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43 Cards in this Set

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Homeostasis
the tendency of a system, esp. the physiological system of higher animals, to maintain internal stability, owing to the coordinated response of its parts to any situation or stimulus tending to disturb its normal condition or function.
Thermoregulation
e regulation of body temperature.
Regulation
usual; normal; customary:
systole
the normal rhythmical contraction of the heart, during which the blood in the chambers is forced onward.
diastole
the normal rhythmical dilatation of the heart during which the chambers are filling with blood.
arteries
a blood vessel that conveys blood from the heart to any part of the body.
veins
Any of the membranous tubes that form a branching system and carry blood to the heart.
capillaries
pertaining to or occurring in or as if in a tube of fine bore.
atria
either of the two upper chambers on each side of the heart that receive blood from the veins and in turn force it into the ventricles.
ventricles
A chamber of the heart that receives blood from one or more atria and pumps it by muscular contraction into the arteries. Mammals, birds, and reptiles have two ventricles; amphibians and fish have one.
valves
A membranous structure in a hollow organ or passage, as in an artery or vein, that folds or closes to prevent the return flow of the body fluid passing through it.
platelets
A minute, nonnucleated, disklike cytoplasmic body found in the blood plasma of mammals that is derived from a megakaryocyte and functions to promote blood clotting.
plasma
the liquid part of blood or lymph, as distinguished from the suspended elements.
SA node
a specialized bit of heart tissue that controls the heartbeat
AV node
A small mass of specialized cardiac muscle fibers, located in the wall of the right atrium of the heart, that receives heartbeat impulses from the sinoatrial node and directs them to the walls of the ventricles.
ammonia
a colorless, pungent, suffocating, highly water-soluble, gaseous compound, NH3, usually produced by the direct combination of nitrogen and hydrogen gases: used chiefly for refrigeration and in the manufacture of commercial chemicals and laboratory reagents.
urea
a compound, CO(NH2)2, occurring in urine and other body fluids as a product of protein metabolism.
uric acid
a compound, C5H4N4O3, present in mammalian urine in small amounts, and the principal nitrogenous component of the excrement of reptiles and birds, that in the form of its salts occurs in the joints in gout and as the major constituent of kidney stones.
glomerulus
a compact cluster of capillaries.
ammonia
A colorless, pungent gas, NH3, extensively used to manufacture fertilizers and a wide variety of nitrogen-containing organic and inorganic chemicals.
urea
a compound, CO(NH2)2, occurring in urine and other body fluids as a product of protein metabolism.
uric acid
a compound, C5H4N4O3, present in mammalian urine in small amounts, and the principal nitrogenous component of the excrement of reptiles and birds, that in the form of its salts occurs in the joints in gout and as the major constituent of kidney stones.
salivary amylase
an enzyme in the saliva that converts starch into dextrin and maltose.
pepsin
an enzyme, produced in the stomach, that in the presence of hydrochloric acid splits proteins into proteoses and peptones.
zymogen
any of various enzyme precursor molecules that may change into an enzyme as a result of catalytic change.
pepsinogen
crystals, occurring in the gastric glands, that during digestion are converted into pepsin.
Duodenum
the first portion of the small intestine, from the stomach to the jejunum.
Spermatogenesis
the origin and development of spermatozoa.
organogenesis
the origin and development of an organ.
archenteron
the primitive enteron or digestive cavity of a gastrula.
kinesis
the movement of an organism in response to a stimulus, as light.
territoriality
the behavior of an animal in defining and defending its territory.
altruistic
unselfishly concerned for or devoted to the welfare of others
exponential growth
development at an increasingly rapid rate in proportion to the growing total number or size; a constant rate of growth applied to a continuously growing base over a period of time
Predation
act of plundering or robbing.
Symbiosis
the living together of two dissimilar organisms, as in mutualism, commensalism, amensalism, or parasitism.
coevolution
evolution involving a series of reciprocal changes in two or more noninterbreeding populations that have a close ecological relationship and act as agents of natural selection for each other, as the succession of adaptations of a predator for pursuing and of its prey for fleeing or evading.
primary succession
the development of plant and animal life in an area without topsoil; the development of biotic communities in a previously uninhabited and barren habitat with little or no soil
carbon cycle
the circulation of carbon atoms in the biosphere as a result of photosynthetic conversion of carbon dioxide into complex organic compounds by plants, which are consumed by other organisms: the carbon returns to the atmosphere in the form of carbon dioxide as a result of respiration, decay by fungi, bacteria, etc., and combustion of fossil fuels.
water cycle
the natural sequence through which water passes into the atmosphere as water vapor, precipitates to earth in liquid or solid form, and ultimately returns to the atmosphere through evaporation.
nitrogen cycle
the continuous sequence of events by which atmospheric nitrogen and nitrogenous compounds in the soil are converted, as by nitrification and nitrogen fixation, into substances that can be utilized by green plants, the substances returning to the air and soil as a result of the decay of the plants and denitrification.
desertification
the processes by which an area becomes a desert.
biomagnifications
The increasing concentration of a substance, such as a toxic chemical, in the tissues of organisms at successively higher levels in a food chain. As a result of biomagnification, organisms at the top of the food chain generally suffer greater harm from a persistent toxin or pollutant than those at lower levels.