "cult of domesticity."
The "New Frontier"
The "new" liberal and civil rights ideas advocated by Kennedy, in contrast to Eisenhower's conservative view.
The Berlin Wall
1961 - The Soviet Union, under Nikita Khrushev, erected a wall between East and West Berlin to keep people from fleeing from the East, after Kennedy asked for an increase in defense funds to counter Soviet aggression.
Charles de Gaulle
He formed the French resistance movement in London immediately after the French surrender at Vichy. He was elected President of the Free French government in exile during the war and he was the first provisional president of France after its liberation.
Robert McNamara
Kennedy's Defense Secretary who helped to come up with and push the "flexible response" strategy.
The Bay of Pigs
1961 - 1400 American-trained Cuban expatriates left from Nicaragua to try to topple Castro's regime, landing at the Bay of Pigs in southern Cuba. They had expected a popular uprising to sweep them to victory, but the local populace refused to support them. When promised U.S. air cover also failed to materialize, the invaders were easily killed or captured by the Cuban forces. Many of the survivors were ransomed back to the U.S. for $64 million. President Kennedy had directed the operation.
James Meredith
James tried to attend the University of Mississippi and encountered violent opposition so Kennedy sent in troops for him to graduate.
Medgar Evers
Was shot by a white man the night of Kennedy's television address.
Lee Harvey Oswald
November, 22, 1963 - Oswald shot Kennedy from a Dallas book depository building, and was later himself killed by Jack Ruby. Chief Justice Earl Warren ruled that they both acted alone.
Lyndon Johnson and Barry Goldwater
Election of 1964-Goldwater alienated people and was believed to be too conservative. He was perceived as an extremist who advocated the use of nuclear weapons if needed to win the war in Vietnam. LBJ won by the largest margin ever.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964
This portion of the Act stated that public accommodations could not be segregated and that nobody could be denied access to public accommodation on the basis of race.
"War on Poverty"
1965 - Johnson figured that since the Gross National Profit had risen, the country had lots of extra money "just lying around," so he'd use it to fight poverty. It started many small programs, Medicare, Head Start, and reorganized immigration to eliminate national origin quotas. It was put on hold during the Vietnam War.
"Great Society"
Johnson-Platform for LBJ's campaign, it stressed the 5 P's: Peace, Prosperity, anti-Poverty, Prudence and Progress.
The Voting Rights Act of 1965
Passed by Congress in 1965, it allowed for supervisors to register Blacks to vote in places where they had not been allowed to vote before.
The 24th Amendment
1964 - It outlawed taxing voters, i.e. poll taxes, at presidential or congressional elections, as an effort to remove barriers to Black voters.
Malcolm X
One-time pimp and street hustler, converted to a Black Muslim while in prison. At first urged Blacks to seize their freedom by any means necessary, but later changed position and advocated racial harmony. He was assassinated in February, 1965.
The Black Panther Party
This part threatened blacks and even openly showed off weapons to intimidate blacks in the streets.
Operation Rolling Thunder
A full-scale bombing attack against North Vietnam. There were approximately 184,000 Americans involved.
The 1968 Tet Offensive
1968, during Tet, the Vietnam lunar new year - Viet Cong and North Vietnamese Army raiding forces attacked provincial capitals throughout Vietnam, even seizing the U.S. embassy for a time. U.S. opinion began turning against the war.
Eugene McCarthy
Was challenging Johnson and had a good chance of winning until Robert Kennedy decided to run.
SDS
Formed in 1962 in Port Huron, Michigan, SDS condemned anti-Democratic tendencies of large corporations, racism and poverty, and called for a participatory Democracy.
The counter-culture
Young hippies rose as a self-conscious culture that was opposed to traditional American ways.