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46 Cards in this Set

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What are the filterable components of blood? What are they filtered by?
Water, nitrogenous wastes (e.g. urea and creatinine and uric acid), filtered by glomerulus
What part of the kidneys do the glomerul/Bowman's capsule and the convoluted tubules lie? Where does the loop of Henley/Nephron lie? How about the collecting ducts?
in the renal cortex, in the renal medulla, also in the medulla
What are the nonfilterable components of the blood, what happens if they get filtered? What structure would be responsible for allowing albumin to go through? What would this cause?
formed elements (RBC's, WBC's, and platelets) and the plasma proteins (e.g. albumin), If albumin is found in the blood, it is the single, most reliable indicator of kidney failure! glomerulus.
Causes adema because of the reduce of plasma osmotic pressure!
In the kidneys of a normal person, what is the last structure albumin encounters?
Renal vein
What process in the kidneys is driven by left ventricular systole?
glomerular filtration
What happens when the renal threshold is reached? What is the word for the excess?
any excess in the filtrate will appear in the urine called glucosuria
How is diabetes mellitus caused?
Because the liver and muscles fail to store glucose as glycogen, the blood glucose level is above normal (hyperglycemia) and exceeds the renal threshold. Consequently, lg amounts of glucoseria appear. glucose takes up all the room in the kidney tubule and the renal threshold can't
What does the presence of excess glucose in the filtrate past the proximal convulated tubule do?
raises its osmolarity, and less water is reabsorbed into the peritubular capillary network.
What is the frequent urination and increased thirst experienced by untreated diabetics due to?
less water is being reabsorbed from the filtrate into the blood. Osmotic diuresis
What type of disease is Type 2 diabetes?
Autoimmune disease, your own insulin destroys cells, probably triggered by virus (immune response to virus leads to response to own insulin)
How can penicillin levels in the blood be prolonged? How does it prolong it?
by administering it simultaneously with probenecid, it prolongs it by competing fro the same tubular carrier proteins as used by penicillin.
What does urine contain?
substances that have undergone glomerular filtration but have not been reabsorbed and substances that have undergone tubular secretion.
If you want to regulate water volume, what else would you need to regulate?
sodium
What 3 processes does urine formation involve?
1. Glomerular filtration
2. Tubular reabsorption
3. Tubular secretion.
HF: Urinalysis consists of 3 phases of examination, what are they and what do they involve?
1. Physical examination: color, clarity, and smell is examined.
2. Chemical Examination: done with a dipstick to determine urine's specific gravity, pH, and content of glucose, billirubin, urobilinogen, ketone, protein, nitrite, blood, and white blood cells in the urine.
3.
Urine's odor is affected by the consumption of what?
garlic, curry, asparagus, and vitamin C
HF: What is the specific gravity an indicator of? If something is wrong, what would you see? What would contribute to this?
how well the kidneys are able to adjust tonicity in urine. high value (concentrated urie) may be a result of dehydration or diabetes mellitus.
HF: In patients with kidney stone disease, urine pH has a direct effect on what?
the type of stones formed
What is the frequent urination and increased thirst experienced by untreated diabetics due to?
less water is being reabsorbed from the filtrate into the blood. Osmotic diuresis
What type of disease is Type 2 diabetes?
Autoimmune disease, your own insulin destroys cells, probably triggered by virus (immune response to virus leads to response to own insulin)
How can penicillin levels in the blood be prolonged? How does it prolong it?
by administering it simultaneously with probenecid, it prolongs it by competing fro the same tubular carrier proteins as used by penicillin.
What does urine contain?
substances that have undergone glomerular filtration but have not been reabsorbed and substances that have undergone tubular secretion.
If you want to regulate water volume, what else would you need to regulate?
sodium
What 3 processes does urine formation involve?
1. Glomerular filtration
2. Tubular reabsorption
3. Tubular secretion.
HF: Urinalysis consists of 3 phases of examination, what are they and what do they involve?
1. Physical examination: color, clarity, and smell is examined.
2. Chemical Examination: done with a dipstick to determine urine's specific gravity, pH, and content of glucose, billirubin, urobilinogen, ketone, protein, nitrite, blood, and white blood cells in the urine.
3. Microscopic examination: urine is centrifuged and the sediment is examined.
Urine's odor is affected by the consumption of what?
garlic, curry, asparagus, and vitamin C
HF: What is the specific gravity an indicator of? If something is wrong, what would you see? What would contribute to this?
how well the kidneys are able to adjust tonicity in urine. high value (concentrated urie) may be a result of dehydration or diabetes mellitus.
HF: In patients with kidney stone disease, urine pH has a direct effect on what?
the type of stones formed
HF: What is suspected if glucose is found in the urine?
diabetes mellitus
The bilirubin test done in chemical examination is an indicator of what? If something is wrong, what would you see? What would contribute to this?
whether or not bilirubin is found, you would see bilirubin if something was found, indicator of liver disease.
HF: What is found in the urine with a person who has liver disease?
bilirubin, urobilinogen is normally present in very small amounts
What can an autoimmune person do to the pancreas? What will this result in>
damage the pancreas, leading to diabetes mellitus type 1, w/o sufficient insulin, blood levels soar above the renal threshold (hyperglycemia)
What is fluid called in the tubule? What is it called when it reaches the pelvis?
filtrate, urine
What does water pass through, how does it pass through?
Water passes through by osmosis, through aquaporins
Hf:Ketone: If something is wrong, what would you see? What would contribute to this?
not normally found in the urine, urine ketones are a by-product of fat meabolism, presence may indicate diabetes mellitus/Atkins diet
HF: What are ketones a biproduct of?
fat metabolism
If you did a urnialysis on a patient with ketones in their urine, what could you conclude about their eating habits?
low-carb diet, atkin's diet.
HF: What would you see in a person if you found plasma proteins in their urine? What is it called?
proteinuria, usually sign of kidney damage.
What is the presence of nitrates in the urine indicative of?
urinary tract infection
Blood in the urine may indicate what/
a bacterial infection or kidney damage.
WBC in the urine may indicate what?
bacterial infection somewhere in the urinary tract
When doing a microscopic examination of urine, what would you see if the urine contained an abnormal amount of cellular material?
renal disease.
When doing a microscopic examination of urine, what would you see if there were cyrstals?
kidney stones, kidney damage, or problems with metabolism
What are urinary casts?
sediments formed by the coagulation of protein material in the distal convoluted tubule or the collecting duct. May be a sign of many different disorders depending on the type present.
What is seen if you have sediments formed by the coagulation of protein material in the distal convoluted tubule in the collecting duct?
Urinary casts.
What are the drugs used associated with date rape?
Rohypnol, known as roofies, and GHB, or gamma hydroxybutyrate, shown in urine of victims to determine if they were drugged.